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[Psy] ch03


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[Psy] ch03

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 3 </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature and Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint <ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the complete instructions for making an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Genes: Their Location and Composition Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA
  5. 5. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the source of all genetic diversity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health </li></ul><ul><li>Women preferred resources and social status </li></ul>
  8. 8. Behavior Genetics <ul><li>Behavior Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Behavior Genetics <ul><li>Identical Twins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fraternal Twins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop from separate eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment </li></ul></ul>Identical twins Fraternal twins Same sex only Same or opposite sex
  10. 10. Behavior Genetics <ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Behavior Genetics <ul><li>Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molecular Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Environmental Influence <ul><li>Two placental arrangements in identical twins </li></ul>
  13. 13. Environmental Influence <ul><li>Experience affects brain development </li></ul>Impoverished environment Rat brain cell Rat brain cell Enriched environment
  14. 14. Environmental Influence <ul><li>A trained brain </li></ul>
  15. 15. Environmental Influence <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Environmental Influence <ul><li>Personal Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Nature and Nurture of Gender <ul><li>X Chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sex chromosome found in both men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>females have two; males have one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Y Chromosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sex chromosome found only in men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Nature and Nurture of Gender <ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most important of the male sex hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both males and females have it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>additional testosterone in males stimulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth of male sex organs in the fetus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development of male sex characteristics during puberty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a set of expectations (norms) about a social position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defining how those in the position ought to behave </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Nature and Nurture of Gender <ul><li>Gender Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a set of expected behaviors for males and females </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one’s sense of being male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender-typing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Nature and Nurture of Gender <ul><li>Gender and Culture </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
  22. 22. The Nature and Nurture of Gender <ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender Schema Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Nature and Nurture of Gender <ul><li>Two theories of gender typing </li></ul>