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  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking and Language </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Thinking <ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>study these mental activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concept formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>judgment formation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Thinking <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental image or best example of a category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Thinking <ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Thinking <ul><li>Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually speedier than algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more error-prone than algorithms </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Thinking <ul><li>Unscramble </li></ul><ul><li>S P L O Y O C H Y G </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all 907,208 combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>throw out all YY combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other heuristics? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Thinking <ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasts with strategy-based solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inability to see a problem from a new perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Matchstick Problem <ul><li>How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Three-Jugs Problem <ul><li>Using jugs A, B, and C, with the capacities shown, how would you measure out the volumes indicated? </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Candle-Mounting Problem <ul><li>Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thinking <ul><li>Mental Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to approach a problem in a particular way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Thinking <ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Matchstick Problem <ul><li>Solution to the matchstick problem </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Three-Jugs Problem <ul><li>Solution: a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B - A - 2C = desired volume. </li></ul><ul><li>b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A - C for problem 6. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Candle-Mounting Problem <ul><li>Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container </li></ul>
  16. 16. Heuristics <ul><li>Representativeness Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may lead one to ignore other relevant information </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Heuristics <ul><li>Availability Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: airplane crash </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Thinking <ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to be more confident than correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Thinking <ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the way an issue is posed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thinking <ul><li>Belief Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief Perseverance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designing and programming computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to do intelligent things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to simulate human thought processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understanding language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Computer Neural Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning to recognize visual patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning to recognize smells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Language <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phoneme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Language <ul><li>Morpheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Language <ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also, the study of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Language <ul><li>We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages </li></ul>100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 months 10-12 months English- speaking adults Infants from English-speaking homes
  27. 27. Language <ul><li>Babbling Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning at 3 to 4 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from about age 1 to 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Language <ul><li>Two-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning about age 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.
  30. 30. Language <ul><li>Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain </li></ul>
  31. 31. Language <ul><li>New language learning gets harder with age </li></ul>100 90 80 70 60 50 Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 17-39 Percentage correct on grammar test Age at school
  32. 32. Language <ul><li>Linguistic Determinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Language <ul><li>The interplay of thought and language </li></ul>
  34. 34. Animal Thinking and Language <ul><li>The straight-line part of the dance points in the direction of a nectar source, relative to the sun </li></ul>Direction of nectar source
  35. 35. Animal Thinking and Language <ul><li>Gestured Communication </li></ul>
  36. 36. Animal Thinking and Language <ul><li>Is this really language? </li></ul>