Myers’  PSYCHOLOGY   (7th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 7   </li></ul><ul><li>States of Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McC...
Waking Consciousness <ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our awareness of ourselves and our environments </li></ul...
Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Biological Rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic physiological fluctuations </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Premenstrual Syndrome Premenstrual  Menstrual Intermenstrual Menstrual phase Actual Recalled mood 3 2 1 Negative mood scor...
Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>REM  ( R apid  E ye  M ovement)  Sleep   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recurring sleep stage  </li></ul><...
Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Measuring sleep activity </li></ul>
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages <ul><li>Alpha Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain </li></ul></ul...
Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM
Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Hours of sleep Minutes of  Stage 4 and  REM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 15 20 25 5 Decreasing  ...
Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Effects of Sleep Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired concentr...
Sleep Deprivation 2,400 2,700 2,600 2,500 2,800 Spring time change (hour sleep loss) 3,600 4,200 4000 3,800 Fall time chan...
Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persistent problems in falling or staying asleep </li></ul></ul><ul...
Night Terrors and Nightmares <ul><li>Night Terrors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usua...
Dreams: Freud <ul><li>Dreams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping p...
Dreams: Freud <ul><li>Sigmund Freud -- The Interpretation of Dreams  (1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wish fulfillment  </li><...
Dreams <ul><li>As Information Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps facilitate memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REM Reboun...
Sleep Across the Lifespan
Hypnosis <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to anoth...
Hypnosis <ul><li>Unhypnotized persons can  also do this </li></ul>
Hypnosis <ul><li>Orne & Evans (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control group instructed to “pretend” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Hypnosis <ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a split in consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows some though...
Explaining Hypnosis
Drugs and Consciousness <ul><li>Psychoactive Drug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a chemical substance that alters perceptions and m...
Dependence and Addiction <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing effect with regular use </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that reduce neural activity  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptio...
Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous syste...
Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Opiates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) </li></ul></ul><u...
Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up bod...
Cocaine Euphoria and Crash
Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Ecstasy (MDMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen </li></ul></ul><...
Psychoactive Drugs
Trends in Drug Use 1975  ‘77  ‘79  ‘81  ‘83  ‘85  ‘87  ‘89  ‘91  ‘93  ‘95  ‘97  ‘99 Year 80% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 High s...
Perceived Marijuana Risk ‘ 75  ‘77  ‘79  ‘81  ‘83  ‘85  ‘87  ‘89  ‘91  ‘93  ‘95  ‘97  ‘99 Year 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 2...
Near-Death Experiences <ul><li>Near-Death Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an altered state of consciousness reported afte...
Near-Death Experiences <ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities ...
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Ch07

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Ch07

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 7 </li></ul><ul><li>States of Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Waking Consciousness <ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our awareness of ourselves and our environments </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Biological Rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic physiological fluctuations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circadian Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the biological clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Premenstrual Syndrome Premenstrual Menstrual Intermenstrual Menstrual phase Actual Recalled mood 3 2 1 Negative mood score Recalled mood is worse than earlier reported
  5. 5. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>REM ( R apid E ye M ovement) Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recurring sleep stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vivid dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ paradoxical sleep” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Measuring sleep activity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages <ul><li>Alpha Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delta Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large, slow waves of deep sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>false sensory experiences </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM
  9. 9. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Hours of sleep Minutes of Stage 4 and REM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 15 20 25 5 Decreasing Stage 4 Increasing REM
  10. 10. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Effects of Sleep Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depressed immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater vulnerability to accidents </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sleep Deprivation 2,400 2,700 2,600 2,500 2,800 Spring time change (hour sleep loss) 3,600 4,200 4000 3,800 Fall time change (hour sleep gained) Less sleep, more accidents More sleep, fewer accidents Monday before time change Monday after time change Accident frequency
  12. 12. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persistent problems in falling or staying asleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uncontrollable sleep attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>temporary cessation of breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>momentary reawakenings </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Night Terrors and Nightmares <ul><li>Night Terrors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high arousal-- appearance of being terrified </li></ul></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM
  14. 14. Dreams: Freud <ul><li>Dreams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hallucinatory imagery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discontinuities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incongruities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delusional acceptance of the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties remembering </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dreams: Freud <ul><li>Sigmund Freud -- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wish fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manifest Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remembered story line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>underlying meaning </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Dreams <ul><li>As Information Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps facilitate memories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REM Rebound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sleep Across the Lifespan
  18. 18. Hypnosis <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic Amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Hypnosis <ul><li>Unhypnotized persons can also do this </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hypnosis <ul><li>Orne & Evans (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control group instructed to “pretend” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic Suggestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Hypnosis <ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a split in consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hidden Observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Explaining Hypnosis
  23. 23. Drugs and Consciousness <ul><li>Psychoactive Drug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physiological need for a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a psychological need to use a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for example, to relieve negative emotions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Dependence and Addiction <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing effect with regular use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use </li></ul></ul>Small Large Drug dose Little effect Big effect Drug effect Response to first exposure After repeated exposure, more drug is needed to produce same effect
  25. 25. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that reduce neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slow body functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol, barbiturates, opiates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that excite neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speed up body functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Opiates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash
  31. 31. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Ecstasy (MDMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both short-term and long-term health risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lysergic acid diethylamide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a powerful hallucinogenic drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the major active ingredient in marijuana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Psychoactive Drugs
  33. 33. Trends in Drug Use 1975 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 Year 80% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 High school seniors reporting drug use Alcohol Marijuana/ hashish Cocaine
  34. 34. Perceived Marijuana Risk ‘ 75 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99 Year 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percent of twelfth graders Perceived “great risk of harm” in marijuana use Used marijuana
  35. 35. Near-Death Experiences <ul><li>Near-Death Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often similar to drug-induced hallucinations </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Near-Death Experiences <ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing </li></ul></ul>

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