[Apush] apush ch 11


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[Apush] apush ch 11

  1. 1. The South and Slavery, 1790s-1850s Chapter 11
  2. 2. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>Despite a decrease in slavery after the Revolution, it would rapidly increase as cotton became the dominate economic crop </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton’s major drawback: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It took a day to clean one pound of cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney (and Catherine Greene) created the cotton gin that could clean 50 pounds per day </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>SC and GA, followed by other Southern states, began expanding rapidly (AL fever) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton, grown quickly, depletes the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They expanded into the Black Belt (AL, MS, GA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The slaves would clear the forests, drain swamps, build houses and plant first crops in the region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MS population doubled and AL went from 9K to 144K in 10 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were from SC </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>“ Civilized” Indians were not allowed to stay in slave areas due to confusion it created </li></ul><ul><li>As cotton crops expanded all the way to TX, the question of the expansion of slavery also rose </li></ul><ul><li>Most slaves worked under the gang system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each slave had a particular job to do </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>Because slave owners could not convince indentured servants to do what was needed, southerners believed slavery was necessary to their economy </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs about slavery were changing though </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Northern states had some law banning or phasing out slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Southern states (except SC and GA) either banned or heavily taxed slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Southern states banned importation of foreign slaves after the slave revolt in Haiti (1791) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners feared revolutionaries would cause their own slaves to revolt </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>With the cotton gin came slave smuggling (into SC especially) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1804 slave trade was reopened in SC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charleston became the largest slaving port (40K) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1808 (earliest date permitted by Constitution) Congress banned international slave trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After this, increase in slave labor force depended primarily on natural methods </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>Internal slave trade skyrocketed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As much as 50% of the slave population was moved for southern expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were transported like cargo or walked in “coffles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sold down the river” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After reaching New Orleans, Natchez, or Mobile they were auctioned off </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution in Europe led to a dramatic increase in the demand for cotton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton eventually accounted for 60% of American exports, with five million bails being produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Senator James Henry Hammond (SC) said, “cotton is king” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><ul><li>Cotton’s profitability led to America’s participation in the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While production occurred in the South, shipping, insuring, and other support activities were done by Northern companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North failed to realize that the South was critical to their existence </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. King Cotton and Southern Expansion <ul><li>Southern cities, although not as populous as Northern ones, were not able to build up their infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money was sucked away to support the plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South did not keep up with industrialization or railroad construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They preserve the status quo in order to ensure stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sidenote: more acreage was actually devoted to corn, not cotton </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. To Be a Slave <ul><li>By 1790 there were more than 4 million slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A distinctive culture would emerge amongst the slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slaves did a variety of jobs </li></ul>
  12. 12. To Be a Slave <ul><li>Slaves were not equally distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of owners had 5 or fewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of all slaves lived with 10 or more on a farm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern slavery was the only slave institution to be grown by natural methods versus slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>The first challenged a slave faced was survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality rates for kids under 5 was double that of whites </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. To Be a Slave <ul><li>Death was common due to poor conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During pregnancy the women still worked in the fields and ate little </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had kids every year to year and a half </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White people lived 40-43 years, black people 30-33 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The owners argument was that they were being more humane than northern industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least the fed, clothed, and housed their “slaves”, and they took care of them from birth to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few cases of manumission (freeing of a slave) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. To Be a Slave <ul><li>Children lived with their mom (and dad if on same farm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “house” was a wood shack with no floor, little furniture and a corn-shuck mattress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food included meat, corn meal, and some molasses—slaves were encouraged to keep their own gardens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing included two pants, two shirts, 1 pair of shoes, and enough cloth for the women to make frocks and kids clothes—very inadequate in winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the age of 7, children played with others (even white kids) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. To Be a Slave <ul><li>Children also learned survival—they watched their parents and siblings being beaten, raped, sold OR rewarded for loyal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The owners believed that the slaves were both less intelligent and more loyal than the owners themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass said: “As the master studies to keep the slave ignorant, the slave is cunning enough to make the master think he succeeds.” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. To Be a Slave <ul><li>Read p. 304-306 regarding slave professions </li></ul>
  17. 17. To Be a Slave
  18. 18. To Be a Slave
  19. 19. To Be a Slave
  20. 20. To Be a Slave