8. what is progressivism social progressives 2006 2007compressed


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8. what is progressivism social progressives 2006 2007compressed

  1. 1. <ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did the chaotic conditions of urban America contribute to new “progressive” reforms in the early 20 th century? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warm-Up Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s look at the DBQ </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. What is Progressivism? <ul><li>From 1890s to 1914, progressives addressed the rapid economic & social changes of the Gilded Age </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive reform had wide appeal but was not a unified movement with a common agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive reforms included prostitution, poverty, child labor, factory safety, women’s rights, temperance, & political corruption </li></ul>Democrats, Republicans, & Socialists all found reasons to support progressivism Some reformers targeted local community problems, others aimed for state changes, & others wanted national reforms
  3. 3. What is Progressivism? <ul><li>But, Progressive reform had distinguishing characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Themes </li></ul></ul>Evangelical Protestantism (Social Gospel) inspired reformers to intervene in people’s lives Optimism & belief in progress (“investigate, educate, & legislate”) Change the environment to change people (no Social Darwinism) Desire to “humanize” industry Led by the new, educated middle-class “professionals” (doctors, ministers, etc) Looked to the gov’t to help achieve goals Their actions impacted the entire nation; not regions like the Populists
  4. 4. Quick Class Discussion: Why did America Need Progressivism?
  5. 5. Reforming Society
  6. 6. The Beginnings of Progressivism <ul><li>Progressivism 1 st began in the 1890s in response to urban & factory problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early reformers realized that private charity was not enough to cure all social ills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called for tenement house laws & new labor laws to help women & children workers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Beginnings of Progressivism <ul><li>Charity Organization Society collected data on poverty, slums, & disease which led to the NY Tenement House Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Nat’l Conference of Social Work used “professional” social workers to press for minimum wages, maximum work hours, workers’ compensation, & widow pensions </li></ul>
  8. 8. New Journalism: “Muckraking” <ul><li>New journalism drew attention to America’s problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1890) was the 1 st expos é of urban poverty & slums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap monthly magazines, like McClure’s & Collier’s used investigative journalism & photos to yield huge circulations </li></ul></ul>Urban poverty Political corruption The plight of industrial workers “ Big business” practices Lincoln Steffan’s Shame of the Cities (1902) revealed corruption of political machines Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil Company (1904) revealed Rockefeller’s ruthless business practices
  9. 9. Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives included photographs!
  10. 10. New Journalism: Muckraking <ul><li>Muckraker Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) prompted federal investigation of meatpacking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat Inspection Act (1906) required gov’t inspections & set sanitation rules for meatpacking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muckraker Sam H Adams exposed the dangers of patent medicines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Food & Drug Act (1906) required listing of ingredients & banned “adulterated” drugs </li></ul></ul>“ I aimed at the public’s heart & by accident I hit it in the stomach.” Led by Dr. Harvey Wiley’s “Poison Squad” division of the US Dept of Agriculture & teamed with American Medical Association
  11. 11. Prohibition & Prostitution <ul><li>Reformers were shocked by growing reports of alcohol abuse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1916, 19 states outlawed booze & in the 18 th Amend passed in 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reformers focused on prostitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1915 almost all states banned brothels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mann Act (1910) banned the interstate transportation of “immoral” women </li></ul></ul>Membership grew in the Women’s Christian Temperance Union
  12. 12. Standardizing Education <ul><li>Psychologist William James promoted the idea that one’s environment dictates behavior </li></ul><ul><li>School leaders applied these ideas to reform pubic education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools became a primary vehicle to assimilate immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Dewey promoted “creative intelligence” not memorization or strict teaching </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Working-Class Reform
  14. 14. Immigration to the USA, 1901-1920 From 1901-1920, 14.5 million “new” Europeans, Mexicans, & Asians immigrated to US to join the US labor force 60% of the US work force was foreign born in 1914; most immigrant laborers were unskilled, living in poverty & in ethnic conclaves
  15. 15. Mexican Immigration to the USA, 1900-1920 Mexican immigrants worked in Western farms, railroads, & mines as well as Southern & California agriculture
  16. 16. Angel Island, San Francisco This was not like Ellis Island in NYC; Instead of hours, processing took months
  17. 17. Conflict in the Workplace <ul><li>The new industrial advances like mass production & management sped up production but led to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long hours, low wages, dangerous settings for workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unrest & strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased union membership from 4% in 1900 to 13% in 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive reforms for workers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Labor Union Membership, 1897-1920
  19. 19. Industrial Exploitation Case Study : The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)
  20. 20. Organizing Labor <ul><li>Gompers’ American Federation of Labor was the largest US union but it was exclusive; led to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s Trade Union League (1903) formed to help working women & educate the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Workers of the World (1905) urged revolution via sabotage & strikes & eventually to create a workers’ republic </li></ul></ul>The WTUL strike against Hart, Schaffer, & Marx Co led to the 1st collective bargaining victory in US history Open to all workers regardless of race, sex, ethnicity, or skill Called the “Wobblies” “ It is our purpose to overthrow the capitalist system by forceful means in necessary… [There is nothing a worker can do that] will bring as much anguish to the boss than a little sabotage in the right place.” — IWW co-founder “Big Bill” Haywood
  21. 21. Organizing Labor <ul><li>Eugene V. Debs formed the Socialist Party of America & applied Marxist ideas into a moderate & appealing political platform </li></ul>Did not threaten to overthrow the capitalist system
  22. 22. Working with Workers <ul><li>Many businesses used police & violence to break up strikes, but others improved working conditions to avoid trouble: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Ford introduced the “Five Dollar Day” & an 8-hour workday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Amoskeag textile factory in NH used paternalism & benefits (playgrounds & health care) </li></ul></ul>Led to increase production & a stable & loyal workforce
  23. 23. Amoskeag Textile Company Amoskeag hired whole families Amoskeag built playgrounds & baseball fields for families & their children … and provided company housing
  24. 24. The Women’s Movement & Black Awakening
  25. 25. The Women’s Movement <ul><li>Progressive reformers advocated for change for women & children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions led to the Nat’l Child Labor Laws (1930s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Association of Colored Women advocated for the rights of black women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National American Woman Suffrage Assoc (1890) was formed to gain women the vote </li></ul></ul>“ Women’s vote will help cure ills of society” The 19th Amendment was passed in 1920
  26. 26. Women’s Suffrage Before 1900
  27. 27. The Women’s Movement <ul><li>Margaret Sanger championed the cause for increased birth control for women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Her journals provided contraceptive information for poor & middle-class women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the US </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Niagara Movement & NAACP <ul><li>The condition of blacks in the early 20 th century remained poor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% lived in rural areas, most as sharecroppers in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation & violence were common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Niagara Movement (1905) led by W.E.B. Du Bios militantly called for political, social, & civil rights </li></ul>“ [African-Americans] have a right to know, to think, to aspire…We must strive for the right which the world accords to man.” — W.E.B. DuBois
  29. 29. The Niagara Movement & NAACP <ul><li>In 1909, National Assoc for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed by William Walling & others; Du Bios was put in charge of The Crisis publication </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP had some victories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guinn v US (1915) ended Oklahoma’s grandfather clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buchanan v Worley (1917) ended KY housing segregation </li></ul></ul>But…“I have never seen the colored people so discouraged and so bitter as they are at the present time.” — Booker T. Washington, 1913 Lesson #33