Lesson plan for January 4, 2007: RQ 29, Foreign Policy Notes through Japan
Canada became a dominion of England in 1867 and Seward hoped to convince England to give up Canada; thus the purchase of Alaska
What was going on in Congress in 1868 that Andrew Johnson would need cooled down?
In 1887, the US gained Pearl Harbor as a naval base
Hawaii is the stepping-stone to the vast Asian markets
5. american imperialism 2006 2007compressed
<ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the significant motivations for & results of America’s “new” foreign policy from 1890 to 1914? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading Quiz Ch 29 </li></ul>
Reasons for US Expansion <ul><li>Prior to 1890, US expansion was focused on settling the western frontier via Manifest Destiny </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion by 1890s was different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of the telegraph, telephone, & cables led to a sense of internationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans looked to gain more naval bases & markets in major trade routes </li></ul></ul>New territories were viewed as colonies, not as future-states
Reasons for Expansion <ul><li>Why the new focus? New markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the frontier led to fears about economic opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American industrialism made the US a major exporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businessmen feared nothing would be left when European imperialists finished annexing </li></ul></ul>
Reasons for Expansion <ul><li>Why the new focus? Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism promoted white superiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ White Man’s Burden” promoted the “western duty to civilize” the world through trade, democracy, & Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 1890s, the US was ready for its first real foreign “ policy ” </li></ul>
American Social Darwinism Superstition Oppression Ignorance Barbarism Vice Civilization Which nations is England “hauling up the hill”? What about the US?
The US as a World Power The US promoted trade with but avoided diplomatic conflicts with Europe The US used the Monroe Doctrine in Latin America but viewed the Caribbean as an “American Lake” & Latin America as a vast potential market for US goods The US coveted Hawaii & control of the sea lanes to China
The US as a World Power: Alaska Secretary of State William Seward, under Lincoln & Johnson, hoped to see the US annex Canada & Mexico “ Give me…fifty, forty, thirty more years of life and I will give you possession of the American continent & control of the world” In 1867, Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
Seward’s Icebox : King Andy & Seward lug in a big block of Russian ice to cool down Congress
The US as a World Power: Latin America Sec of State William Blaine, under Garfield & Harrison, emphasized a “Good Neighbor Policy” & created bilateral treaties to secure US trade US businesses flooded Latin America with goods, bought raw materials, & undercut local businesses This policy depended on peace & order in Latin America; when a revolt erupted in Venezuela, the US successfully invoked the Monroe Doctrine to keep Europeans away
The US as a World Power: Hawaii US missionaries & prospectors 1 st arrived in Hawaii in the 1820s; By the 1870s, Hawaii was dominated by sugar & fruit plantation owners who called for US annexation In 1888, US planters led an overthrow of King Kalakuau, new Queen Liliuokalani was disposed in 1891, & Hawaii became a republic in 1894 under Sanford Dole “ The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe, and this is the golden hour for the United States to pluck it.” — John Foster, Sec of State under Harrison
Hawaii was annexed in 1898 under President McKinley Do you see any short- & long-term significance?
The US as a World Power: China The US was eager to trade with China; but China was divided into European spheres of influence Sec of State Hay, under McKinley, suggested an "Open Door" in 1900: no nation would have an exclusive sphere of influence in China & the US would gain access to Chinese trade
The US as a World Power: Japan The US navy led by Commodore Matthew Perry “opened” Japan to US trade in 1854 & ended 200 years of Japanese isolationism But US-Japanese relations were rocky in the early 20 th Century Japan gained power in Asia after Russo-Japanese War in 1904 & gained control of Korea The Root-Takahira Agreement in 1908 agreed to protect Asian status quo, uphold the Open Door policy, & respect Chinese independence The US & Japan signed a “Gentlemen’s Agreement” in 1907: US rescinded segregation against Japanese living in CA & Japan limited emigration to the US