<ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did progressives bring  reform to local, state, and national govern...
Political Progressives in the Cities & States
Reform in the Cities <ul><li>Political progressivism began in cities in response to corrupt political machines & deteriora...
Reform in the States <ul><li>Progressive reformers impacted state governments too: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A New York scanda...
Action in the States <ul><li>Progressives helped make state governments more democratic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western sta...
Action in the States <ul><li>The most significant state reform was governor Robert La Follette’s “Wisconsin Idea”: </li></...
<ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How were TR, Taft, & Wilson similar & different in their approaches to ...
National  Progressivism
The Republican Roosevelt <ul><li>The assassination of McKinley in 1901 made “TR” president: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TR was a...
The Square Deal <ul><li>In 1902, the United Mine Workers went on strike to demand higher pay & eight-hour work day </li></...
Busting the Trusts <ul><li>TR saw the benefit of  good  trusts, but wanted to control  bad  trusts </li></ul><ul><li>He pu...
TR: the trust buster?
TR the Trustbuster?  <ul><li>TR was not always consistent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated suits against beef trust, Amer ...
TR accepted monopolies as a fact of life for 20 th  century business but viewed regulation as the best way to tame trusts ...
Roosevelt Progressivism <ul><li>TR won landslide victory in the Election of 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>TR won 57% of the popul...
Regulating the Railroads <ul><li>TR’s re-election agenda in 1904 was focused on regulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepburn ...
Conserving the Land <ul><li>TR created the 1 st  comprehensive national conservation policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TR defin...
National Parks and Forests
The Presidency of William Howard Taft
The Taft Presidency <ul><li>TR remained true to his promise not to run for a 3 rd  term & chose William Howard Taft as the...
The Taft Presidency <ul><li>Taft was poorly equipt to continue TR’s agenda: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft did not trust the g...
The Taft Presidency <ul><li>Despite these set backs, Taft helped push through significant progressive legislation: </li></...
The Election of 1912 <ul><li>TR decided to run against Taft for Republican nominee in 1912 but conservative Repubs refused...
Election of 1912 <ul><li>TR’s New Nat’lism </li></ul><ul><li>US needs a nat’l approach to reform & a strong president </li...
<ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How were TR, Taft, & Wilson similar & different in their approaches to ...
Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom <ul><li>Wilson believed in strong, activist leadership & helped push through many New Freedom...
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom <ul><ul><li>Clayton Anti-Trust Act  banned interlocking directorates & held business officers...
Conclusions : The Fruits of Progressivism
The Fruits of Progressivism <ul><li>Progressive reforms led to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban & labor improvements </li></ul...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

10. political progressivism 2006 2007compressed

555 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
555
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Lesson Plan for Thursday, January 18, 2007: Warm-Up Question, TR video, Political Progressives notes
  • (see Out of Many pg 728-730; 748-755)
  • Many of city reforms based on problems created as a result of the depression of 1893
  • Lesson Plan for Friday, January 19, 2007: RQ 32 (p703-710), finish Political Progressives notes, Taft video
  • “ bully” in TR’s era meant same as “cool” or “neat” does today. So, bully pulpit was a cool platform on which to stand
  • Northern Securities Company was giant RR holding company controlled, in part, by Morgan, Rockefeller, Hill
  • The ICC gained the power to set maximum RR rates &amp; the ICC could investigate RR company financial records
  • In 1909, Sec of Interior Ballinger offered for sale 1 million acres of land Pinchot refused to sell; After investigation, Taft backed Ballinger; Pinchot covertly leaked ties to JP Morgan &amp; issue became a scandal; Taft fired Pinchot &amp; muckrakers assailed Taft in newspapers Progressive break with Taft began talk of a TR return to the White House
  • After being shot by anti-third term fanatic: “I have a message to deliver and I will deliver it as long as there is life in my body.”
  • Lesson Plan for Monday, January 22, 2007: Taft video, finish Political Progressives notes (Wilson)
  • (1913) was;
  • 10. political progressivism 2006 2007compressed

    1. 1. <ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did progressives bring reform to local, state, and national governments? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warm-Up Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s look over The Jungle reading & your answers to these questions </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Political Progressives in the Cities & States
    3. 3. Reform in the Cities <ul><li>Political progressivism began in cities in response to corrupt political machines & deteriorating urban conditions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good government” reformers created the National Municipal League in 1894 to find ways to make city governments less political & less partisan </li></ul>Most cities had a group focused on improving quality of life Many mid-sized or small cities hired a non-partisan city manager to oversee the city bureaucracy Many cities used “gas & water socialism” to control public utility costs Galveston, Texas was the 1 st city to use a city commission rather than a mayor & city council These urban reforms were less democratic but much more efficient & less corrupt
    4. 4. Reform in the States <ul><li>Progressive reformers impacted state governments too: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A New York scandal linked politicians & utility suppliers which led the state to create a utilities regulatory board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most states created regulatory commissions to oversee state spending & initiate investigations </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Action in the States <ul><li>Progressives helped make state governments more democratic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western states were the 1 st to allow public initiatives , referendums , & recalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passage of the 17 th Amendment in 1912 allowed for the direct election of Senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1916, most states had direct primaries to allow voters to choose candidates, not parties </li></ul></ul>Allows for a direct vote on an issue that is placed on a state ballot by public petition Allows for a direct vote by citizens on an issue suggested by the state legislature Gives voters the right to remove an elected official by popular vote
    6. 6. Action in the States <ul><li>The most significant state reform was governor Robert La Follette’s “Wisconsin Idea”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used academic experts from the University of Wisconsin to help research & write state bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisconsin was the 1 st state to use direct primary & income tax, create industrial commissions, set utility prices, & regulate RRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TR called Wisconsin the “Laboratory of Democracy” </li></ul></ul>California, Missouri, Iowa, & Texas copied La Follette’s plan
    7. 7. <ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How were TR, Taft, & Wilson similar & different in their approaches to progressive reform? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading Quiz Chapter 32 (p703-710 only) </li></ul>
    8. 8. National Progressivism
    9. 9. The Republican Roosevelt <ul><li>The assassination of McKinley in 1901 made “TR” president: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TR was an activist president who knew how to guide public opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike most Gilded Age Repubs, TR refused to ignore economic & social inequalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He believed gov’t agencies should be run by experts </li></ul></ul>TR thought of presidency as a bully pulpit to advocate his agenda <ul><ul><li>The president is “a steward of the people bound actively & affirmatively to do all he can for the people.” </li></ul></ul>Elihu Root to Sec of State (district attorney of NYC) W.H. Taft to Sec of War (civil governor of Philippines) Gifford Pinchot as chief conservationist
    10. 10. The Square Deal <ul><li>In 1902, the United Mine Workers went on strike to demand higher pay & eight-hour work day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strike lasted 11 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TR brought both sides to arbitration & threatened gov’t seizure of the coal mine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The result was a “square deal” for labor (higher wages) & owners (no formal recognition of a union) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Busting the Trusts <ul><li>TR saw the benefit of good trusts, but wanted to control bad trusts </li></ul><ul><li>He pushed for the Dept of Commerce & Labor to investigate business wrongdoings </li></ul><ul><li>In 1902, TR ordered the Justice Dept to charge the Northern Securities Co in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act; The Supreme Court ordered the company to be broken up </li></ul>
    12. 12. TR: the trust buster?
    13. 13. TR the Trustbuster? <ul><li>TR was not always consistent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated suits against beef trust, Amer Tobacco, Du Pont, Standard Oil, New Haven RR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But he relied on business to gain re-election in 1904; sought the advice of JP Morgan; allowed some monopolistic mergers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TR only “busted” 25 trusts in 7 years; Taft busted 43 in 4 years </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. TR accepted monopolies as a fact of life for 20 th century business but viewed regulation as the best way to tame trusts who use corrupt business practices
    15. 15. Roosevelt Progressivism <ul><li>TR won landslide victory in the Election of 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>TR won 57% of the popular vote & 336 electoral votes </li></ul>“ Under no circumstances will I be a candidate for or accept another nomination.”
    16. 16. Regulating the Railroads <ul><li>TR’s re-election agenda in 1904 was focused on regulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepburn Act (1906) increased the ICC’s power to set maximum RR rates & investigate RR company financial records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Food & Drug Act (1906) & Meat Inspection Act (1906) protected consumers </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Conserving the Land <ul><li>TR created the 1 st comprehensive national conservation policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TR defined “conservation” as wise use of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created Reclamation Service to place natural resources (trees, oil, coal) under federal domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1901, US had 45 million acres of gov’t preserves; by 1908, US had 195 million acres </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. National Parks and Forests
    19. 19. The Presidency of William Howard Taft
    20. 20. The Taft Presidency <ul><li>TR remained true to his promise not to run for a 3 rd term & chose William Howard Taft as the Republican nominee for president </li></ul><ul><li>Taft seemed ready to carry out TR’s political agenda </li></ul>“ I feel a bit like a fish out of water…I hate the limelight.”
    21. 21. The Taft Presidency <ul><li>Taft was poorly equipt to continue TR’s agenda: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft did not trust the gov’t to regulate business behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He didn’t have the flair of TR; Taft was “too honest & sincere” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft tended to side with conservative Republicans rather than progressive Republicans </li></ul></ul>Taft backed the high Payne-Aldrich tariff Taft fired Pinchot, TR’s chief conservationist after the Ballinger-Pinchot Affair Progressive Republicans no longer looked to Taft for leadership & criticized almost all his policies
    22. 22. The Taft Presidency <ul><li>Despite these set backs, Taft helped push through significant progressive legislation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 th Amendment was written; created a national income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 th Amendment was written; direct election of US Senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety codes for miners & RRs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Children’s Bureau </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Election of 1912 <ul><li>TR decided to run against Taft for Republican nominee in 1912 but conservative Repubs refused to take him over Taft </li></ul><ul><li>TR was nominated to the new Progressive (Bull Moose) Party </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats nominated former Princeton president & NJ governor Woodrow Wilson who ran as a progressive reformer </li></ul>“ I’m feeling like a Bull Moose!” This deeply divided the Republican Party
    24. 24. Election of 1912 <ul><li>TR’s New Nat’lism </li></ul><ul><li>US needs a nat’l approach to reform & a strong president </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Justice reforms; protection of women, children, workers; “good” trusts to help growth </li></ul><ul><li>1 st to enlist women </li></ul><ul><li>WW’s New Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>US needs small gov’t, free trade & competition </li></ul><ul><li>Both plans saw the economy as the central issue, but Wilson distrusted federal power & nat’l planning </li></ul>Democrats not only won the presidency, but also outright control of both House & Senate 1912 was the most significant 3-way election since 1860: Lincoln (Repubs), Douglas (Northern Dems), & Breckenridge (Southern Dems)
    25. 25. <ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How were TR, Taft, & Wilson similar & different in their approaches to progressive reform? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warm-Up Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How were TR and Taft different in their approaches to progressive reform? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom
    27. 27. Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom <ul><li>Wilson believed in strong, activist leadership & helped push through many New Freedom ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underwood Tariff Act reduced tariffs, but created the 1 st graduated income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve Act created a Federal Reserve to regulate the economy by adjusting the money supply or interest rates </li></ul></ul>1% tax for all, but 2% for the rich The 1st efficient nat’l bank system since Jackson destroyed the BUS
    28. 28. Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom <ul><ul><li>Clayton Anti-Trust Act banned interlocking directorates & held business officers personally liable for monopolies; helped workers by allowing strikes & banning injunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the 1916 elections neared, Wilson pushed for more social reforms too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Farm Loan Act </li></ul></ul>Endorsed an 8-hour day for all workers Supported women’s suffrage Defended unions’ right to collectively bargain
    29. 29. Conclusions : The Fruits of Progressivism
    30. 30. The Fruits of Progressivism <ul><li>Progressive reforms led to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban & labor improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct primaries & female voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More gov’t responsibility for social welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory commissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased importance of interest groups & public opinion polls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An “expert” bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more powerful presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWI ended the Progressive Era </li></ul>

    ×