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Techniques in Translation

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Subject: English 18
Translation and Editing Text

Topic: Techniques in Translation

Techniques in Translation
1. Computer assisted
2. Machine translation
3. Subtitling
4. editing/Post editing

1. COMPUTER-ASSISTED

Computer-assisted translations also called 'computer-aided translation or machine-aided human translation. It is a form of translation wherein human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator.

What is Computer Aided Translation?
Computer aided translation (also called computer assisted translation) is a system in which a human translator uses a computer in the translation process.
Humans and computers each have their strengths and weaknesses. The idea of computer aided translation (CAT) software is to make the most of the strengths of people and computers.
Translation performed solely by computers ("machine translation") has very poor quality. Meanwhile, no human can translate as fast as a computer can. By using a CAT tool, however, you can gain some of the speed, consistency, and memory benefits of the computer, without sacrificing the high quality of human translation.

Translation Skills: Theory and practice
The theoretical base should include general information regarding the translator's workshop and the issues one should be familiar with.
*Internet
It is worth discussing is the role of the internet as a source of information. It is important to use the translations which have been on the market for some time and are recognized by other people. This is where the internet becomes very useful for it allows us to search forgiven information (google.com, yahoo.com, altavista.com, etc.), use online dictionaries and corpora, or compare different language versions of the same site (Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia and the ability to switch from different languages defining a given notion-www.wikipedia.org). Google itself is a powerful tool since it allows us not only to search for information on webpages but also it indexes*.doc and *pdf files stored on servers, allowing us to browse through their contents in search for a context.

*Software
A successful translator needs to know how to handle various computer applications in his/her work. That's why basic software used to compress and decompress files should be mentioned (WinZip, WinRAR). PDF and multimedia files readers (images, audio). Last, the use of different word processors, are usually the first application that leads people using a computer for their work. This comprises of spell checking, standard layouts, ability to have some characters appear in bold print, italics, or underlined. We can save documents, so it can be used again, and we can print the documents.
It is important to mention CAT tool, how the

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Techniques in Translation

  1. 1. introducing Techniques in Translation By: Juvelle Q. Villafania
  2. 2. Techniques in Translation Techniques in Translation Computer Assisted Translation Machine Translation 4Editing/ Post Editing Subtitling
  3. 3. Computer Assisted Translation Techniques inTranslation
  4. 4. Computer Assisted Translation  Computer-assisted translation, computer-aided translation or CAT is a form of language translation in which a human translator uses computer software to support and facilitate the translation process.  Computer-assisted translation is sometimes called machine-assisted, or machine-aided, translation.
  5. 5. Computer Assisted Translation Translation Skills: Theory and practice The theoretical base should include general information regarding the translator's workshop. *Internet
  6. 6. Computer Assisted Translation Translation Skills: Theory and practice The theoretical base should include general information regarding the translator's workshop. *Software
  7. 7. Computer Assisted Translation Translation Skills: Theory and practice The theoretical base should include general information regarding the translator's workshop.
  8. 8. Computer Assisted Translation Components of a CAT Tool 1. Translation memory 2. Language search-engine 3. Terminology management 4. Alignment 5. Interactive machine 6. Crowd translation
  9. 9. Machine Translation Techniques in Translation
  10. 10. Machine Translation  Machine translation is the translation of text by a computer, with no human involvement. Pioneered in the 1950s, machine translation can also be referred to as automated translation, automatic or instant translation.
  11. 11. Machine Translation
  12. 12. Machine Translation Two Types of Machine Translation System Rule-based System Statistical System
  13. 13. Machine Translation Two Types of Machine Translation System Rule-based systems  Rule-based systems use a combination of language and grammar rules plus dictionaries for common words. The rule-based machine translation paradigm includes;  transfer-based machine translation  interlingual machine translation and;  dictionary-based machine translation paradigms.
  14. 14. Machine Translation Two Types of Machine Translation System The rule-based includes; 1. transfer-based machine translation 2. interlingual machine translation and; 3. Tdraicntsiofenra-brya-sbeads emda mchaicnhei ntrea ntrsalantsiloanti oisn s pimarilaadr itgomins.terlingual machine translation in that it creates a translation from an intermediate representation that simulates the meaning of the original sentence. Unlike interlingual MT, it depends partially on the language pair involved in the translation. Interlingual machine translation is one instance of rule-based machine-translation approaches. In this approach, the source language, i.e. the text to be translated, is transformed into an interlingual language, i.e. a "language neutral" representation that is independent of any language. Machine translation can use a method based on dictionary entries, which means that the words will be translated as they are by a dictionary.
  15. 15. Machine Translation Two Types of Machine Translation System Statistical systems  Statistical machine translation tries to generate translations using statistical methods based on bilingual text corpora, such as the Canadian Hansard corpus, the English-French record of the Canadian parliament and EUROPARL, the record of the European Parliament.
  16. 16. Advantages of Machine Translation  Quick Translation  Low price  Confidentiality  Universality  Online translation and translation of web page content.
  17. 17. Disadvantages of Machine Translation  Lack of superior exactness  Inferior translation quality of the texts with ambiguous words and sentences.
  18. 18. Subtitling/ Captioning Techniques in Translation
  19. 19. Subtitling/Captioning Subtitles can be defined as transcriptions of film or TV dialogue, presented simultaneously on the screen'.
  20. 20. Subtitling Two Types of Subtitling Intralingual Subtitling Interlingual Subtitling
  21. 21. Subtitling Two Types of Subtitling Intralingual subtitling Intralingual subtitling deals with the production of subtitles that remain in the same language as the original and are used for the deaf or hard of hearing, or for language learners. Henrik Gottlieb describes it as vertical, 'in the sense that it involves taking speech down in writing, changing mode but not language.
  22. 22. Subtitling Two Types of Subtitling Interlingual subtitling Interlingual refers to both as change in mode and language, going from one language into another language and from spoken dialogue to into a written, condensed translation which appears on the screen.' Therefore, for the purposes of this work, "subtitling" will refer to the Interlingua subtitling described above.
  23. 23. Editing/ Post Editing Techniques in Translation
  24. 24. Editing/Post Editing Post editing is the process of improving a machine generated translation with a minimum of manual labor.
  25. 25. Editing or Post Editing 1. Developmental Editing 2. Substantive Editing 3. Copyediting 4. Proofreading
  26. 26. Editing or Post Editing Types of Editing Developmental Editing Developmental editing is a form of writing support that comes into play before or during the production of a publishable manuscript, especially in the area of non-fiction writing.
  27. 27. Editing or Post Editing Types of Editing Substantive Editing Substantive editors work with you once you have a full text. They will help you get it into its final form, which may involve reordering or rewriting segments of it to improve readability, clarity, or accuracy.
  28. 28. Editing or Post Editing Types of Editing Copyediting Copyeditors work with your text when it is in final or nearly final form. They read each sentence carefully, seeking to fix all errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and word usage while preserving your meaning and voice.
  29. 29. Editing or Post Editing Types of Editing Proofreading Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of text or art. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication.

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