Bridge construction Techniques
• A bridge is a structure providing passage over an
obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required
passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a
canal or a pipeline. The obstacle to be crossed may be a
river, a road, railway or a valley.
Superstructure or Decking
Piers and Abutments
According to the flexibility of superstructure
1. Fixed span bridges
2. Movable span bridges
According to the form or type of superstructure
6. Cable stayed
According to the materials of construction
1. Cement concrete
2. Pre-stressed concrete
1. Temporary Bridges
2. Military Bridges
3. Permanent Bridges
According to the function
A foundation is the part constructed under the pier/abutment
and over the underlying soil or rock.
The loads transmitted by the foundation to the underling soil
must not cause soil shear failure or damaging settlement of
• Purpose of foundation is to distribute the load of bridge over a
large bearing area and provide stability of bridge against
settlement and tilting.
Spread Foundation and Raft foundation
Pile, caisson and well Foundation
• Box caisson is as like a box that is opened on topside and other
sides are closed.
Open caisson is as like well
that is opened on top and
Bottom edges are made sharp.
During digging and sinking
the inside material is taken
Open caissons are used in soft
soil and in high water level.