Work life and leisure cities in the contemporary world.ppt
WORK, LIFE AN
-by Karan Saini
Characteristics Of Cities
When an increase in food supply supported a wide range of non-food producers.
Centre of political power, administrative network, trade and industry, religious
institutions and intellectual activity.
Supported various social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests.
Cities vary in size and complexity. Densely settled modern-day cities are called
Industrialization And The Rise
Of Modern Cities
London-A large city with huge population. Its population multiplied four folds in the
70 years i.e.1810-1880 from 1 million to four million.
It attracted many people from country side.
Major employment places in London were:
Clothing and Footwear
Wood and Furniture
Metal and Engineering
Precision Products as Surgical instruments, Objects of Precious Metals.
By First World War, London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods.
IMPACT OF URBANISATION
LONDON GREW,CRIME FLOURISHED-20000CRIMINALS IN 1870s.
Criminals belonged to poor families.
To discipline the population, authorities imposed penalties and offered jobs to
Factories employed women; industrialization created unemployment and forced
them to do domestic work, tailoring, washing and match-box making. A low-paid
HOUSING AND TRANSPORT
Change in London city after the industrialization.
No housing arrangement by factory owners for migrant workers.
Houses-cheap and unsafe apartments.
Poverty- both in countryside and in cities.
Bad living conditions resulted in early deaths-life expectancy to29yrs and 55yrs for
middle and rich class respectively.
Transport &Multi storeyed
Lambeth Palace, residence
Of Archbishop, Canterbury
Rich class demanded removal of slums.
a serious threat to public health
fire hazards due to poor housing
Fear of social disorder
So workers’ mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the poor from turning
CLEANING LONDON-VARIETY OF
To decongest localities, green open spaces, less pollution-large blocks
of apartments were built.
Rent control was introduced to do with housing shortage.
Congestion in cities required cleaning-green belt by architect and planner
Ebenezer Howard ,later Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker designed the garden
city of New Earswick.
Between 2WW(1919-1939) housing was taken care by the British state.
TRANSPORT IN THE CITY
Underground railways-first section of it was opened in10 Jan1863.
By 1880 train service carried40milllion passengers.
Earlier people were afraid to travel.
Better planned suburbs and a good railway network helped people to live outside
central London and travel to work.
INDUSTRIALISATION ANDLIFE IN THE
CITY Ties between members loosened-institution of marriage was breaking down.
Women worked for wages, had some control over their lives.
Social reformers needed that the institution of family be saved.
The city encouraged individualism among men and women and a freedom from
Men and women did not have equal access to urban lives.
Male-public space, women –domestic sphere.
Political movements-demanding vote for all adults and limited hours of work in
Women joined mvmt; demanded right to vote or right to property to married
The family now consisted of smaller units.
LEISURE AND CONSUMPTION
Wealthy Britishers-cultural events, opera, theatre and classical music performance.
Working class- met in pubs to drink, exchange news and organize political actions.
Libraries, art galleries and museums were established to develop pride in the
history and achievement of the British.
Lower classes preferred to go to music halls and cinema.
British industrial workers spend their holidays by the sea.
Charles Dickens Library The Royal Albert Hall hosts the concerts.
In 1886- the London poor exploded in a riot demanding relief from poverty.
In 1887-similar riot, which was brutally suppressed by the police-BLOODY
SUNDAY of Nov 1887.
In 1889-thousands of dockworkers went on strikes and marched through the city.
A large city population was both a threat and opportunity.
THE CITY OF COLONIAL INDIA
The pace of urbanization was slow in colonial INDIA-11% lived in cities; esp. 3
Presidency cities-Bombay, Bengal and Madras.
These were multifunctional cities-major ports, warehouses, homes and offices,
army, educational institutions, museums and libraries.
BOMBAY –premier city of INDIA.
In the 17th century, Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese
In 1661 it was passed to British after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles II to the
Portuguese princess as dowry.
At first, Bombay was major outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat later large
quantities of raw material as cotton and opium would pass.
Later a major administrative and industrial centre.
Bombay became a capital of Bombay presidency in 1819.
Growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders, bankers,
artisans and shopkeepers came to settle.
Ist cotton mill estd. in 1854 led to lot of people migrating to Bombay.
Women formed a part of mill workforce, but by 1930s women’s jobs were taken
away by machines and men.
Bombay dominated sea trade of INDIA till 20th century.
Railways also encouraged an even higher scale of migration.
Bombay was an overcrowded city-9.4 sq. yds. per person in 1840s as compared to
155 sq. yds. in London. London had 8 persons per house as compared to 20 in
The Bombay fort area in 1800s was divided into native towns where Indians lived
and a European or white section.
A European suburb and an industrial zone in the north and cantonment in the
south of the Fort. A racial pattern also prevalent in other two Presidencies.
Water and housing problems were created due to expansion of the city.
Rich Parsis, Muslim and upper class traders and industrialists lived in bungalows
and about 70%of the population lived in congested chawls .
Chawls were also place of exchange of news of jobs, strikes, riots and
Many people lived as tenants in one room(4 to5).In the case of high rent people
used to share homes.
People were living in a miserable conditions.
The jobber in a mill used to be neighborhood leader-who settled disputes,
organized food supplies and credits.
Trams, Tonga's, Horse carts, buses, cars and trains.
LAND RECLAMATION IN BOMBAY
The seven islands of Bombay were joined as one over a period of time.
The Bombay Governor William Hornby approved the building of the great wall to
prevent the flooding of low lying areas of Bombay.
Need for more space led to reclamation of land from sea.
In 1864, the Back Bay reclamation company reclaim the western foreshore from
the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of Colaba.
With population increase more area was reclaimed from the sea .To improve the
situation of housing –The City of Bombay Improvement Trust was created in1898 –
clearing poorer homes out of the city centre .In 1918 Rent act was to keep
BOMBAY AS THE CITY OF DREAMS-
Bombay appears to many as a ‘mayapuri’-a city of dreams.
Many Bombay films deal with the arrival of new migrants and their problems and
real life pressures.
Bombay film industry- Harish chandra S B shot a scene of wrestling match in
Bombay’s Hanging gardens and it became India’s first movie.
1913-Raja Harish chandra by Dada saheb Phalke.
Asiatic Society of Bombay Oldest Cinema Hall Regal Cinema Hall
CITIES AND CHALLENGES TO THE
Harm to natural features due to more demand for space by factories, housing and
Noise, air and water pollution.
More use of coal in homes and industries- black smoke created pollution hazards.
Factory owners and steam engine owners did not want to spend on technologies
to improve their machines which produced a lot of smokes.
Calcutta-too had a long history of air pollution- a lot of smoke esp. in winter.
Main pollutants were in industries and establishments using steam power.
The authorities tried to clean this but the introduction of railway line brought new
In 1863, Calcutta became the first city to get smoke nuisance legislation.
POLLUTION IN CITIES
SLUMS IN CITIES
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Give reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth
The city of London was a magnet for the migrant populations due to the job opportunities
provided by its dockyards and industries. By 1750, one out of every nine people of
England and Wales lived in London. So, the population of London kept expanding
through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. During the first world war, London
began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods. This increased the number of
large factories, which in turn increased the number of people coming to the city in search
What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the
nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.
Changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and
the twentieth century were primarily based on industrial and technological
advancements. Consequently, women had to work in households for a living, and this led
to an increase in the number of domestic servants. Some women also began to earn by
lodging out rooms, tailoring, washing or making matchboxes. With the coming of the
First World War though, women once again joined the industrial sector.
How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following?
Illustrate with historical examples.
(a) A private landlord
(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
(c) A leader of a political party
(a) A private landlord benefits by increasing the rent and he has more control
over the price. The rising population would lead to increasing demand for space,
e.g. renting of buildings at high rates were common in London and Bombay.
(b) Anyone involved with law and order would find it difficult with increasing
population in urban areas. He would have to work hard to maintain law and order
as crime rates are usually high in cities. For example, London people employed
policemen to curb the rising crimes during night.
(c) Political leaders would have more people voting and hence more
responsibilities. In cities, masses of people could be drawn to the political
causes as it happened in the Bloody Sunday of November, 1887 in London. The
metropolitan character of cities would compel him/her to be more secular and
liberal on the one hand. On the other hand, extremism or conservatism might
also win them votes as a reactionary phenomenon, e.g. rise of Nazis in Germany
or Liberal Democrats in France.
Give explanations for the following:
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay's population in the mid-nineteenth century.
(a) Well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth
century on account of three reasons:
→ one-room houses of the poor came to be seen as the breeding ground of diseases, and
hence, a threat to public health
→ Fire hazards became a worry in these over-crowded, badly ventilated, unhygienic homes
→ There was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the 1917 Russian
Revolution. Housing schemes were undertaken to avoid a rebellion by the poor.
(b) Bombay became an attractive destination for people seeking jobs after the British
administration replaced Surat with Bombay as its principal western port. The consequent
increase in trade and industries led to a great influx of people. Thus, migrants were (and still
are) an important facet of Bombay. Most of the people in the film industry were migrants
themselves, and wanted to portray the plight of this class of people through films. Thus, a
number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) In mid-seventeenth century, Bombay became East India Company's principal western port,
replacing Surat. Later, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had become an important
administrative as well as industrial centre. All through these years, the prospects for trade and
commerce, and employment kept increasing, thereby making Bombay an attractive destination