The architectural review (2002-2005)-part 2


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Architectural Project : Prar0098
Architects : Trahan Architects
Designation : Church Complex, Louisiana, USA

Architectural Project : Prar0099
Architects : Li Xiaodong Design Studio
Designation : School & Community Centre, Lijiang, China

Architectural Project : Prar0100
Architects : Baumschlager & Eberle
Designation : Housing, Innsbruck, Austria

Architectural Project : Prar0101
Architects : K2S Architects
Designation : Stadium Canopy, Helsinki, Finland

Architectural Project : Prar0102
Architects : Antonio Portugal & Manuel Maria Reis
Designation : Restaurant, Brufe, Portugal

Architectural Project : Prar0103
Architects : Allies & Morrison Architects
Designation : Dance School, King's Cross, London

Architectural Project : Prar0104
Architect : Lund Hagem
Designation : Two Houses, Furulund, Oslo, Norway

Architectural Project : Prar0105
Architect : Rick Joy
Designation : House, Arizona, USA

Architectural Project : Prar0106
Architects : Kazuyo Sejima & Associates
Designation : Urban House, Tokyo, Japan

Architectural Project : Prar0107
Architects : Nicholas Grimshaw & Partners
Designation : Eden Project, Cornwall, England

Architectural Project : Prar0108
Architect : Ziggurat
Designation : Mews House Extension, South Kensington, London

Architectural Project : Prar0109
Architect : Frank O. Gehry
Designation : Bank offices & Flats, Berlin, Germany

Architectural Project : Prar0110
Architect : Naito Architect & associates
Designation : Museum, Shikoku, Japan

Architectural Project : Prar0111
Architect : Harry Seidler & associates
Designation : House, Southern Highlands, NSW, Australia

Architectural Project : Prar0112
Architect : Werner Sobek
Designation : House, Stuttgart, Germany

Architectural Project : Prar0113
Architect : Renzo Piano
Designation : Shop, Ginza, Tokyo, Japan

Architectural Project : Prar0114
Architects : SCDA Architects
Designation : House, Singapore

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The architectural review (2002-2005)-part 2

  1. 1. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 64 -
  2. 2. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 65 -
  3. 3. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 66 -
  4. 4. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 67 -
  5. 5. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 68 -
  6. 6. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 69 -
  7. 7. 70 |6 HOUSIN G, IN N SBRUCK, AUSTRIA ARCHITECT BAUMSCHLAGER & EBERLE SHUTTERED ROOMS Distinguished by formal rigour and a concern for energy use, thiscomplex of compactly planned, mixed tenure housing blockson the edge of Innsbruck isanimated by an external skin of folding shutters. 1 Mid-rise blocks are arranged around communal spaces. Car parking is relegated underground, freeing up the exterior for semi-formal gardens. 2 Framed by alpine peaks, the blocks have a geometric rigour and precision. Copper-clad folding shutters animate the exterior (although in reality perhaps to a more random pattern than shown here). Housing(of boththe state subsidedandprivate sector fundedkind) accountsfor over a thirdof constructionwork in Austria. Regulatedbyplanning lawsandcost constraints, opportunitiesfor innovationare limited, withthe result that towns andcitiestendto be dominated bydull residential developments. Inthisapparentlyreductivist area of architectural activity, Baumschlager &Eberle have appliedthemselvesto researching andevolvingasuccessful housing type basedonacompact, doughnut-shapedplanwithan inner ringof servant spacesand anouter ringof servedrooms. The buildingenvelope isusually formedfrombalconiesand loggias, creatingasemi-public layer enclosedbyanexternal skin of foldingor slidingshutters. By adaptingandmodifyingthisbasic type to variousconditions, Baumschlager &Eberle have graduallydevelopedit intermsof architectural form, constructional compositionandecological performance. The particular character of thisapproachisnot to seek the outlandishlyspecial, but rather to aspire to the highest standardsfor what isnormal. The latest inthisseriesof housingprojectsisfor asite on the westernedge of Innsbruck. Dramaticallyframedbyalpine peaks, it extendsanexisting residential area. The complex contains298 flatsof varyingsizes (fromone to three bedrooms) dividedmore or lessevenly betweenrental andownership. Apartmentsare organizedinsix identical blocksbetweenfive and sevenstoreyshigh. Carsare relegatedto asubterraneanpark, so freeingupthe areasbetween the blocksfor gardensand communal social spaces. 1 2 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 70 -
  8. 8. 73 |6ground floor plan (scale approx 1:300)site plan typical upper level plancross section outlining principles of environmental control longitudinal sectioncross section a solar collection panels b water tanksfor heat storage c car park d ventilationoutlets e heat pump&boiler f livingroom/ bedroom g wc/bathroom/ kitchen a mainentrance b lightwell courtyard c lift d stairs e flats f accessgalleries g balconies 72 |6 Pollarded lime treesmark the edgesof pathsand will mature to provide enclavesof shade. Each of the blocksfollowsthe same compact arrangement of flatstightly planned around a central lightwell and service core. Each hasasingle communal entrance that penetrates through the block to the central space; from here you either take the lift or stairsto communal gallerieson each level that lead to individual apartments. Flats are simply and economically planned with anarrow strip of kitchensand bathroomson the lightwell side servinglarger living spacesfacingout to viewsand light. Each flat hasaccessto a balcony that runscontinuously around each floor. Inner facesof the blocksare clad in vertical stripsof cherry. Foldingshutters made of copper and balustrades of translucent toughened glass give protection from the elementsand provide privacy. The changingconcertina rhythmsgenerated by the shutters(which will surely have a much greater degree of lyrical randomnessthan the regimented patternsshown here) animate the geometrically stern facades. Aswith Baumschlager & Eberle’spreviousprojects(AR January 2000), the Innsbruck housingischaracterized by a thoughtful degree of energy consciousenvironmental control. The highly compact plan reducesthe surface areato volume ratio. Wallsare highly insulated and windowsare triple glazed, in order to minimize heat loss. Each apartment isequipped with acompact ventilation unit with heat recovery, aswell asa small heat pump for air heating and aboiler for hot water. The controlled air ventilation system providesaconstant, comfortable supply of fresh air aswell as 3 Lushness of the landscape tempers the formal abstraction. 4 Balconies run around the edge of each block, enclosed by the shutters and translucent glass balustrades. HOUSING, INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA ARCHITECT BAUMSCHLAGER & EBERLE 3 4 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 71 -
  9. 9. 74 |6 optimizingspace heatingand minimizingventilation losses. It also maintainsabalance of relative humidity, reducing problemsof building deterioration due to pollution, humidity or mould. Around 70 per cent of the annual hot water demand is covered by asolar powered system. Solar collectorswith a surface areaof 140-190sqm per block heat water in storage tankslocated around the perimeter of the underground car park. Duringthe summer, domestic hot water iswarmed in the solar tanksand supplied to individual flats. Any extra heatingiscarried out by the heat pumps. In winter, solar energy is used to preheat fresh air in the controlled ventilation system. Rainwater iscollected from the roofsand used to flush the lavatories, accountingfor over half the annual demand. Thisconflation of energy savingmeasuresgivesrise to a very low annual heating requirement, compared with more conventional housing developments, with consequent cost savingsand reductionsin carbon dioxide emissions. Combiningformal precision with ecological inventiveness, Baumschlager & Eberle’s architecture showswhat can be achieved even in the most unpromisingof programmes. CLAUDIA KUGEL Architect Baumschlager & Eberle, Lochau, Austria Project team Carlo Baumschlager, Dietmar Eberle, Gerhard Zweier, Herwig Bachmann Structural engineers Mac Wallnöfer, Fritzer & Saurwein Environmental engineer GMI Ingenieure Landscape architect Kienast Vogt Photographs Eduard Hueber/Arch Photo 5 At the heart of each block isa lightwell. 6 Galleries give access to individual flats. HOUSING, INNSBRUCK, AUSTRIA ARCHITECT BAUMSCHLAGER & EBERLE 5 6 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 72 -
  10. 10. 82 |6 The LondonContemporary Dance School isto be found at The Place inaquiet backwater off busyEustonRoad. Established in1969 byphilanthropist Robin Howard, The Place hasbecome one of the world’sfamousdance centres. Itstheatre wascreated out of the old Drill Hall of the Artists’ Rifles, constructed in 1889 and listed byEnglish Heritage. A landmark inthe King’sCrossPartnershiparea, it opensonto the tinyGeorgian oasisof Duke’sRoad (built with the adjoiningWoburnWalk in the 1820sbyThomasCubitt as part of the Bedford Estate). Behind, and to the east of, the theatre, dressingroomsand ancillaryspaces, isthe dance centre, housed for most of itslife inatriangular warrenof buildings converted at varioustimesinto studios, classroomsand offices. Equipped with money from the National Lottery (through the ArtsCouncil) and agrant from King’sCrossPartnership, The Place hasbeen undergoing much-needed improvementsby Alliesand Morrison. Pressure on space and facilitieshad become acute. The centre, open seven daysaweek from early morning until late in the evening, isused by great numbersof students and professional performers, and hasto house around 80 staff. Work isbeingcarried out in two phases. The first, now completed, hasprovided anew buildingto the north and east of the triangle. Entrance isthrough athree-storey glassfronted stair tower, facingeast and visible from adistance – particularly at night when illuminated. Glass balconiesbetween landingsact asstretchingzonesso from the street you see silhouetted dancersin motion, figures superimposed one above the other. Thistower isthe centre’s shop window, advertisingits presence to the neighbourhood. Landingslead to new studios contained inabuildingto the northhard upagainst the back wall of ahotel block running DAN CE SCHOOL, KIN G’S CROSS, LON DON ARCHITECT ALLIES AN D MORRISON ARCHITECTS 1 Glazed stair tower with stretching areas, gives access to studios, right. 2 Lower ground floor studios combined by folding central dividing screen away. 3 Interior skylit stair tower: landings and glass balconies are used by students for meetings and exercise. 4 Stair tower onto street. Dividing screen of metal mesh from gkd. Leadingthedance A new extension to a famousdance centre in the King’sCrossdistrict of London rationalizesa rather difficult site, addsspaciousnew studios, and providesa shop window that establishesitspresence locally. 1 2 3 4 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 73 -
  11. 11. 85 |6 ground floor plan (scale approx 1:950) 84 |6 alongEustonRoad. There are two large airystudiosoneachof the two levels, and another pair excavated out of the ground. Everypart of thisworkmanlike scheme ispermeated bythe quiet architectural intelligence characteristicof thispractice. Fromthe beginning, the architectsworked closelywith their professional clientsto work out proportionsand details(like the speciallydesigned studio barres, insectionshaped like an inverted eggto make themeasier to graspcorrectly). Studio wallsonthe north, facingstraight onto the hotel, are made of glassblockswhich diffuse light while maintaining privacy; and these translucent wallsare supplemented elsewhere by strategically placed windowsadmittingthe exterior. For the dancersthese studios are introverted placesfor south-north cross section west-east long section lower ground floor plan second floor plan first floor planisometric 1 entrance andstair tower 2 new studio 3 modernizedstudio 4 theatre 5 bar 6 theatre entrance 7 box office 8 backstage 9 dressingroom 10 changingroom 11 office DAN CE SCHOOL, KIN G’S CROSS, LON DON ARCHITECT ALLIES AN D MORRISON ARCHITECTS 5 Upper studio with glass block wall from Luxcrete to north, and Junckers sprung floor. intense concentration, but any sense of claustrophobiais dissipated by the subliminal impression of light, air and reflection off sprungfloorsand mirrored walls. Services– ventilationand acousticseparation– are carried bythe concrete structure. Onthe lower groundfloor, it was possible to eliminate the heavy central wall andreplace it witha foldingscreento create one enormousspace. Thisphase also includedrefurbishingand generallytidyingupthe existing building. Phase two consistsof work to the theatre andisdue for completionbythisautumn. P. M. Architects Allies and Morrison Architects, London Project architects Bob Allies, Graham Morrison, Eddie Taylor, Paul Appleton, Jo Bacon, Ben Elsdon, Stuart King, Adrian Morrow, Jane Parker, Oliver Ralphs, Pauline Stockmans, Ria Summerhayes Structural engineer Price and Myers Servicesengineer Max Fordham & Partners Photographs Dennis Gilbert/VIEW 5 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 74 -
  12. 12. 43 |642 |6 Oslo isone of the largest citiesin the world in termsof area. It stretchesfrom the neo- Classical core far up into the surrounding hills, where suburbsand forest increasingly blend. In the worst areas, thisleadsto slummification of the wild, but in the best parts, the two interact, bringinghumanity and nature into creative conjunction. Lund Hagem’stwo attached housesat Furulund are aprime example of such adialogue. The site issquarish, slopingfrom north to south, on acorner of two roadsin an area where nineteenth- and twentieth-century villasare scattered lightly through the woods. The basic plan of the new houseswas generated by the twin desire to preserve the 25 best treeson the plot, and to avoid overlookingand overshadowingby existing buildings. So the L-shaped housesare arranged to open onto adouble garden court which isdivided by athick (partly storage) wall which givesthem adegree of privacy from each other. The garden courtsface south-west, into awooded gap between existingbuildings. The housesare completely different in plan. The upper (more northerly) one is based on acorridor that runsat garden level, double and single sided, south-west from the entrance to acovered belvedere at the far end of the garden. En route, it passesthe master bedroom on the left, and the main family areawhich includeskitchen, diningand sittingand isdominated by alarge fireplace. Next to thisisasmall flight of stairswhich leadsdown to alittle private study. Above is the children’sarea, from where asecret stair in the chimney breast goesup to aroof terrace above the livingarea. The other house isfundamentally organized round the half levelsof itsstair. It hasacar port tucked into itsvolume, and it isentered from the same side asthe northern house. To the left isadouble- height study, and the stairsgo down to the TW O HOUSES, FURULUN D, OSLO, N ORW AY ARCHITECT LUN D HAGEM IN NORW EGIAN W OODS It may seem odd to start an issue on group housing with a pair of houses in an Oslo suburb, but these are so responsive to landscape, that they suggest many possibilitiesfor larger groupingsof houseswhich could pay similar attention to nature and human response to it. 1 Entrance front: blank and rather forbidding with windows hidden behind thin natural oak strips. Car port for southern house penetrates from road to private gardens. 2 Entrance to upper (northern) house: axial route to private natural world. 3 Keeping as many trees as possible was one of the key aims of design. N orthern house in foreground. 4 Southern house: studio seen from entrance. 5 Southern house: studio from garden. 6 Garden side of southern house. 1 2 3 4 5 6 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 75 -
  13. 13. 45 |644 |6 lowest level (scale approx 1:370) 1 entrance 2 living/kitchen 3 mainbedroom 4 study 5 garage 6 studio 7 gallerymezzanine 8 children 9 childen’scommonroom 10 cellar 11 car port TW O HOUSES, FURULUN D, OSLO, N ORW AY ARCHITECT LUN D HAGEM entrance levels north-south cross section through houses north-south section through north house garage and south house upper level [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 76 -
  14. 14. 47 |646 |6 7 Fireplace in living room of northern house. 8 Stair in southern house is organizing device for spatial flow. 9 Kitchen in southern house. 10 Garden side, southern house. 11, 12 Sitting area, southern house, with light washing over south wall, and window which brings trees into conversation. TW O HOUSES, FURULUN D, OSLO, N ORW AY ARCHITECT LUN D HAGEM children’slevel, where three sleeping cabinswith slidingdoorsopen off the communal area. They look out onto the garden court, to which each hasaccess through the glasswall. If, instead of going down to the children’sfloor, you go up, you arrive in the livingarea, which isthe spatial tour de force of the whole affair. Tall and long, it looksnorth towardsthe garden, but gainsmuch of itsatmosphere from a continuousrooflight which pours luminance down the largely blank south wall. A wide and generousbench follows the light and turnsat the south end to form the base of the fireplace which again dominatesthe sittingarea. Just at the turn, a large window issuddenly cut low into the wall to look out point blank into the branchesof a fine mature birch tree, which givesthe space privacy from the road. A further flight up from thislevel isthe main bedroom, slungover the car port where there isaccessto the mezzanine of the study. Another short stair leadsto the private roof terrace over the livingarea. Construction islightweight concrete block, rendered outside and in, with internal surfaceslightly dragged to give them texture. Upper floorson the entrance (east) side are clad in thin natural oak stripsof varying length and thickness; behind are small windowswhich get some light and glimpses of view through the slits. The effect from the road isdark and alittle austere, but once the wooden entrance doorsare open, the spaces are welcoming, with floorsof solid oiled ash, slate and oiled concrete, ash joinery and light birch slatted ceilings. Of course, such finisheswould be impossible in lessexpensive houses, aswould all the many subtle manoevresin plan and section. But the thoughtfulnesswith which site and family needshave been related do repay study, and could inform housingon a considerably larger scale. P.D. Architect Lund Hagem Arkitekter AS, Oslo Project team Svein Lund, Karine Denizou, Arvid Pedersen, Andreas Poulsson Photographs Espen Grønli, Jiri Havran, Morten Brun, Svein Lund 7 8 9 10 11 12 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 77 -
  15. 15. 47 |746 |7 TOUCHIN G N ATURE Encased in a carapace of weathered steel, a retirement house in the spectacular splendour of the Arizona desert appearspart of itsraw, elemental, landscape. 1 The gently angular peaks of the roof mimic the topography of the distant mountains. 2 Embedded in the slope, the house presents a modest profile from the approach road. 3 The shed-like volumesof the main house and itssmaller guest wing enclose an intermediate courtyard. 4 Courtyard is landscaped in a very precise fashion, with cubic planters and calm pools of water. 5 A weathered carapace of rusted steel cladding envelops the house. InsouthernArizona, close to the Mexicanborder, landscape and skycollide inanexhilarating rushof space andlight. This elevateddesert areaisknown for itsawesome summer lightningstormsandveryclear night skies(accountingfor the presence of several astronomical observatories). Withinthis extraordinarynatural arena, Rick Joyhasbuilt ahouse, atautly graphiccompositionof glassand planesof hoary, rustedsteel that sitslightlyandlow onthe ground, like alizardbaskingonarock. Hisclientswere acouple from Ohio who hadspent their holidaysinthe Southwest and become seducedbyitsvast, primeval landscapesto the point of commissioningaretirement home. Coveredwithscrub, native mesquite treesandlow wildgrasses, the desert site slopesgentlydownto the south. Inthe distance, snow-capped mountainsdelicatelyframe the horizon. Apart fromthe usual livingandguest spaces, the clients requestedtwo studies, areasfor entertainment andanoptical telescope platform(the husband isaformer radio astronomer and the site wasselectedasmuchfor itsnight-time view of crystal clear skiesasdaytime panoramas). All thishadto be containedona single floor. Joy’sresponse wasto carve a level shelf into the hill, definedby two U-shapedretainingwalls skewedtowardsone another. Thisestablishesadatumfor the house. The retainingwallsform the endsof two shed-like volumes(the maindwellinganda smaller guest house) that gently nudge into eachother, witha linear courtyardoccupyingthe intermediate space. Fromthe approachroad, onlythe glazed endsof the shedsare visible above the ground;at night these become glowingabstract forms, apparentlyhoveringinspace. A gravel-coveredgardenspiked withplumpcacti flanksthe entrance. To get in, youdescend throughastair wedgedinthe cleft betweenthe two retaining walls, to emerge inthe tranquillityof the courtyard below. Poolsof water and HOUSE, ARIZON A, USA ARCHITECT RICK JOY 1 2 3 4 5 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 78 -
  16. 16. 49 |748 |7 1 courtyard 2 entrance 3 living 4 kitchen 5 pantry 6 bedroom 7 study 8 workshop 9 garage 10 porch 11 pool 12 guest house cross section ground floor plan (scale approx 1:400) mesquite treesprovide cooling shade and the fragrant vegetation attractshummingbirdsand butterflies. The veryprecise detailingof the courtyard – concrete paving, crisply rectilinear plantersand cubic volumesof water – expresses the controlled, man-made character of the house against the rawnessand unpredictability of nature. At the west end of the courtyard, aswimmingpool extendsthe vistatowardsthe far distant horizon. The house’sorganization emphasizesthe connectionwith the exterior, asinternal and external spacesmeldfluidlywith one other. Flankedbythe courtyard, the mainlivingspace is alongbar withacoveredporch at itsfar endoverlookingthe swimmingpool. To the rear isthe master bedroomandbathroom andtwinstudies, whichface the courtyardbut also overlook a smaller private patio andpool, enclosedbythe retainingwall. Eachwindow exactlyfocusesand framesaparticular view;some windowsare set flushwiththe steel surface, some are box-like protrusions, some unglazedcut- outs. The smaller guest wingalso housesagarage andaplatform for anoptical telescope. Joylikensthe house to ageode, the coarsenessof the roughsteel exterior contrastingwiththe refinement of the interior. Used extensivelyinfarmbuildingsand structures, rustedsteel isa commonsight inthe Arizona countryside. Because of the intenselydryclimate, steel weathersquicklybut doesnot rust through, so it wasnot necessaryto use costly proprietarytypesof oxydized steel cladding. Fromadistance, the rough, redcarapace of the house isastrongyet familiar presence, resonatingwiththe huesof the desert. Inside, white plaster wallsandblack polished concrete floorsimpart asimple, understatedelegance. Pale maple, sandblastedglassandstainless steel complete the interior palette. Slidingglasspanels heightenthe connectionwiththe exterior andassist incross ventilation, althoughthe dwelling isalso air conditioned. Joy’s house extendsthe Modernist traditionof domesticatingnature, yet powerfullyrootedinthe landscape, it isalso sensitive to nuancesof aremarkable place. C. S. Architect Rick Joy, Tucson, USA Project team Rick Joy, Andy Tinucci, Franz Buhler, Chelsea Grassinger Structural engineer Southwest Structural Engineers Mechanical engineer Otterbein Engineering Photography Jeff Goldberg/Esto HOUSE, ARIZON A, USA ARCHITECT RICK JOY 6 Carefully placed openings frame, focus and edit views of the vast landscape beyond. 7 Main living and dining spaces. 8 An enclosed terrace and sensuous pool terminate the west end of the main house. 7 8 6 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 79 -
  17. 17. 35 |734 |7 Todaymore thanever the small house servesasatestingground for architectural ideas. Infew placesisthe groundso testing, so expensive, crowded, andprone to tremors, ascentral Tokyo. Andinfew societiesare ideas and, it might be added, trendsso tenaciouslypursuedasin contemporaryJapan. Kazuyo Sejima’sSmall House iseasily foundat the endof ashort cul-de- sacinTokyo’saffluent Aoyama district. It’saminiature tower containing77 square metresof floor areaonanallowable imprint of 36 (the site measures60 square metresinitsentirety). The house iswrappedin opalescent glassandgalvanized steel withavein-like standing seam. Fromthe lane, there are onlyglimpsesof life throughthe house’swesterntranslucent zone andoccasional small transparent panels. Furthermore, the clients claimtheydidnot want expansive viewsout, asthe house overlooks the Sonyestablishment where the husbandworksasaproduct designer. A vertical pavilion almost touchingitseasterly neighbour, the house bulgesin the middle, thentapersin towardsthe roof (aspace-age mansard?) anddowntowardsthe entrance. There the slope inward accommodates– to the centimetre – the family’ssilver- greyHondavan. To southandeast, the skinis mostlyopaque andhidesseveral service hatches. It ismade almost entirelyof glass;however, to the back andto the west, a landlockedlot belongingto an adjacent temple providesSejima’s clientswithviewsof greenery and, metaphoricallyat least, some breathingspace. The buildingis structuredabout anopensteel shaft withinner spiral stairs;both are paintedwhite. Eachfloor spreadsfromthistrunk to rest on thinsteel tubesslantedat varying URBAN HOUSE, TOKYO, JAPAN ARCHITECT KAZUYO SEJIMA & ASSOCIATES JAPAN ESE MIN IATURE W ith extraordinary invention and ingenuity, Kazuyo Sejima fitsthistiny house into the densely woven, indifferent texture of downtown Tokyo. Curiously, for all itsapparent wilfulness, it drawsitsoriginsfrom itsvery tight site. 1 A space-age mansard? 2 Form of house is generated by rights of light regulations. 3 House becomes transparent at the back, overlooking temple grounds. 4 Constant interplay between translucency and transparency. 5 Open steel shaft core.1 2 3 4 5 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 80 -
  18. 18. 36 |7 anglesabout the perimeter. The outer skinissimplylaidagainst thiscage. Groundlevel entry stepsare formedfromafolded plane of concrete;external metal rungsprovide service accessto the roof above. The architect hasdividedthe programme into four distinct elements. Inasemi-basement is the parents’ roomwithstorage recessedbeneaththe clerestorey fenestrationandatinylavatory. Raisedslightlyabove street level isthe hall andguest bedroom. On the piano nobile – the broadest andtallest space – are kitchen, diningandlivingquarters(one shelf hasaneye-catchingdisplay of recent Sonyproducts). The house terminatesinabipartite zone withacomparativelygrand bathroomandanenclosedroof terrace that looksacrossthe emptylot to the towersof Shinjukuinthe middle distance. The chamfered formof the Small House resultspartially fromneighbourhood zoningand sunlight demands:it’sa miniature cousinto Hugh Ferriss’s1920simagesof metropolitanmassing. The canted sidesare however determined more bySejima’s strategyof stacking, astrategy shared bysuchcurrent vanguard projectsasMVRDV’sDutch Pavilionat the Hanover EXPO (ARSeptember 2000). InSejima’s work, the envelope becomes fabricstretchingbetween differently-sized slabs. The floors themselvesare concrete, held betweenaningeniously engineered steel cage. basement (scale approx 1:120) ground floor plan north section south section 1 parking 2 entrance 3 guest 4 kitchen 5 living/dining 6 mainbath 7 enclosedterrace 8 mainbed 9 light court 6 House terminates in bipartite zone with grand bathroom and enclosed roof terrace. 7 Fundamentally, house is an inhabited flue. URBAN HOUSE, TOKYO, JAPAN ARCHITECT KAZUYO SEJIMA & ASSOCIATES Inaclimate prone to chilly wintersandwarm, rainy summers, the Small House has onlyafew operable windows, mostlyto the east. It isexpected to act asaninhabitedflue, warm air risingto be expelledupstairs. Floor-to-ceilingexpansesof glass are screenedbythinslipsof white curtain. Sejima’sindependent work, andthat inassociationwith Ryue Nishizawa, ismarkedby ostensiblycontradictory characteristics:it appearsboth functionalist andnatural, machine-like yet so delicate asto be almost ephemeral. Withthe large glasspanelstiltinginboth horizontal andvertical directions, the Small House seemslesslike a tree house andmore like atree itself, aweepingwillow perhaps. RAYMUND RYAN first floor plan second floor plan Architect Kazuyo Sejima & Associates, Tokyo Project team Kazuyo Sejima, Yoshitaka Tanase, Shoko Fukuya Structural engineer Sasaki Structural Consultants Photographs Courtesy of Shinkenchiku-Sha 6 7 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 81 -
  19. 19. 42 |8 43 |8 Honeycomb, flies’ eyes, frogspawn, cuckoo- spit – choose your organic simile. Built to contain biological specimens, the biomesof the Eden Project look like giant biological specimensthemselves, some kind of fungus from outer space, perhaps, fruitingweirdly in thisworked out Cornish chinaclay-pit. The design seemsto have been inspired by natural and/or science fiction imagesbut, though some Grimshaw buildingsare indeed image-inspired, in thiscase the impression is misleading. The inspiration wasnot what nature lookslike but how it works, its processesand structures. The fact that the Eden Project isaready-made set for Quatermassandthe Pit hasbeen useful in the marketingof the whole enterprise, but it wasaby-product rather than the starting point of the design. The greenhouseshad to be sited in the unshaded strip at the foot of the cliffson the north side of the pit. The first ideawasfor a linear, lean-to structure rather like Grimshaw’sInternational Terminal at Waterloo station (AR September 1993). This form posed anumber of problems, however. For one thingthe three-dimensional profile of the site, far more complicated than the level curve of Waterloo, meant that it was difficult to use cheap, standardized components. To make mattersworse, the ground profile wasconstantly changing duringthe development of the design, because the site had not yet been taken over by the client and wasstill beingquarried. A long-span, arched structure would have been heavy, bulky and difficult to carry down into the pit. It would also have cast unwanted EDEN PROJECT, CORNW ALL, ENGLAND ARCHITECT NICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & PARTNERS 1 The bug-eyed geodesic domes of the Humid Tropics Biome appear to engulf the grass roof of the café housed in the link building. 2 Like huge soap bubbles in the Cornish landscape, the interlinked domes have a beguiling (but deceptive) fragility. EDEN REGAIN ED Spectacularly colonizing a Cornish china clay-pit, the Eden Project isa monumental palm house for the twenty-first century, itsingeniously engineered biomesinspired by natural processesand structures. comparative drawing showing section through the Humid Tropics Biome and Kew Palm House 1 2 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 82 -
  20. 20. 45 |844 |8 shadowson the plantsinside. A more promisingalternative wasamuch lighter and more economical geodesic dome, but it had the wrongplan-form and would have been impossible to divide up into different zones. The ideaof aline of smaller, intersecting geodesic domeswasarrived at late in the day, but it solved all the problemsat once and made the project possible. It workslike this: take arow of spheresof different sizes, made like footballsout of two-dimensional hexagonsand pentagons, and squash them into one another, forming perfect circleswhere they intersect. Then squash the whole row into the site, in the angle between the cliff and the quarry bottom. Circlesbecome arches, and the hexagonsand pentagonsare removed as necessary around the perimeter to accommodate the irregular ground profile. Structural components, mainly of tubular steel joined by spherical nodes, are identical in each dome and small enough to be easily handled. These are not conventional domes in that they exhibit tensile aswell as compressive structural behaviour. The outer compressive grid islinked by tetrahedronsto an inner tensile grid. The double grid isnecessary because the lattice steel archesbreak the continuity of the structure. For the same reason, the domes were not self-supportingduringerection but had to be assembled from atemporary scaffold so bigthat it hasentered The GuinnessBook of Records. Thisisaslight disappointment for techno-organicists raised on Buckminster Fuller (nature does not use scaffolding), but there isnothing heavy or awkward about the finished structure. The geodesic grid isscaled accordingto the size of each dome and except in the smallest dome, where it becomesrather dense, the effect is amazingly light for such enormousspans. At the junctionswith the arches, the grid is adapted ad hoc, creatingirregular geometrical shapes. Architecturally, this may seem aworryinginconsistency, but it is exactly what happensin nature when, for example, the hexagonal grid of veinsin a dragonfly’swingmeetsaleadingedge or a structural spar. The largest hexagonsare 11m acrossand therefore impossible to span with asingle sheet of glass, especially since it would have to be double glazed and toughened. The lightnessof the structural grid ismade possible by anew high tech material – ethyltetrafluorethylene foil (ETFE). This light, transparent, flexible film formstriple- membrane cushionswhich are kept inflated by aconstant low pressure air supply. Because they were formed and fitted on site, the ETFEcushionscould adapt easily to geometrical variationswithout any need for complicated schedulingor production planning. The biomesare beautiful structuresbecause they are efficient structures– akind of beauty common in nature but rare in architecture. Like their humbler horticultural cousins, however, they also have arugged practicality. The branchingnetwork of flexible air-supply pipes, for example, is clipped to the structural steel memberswith no attempt at concealment. The heatingand ventilatingsystem simply consistsof free- standingair handlersin ordinary metal boxesplaced at intervalsaround the perimeter, pokingtheir twin circular ducts straight through the wallsof the domes. Such artlessfunctionalism iseasy to accept, though the heavy duty adjustable glass louvresassociated with the ductsare perhapsalittle too clumsy, their insistent linearity stubbornly at oddswith the fluidity of the geodesic grid. 3 Open ventilation panels form a jagged line along the biomes’ curved profile. 4 Café terrace and link building, with W arm Temperate Biome beyond. 5 Detail of biome roof structure, with quarry cliffs behind. The building occupies a worked-out china clay-pit. 6, 7 The smaller W arm Temperate Biome. EDEN PROJECT, CORN W ALL, EN GLAN D ARCHITECT N ICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & PARTN ERS 3 5 4 76 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 83 -
  21. 21. 47 |846 |8 site plan EDEN PROJECT, CORN W ALL, EN GLAN D ARCHITECT N ICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & PARTN ERS 8 Hexagonal roof structure under construction, giving some sense of the enormity of the scale. longitudinal section roof plan (scale approx 1:1500) A site accessroad B parking C coachparking D disabledparking E HumidTropicsBiome F linkbuilding/café G WarmTemperate Biome H visitors’centre 1 HumidTropicsBiome 2 air handlingunits 3 linkbuilding/café 4 roof lightsabove plant holdingarea 5 WarmTemperate Biome typical roof node detail 8 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 84 -
  22. 22. 49 |848 |8 But once inside the enormousbubblesof the Humid TropicsBiome, such detailsare insignificant. A windinggravel path climbsup through what will be adense forest (the plantingisstill immature) to abig, noisy waterfall. Though we can never quite imagine that thisisareal rainforest, it is neverthelessaunique spatial experience, certainly more like nature than architecture. The sheer size of the enclosure, the word ‘biome’ and the very name ‘Eden Project’ all lead you to expect acomplete ecosystem, or at least an approximation of one, but it soon becomesclear that thisisreally just a botanical garden, the Palm House at Kew writ large. There are no animals, apart from the crowdsof people. The neighbouring Warm Temperate Biome issmaller and more comfortable, not just because it is relatively cool and dry, but because the structure of the domesisclose enough to give it scale. It feelsmore human, more like architecture, though the technology is exactly the same. In early versionsof the design, the entrance to the biomeswashoused in a chain of very small domes. Thisproved to be too fussy and expensive, but it washard to imagine any kind of conventional building that would look comfortable between the bigdomes. The answer wasto bury the buildingin the ground, reducingit to afew simple planes– acurved, grass-covered roof, aglasscurtain wall and an entrance bridge leadingto afirst floor concourse overlookingrestaurantsbelow. Another curved, linear, earthbound buildingformsan artificial crest high on the opposite ledge of the pit. Visitorsarrive at the back of this buildingfrom the cascade of car parks beyond, pay their entrance feesand emerge onto aterrace, camerasat the ready for their first view of the whole site. From here they make their way down to the entrance bridge through arichly cultivated open air theatre – the ‘rooflessbiome’. Compared with the biomes, which expressacompelling engineeringlogic, the ancillary structures seem rather sketchy and artificial. The arrival building(AR August 2000), for example, which housesshops, cafésand offices, iselegant and well planned but its use of materialslike shingles, rammed earth (taken from the clay-pit) and gabions, seems more like asymbol of green construction than the real thing. But then the Eden Project isnot an architectural expo: it isatheatre in which humankind’srelationship with the plant world isdramatized. The specimen plants are magnificent, the garden arrangements are imaginative and the scale isbreathtaking. The crowdsin the biomessoon forget about the delicate net archinghigh over their heads. They have come to look at the plants, not the greenhouses. COLIN DAVIES Architect Nicholas Grimshaw & Partners, London Project team Nicholas Grimshaw, Andrew Whalley, Jolyon Brewis, Vincent Chang, David Kirkland, Michael Pawlyn, Jason Ahmed, Vanessa Bartulovic, Dean Boston, Chris Brieger, Antje Bulthaup, Amanda Davis, Florian Eckardt, Alex Haw, Perry Hooper, Bill Horgan, Oliver Konrath, Angelika Kovacic, Quintin Lake, Richard Morrell, Tim Narey, Monica Niggemeyer, Killian O’Sullivan, Debra Penn, Martin Pirnie, Juan Porral-Hermida, Mustafa Salman, Tan Su Ling Structural engineer Anthony Hunt Associates Services engineer Ove Arup & Partners Landscaping Land Use Consultants Glass louvres M&V Photographs All photographs were by Peter Cook/VIEW except no 7 by Chris Gascoigne/VIEW EDEN PROJECT, CORN W ALL, EN GLAN D ARCHITECT N ICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & PARTN ERS 9 Filled with luxuriant vegetation, the interior of the Humid Tropics Biome is a lush expanse of greenery. 10 The delicate net of the roof gracefully encloses the planting. 11 Like a heroically-engineered set out of a science fiction film, the Eden Project isboth surreal and breathtaking. 9 10 11 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 85 -
  23. 23. 83 |7 MEWSHOUSEEXTENSION, SOUTHKENSINGTON,LONDON ARCHITECT ZIGGURAT Modernistmews AdiminutivemewshouseinLondonbuiltinthe1970shasbeenenlarged, transformedwitheleganceandagreatdealofingenuity. 1 Toplitdiningroomandtablefixed toslidingdoortocourtyard. 1 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 86 -
  24. 24. 85 |784 |7 MEW S HOUSE EX TEN SION , SOUTH KEN SIN GTON , LON DON ARCHITECT ZIGGURAT 1 entrance 2 bedroom 3 bathroom 4 kitchen 5 living 6 dining 7 study 8 courtyard gallery plan south-north long section ground floor plan and internal elevation (scale approx 1:100) Aningeniousscheme, byZiggurat, for extendingatinymewshouse inSouthKensington, enlargesthe vertical dimensionanduseslight to draw out the horizontal. The original house wasbuilt as one ofapair inthe 1970s, on derelict land. Stuccoedexternally to accordwithitsVictorian neighbours, the house wasone storeyhighwithfour roomsand verylittle natural light. The front ofthe building, withbedroom, bathroom, entrance lobbyand hall, wasretainedwithsome remodelling;the remainder ofthe buildingwasvirtuallydemolished. Behindthe existingremnant, Ziggurat excavatedandlowered 2 Dining room, stairs to gallery bedroom and television recessed into wall under stairs. 3, 5 Dining table and sliding door to courtyard is one assembly. 4 Dining room under curved ceiling. Bedroom gallery above. the floor level several feet, and createdadouble-height volume witharoofthat curvesawayfrom the street, so that externallythe buildingseemsunchanged. A glass wall marksdivisionbetweenthe house andatinycourtyard, paintedwhite to become an exterior roomdiffusingluminance back into the house. Ziggurat has cleverlyestablishedashifting diagonal axisthroughthe plan, fromthe entrance andhall onthe south-west side ofthe buildingto the radiant white courtyard. The progressionthroughthe house is one fromdimnessto bright light, fromenclosedspace to itssudden dramaticexpansionandcolour. At the front ofthe new volume, the architectsinstalledagallery containingsleepingquarters. The bedroomispartlyenclosedbya cut-out wall, paintedmint green, andlooksonto adouble-height diningroomset under the reflective curve ofthe new roof. Beneaththe galleryisaliving roomandsmall kitchen;andfitted under the stairsto the bedroomis acurveddesk formingatinystudy. To have insertedso muchdrama anddelight into suchasmall space isanachievement, andthe scheme hasbeenexecutedwithagreat deal ofelegance. Materialsare simple – paintedwallsandabeech floor flowinginto concrete asit approachesthe courtyard– and the composition, whichhasthe clarityofanearlyModernist work, issharpenedbyuse ofcolour here andthere. Detailsare constantly intriguing:the diningtable that is part ofaslidingdoor to the courtyard, the sinuousconcrete bench, like apiece ofsculpture, liningandseemingpart ofthe courtyardwall, andthe rotating door to the kitchen, which simultaneouslyturnsout to be a cupboard. Architect Ziggurat, London Project architects Andrei Bowbelski, James Davis with Laurence Guerrini, Areti Theofanopoulou Structural engineers Whitby Bird and Partners – Special Projects Photographs James Morris 2 3 5 4 5 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 87 -
  25. 25. 51 |850 |8 Immediatelybehindthe BrandenburgGate lies Pariser Platz (ARJanuary1999), the great urbanpiazzathat terminatesthe triumphal axisof Unter denLinden. Before the War, it wasthe grandest square inBerlin, site of the AmericanandFrenchembassies, the Adlon Hotel, the Akademie der Künste andblocksof luxuriousflatsandoffices. After the War and the Wall, it waslaidwaste andbecame part of Berlin’sdeadlyno-man’sland. Since German reunificationit hasbeenrebuilt inanattempt to emulate the spirit of itsgrandurbanpast, withnew embassies, hotels, andoffice blocks slottedback into the original street pattern. The rulesof reconstruction, whichstipulate constraintssuchaseavesheights, proportions andmaterials(obligatorystone cladding), do not allow muchscope for formal experiment. The result isthat Pariser Platz’snew occupantsresemble acollectionof rather bland, expensivelydressedguestsmingling politelyat anupmarket cocktail party. The introductionof Frank Gehryinto the mix might intheorybe calculatedto induce an element of racinessandunpredictability, but he too hasbeenobligedto conformto the dresscode. BeingGehryhowever, he hasstill managedto springafew surprises. The genesisof the project datesback to 1995, whenGehry’scompetitionentryfor Berlin’shistoricMuseumIslandwasunder consideration. At that time, the DG Bank invitedhimandsix othersto produce a proposal for the bank’snew Berlin headquarters. The brief includedfinancial offices, apartmentsandsemi-autonomous conference spacesthat couldbe hiredout to corporate clients. Gehrydidnot prevail inthe museumcompetition, but hisdesignfor the DG Bank wonunanimousapproval. The site liesonthe southside of the square, inthe middle of Pariser Platz’sevolvingurban jigsaw. The rectangular block ishemmedinon itslongsidesbyBehnisch’snew Akademie der Künste andMoore Ruble Yudell’sAmerican Embassy, withthe short endsoverlooking Pariser Platz andBehrenstrasse. The organizationof the new buildingisalogical response to the constraintsof site andbrief. A necklace of office spacesextendsaround three sidesof the perimeter, enclosingahuge atriumspace (of whichmore later). The residential annexe, whichhasitsownseparate entrance, isplacedonthe fourthside overlookingBehrenstrasse andasite that will eventuallyhouse the Memorial to the MurderedJewsof Europe. Flatsrange insize 1 N ew DG Bank headquarters in the shadow of the Brandenburg Gate. 2 Massive bank facade exudes an austere monumentality that conveys little sense of life within. 3 Breathtaking main atrium. GEHRY’S GEODE The new DG Bank headquartersin Berlin formspart of the wider and ongoing reconstruction of Pariser Platz – but itsurban sobriety hidesa rich inner life, animated by the interplay of light, form and materials. BANK OFFICES & FLATS, BERLIN, GERMANY ARCHITECT FRANK O. GEHRY 3location plan 1 2 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 88 -
  26. 26. 53 |852 |8 fromstudiosto larger maisonettesandare separatedfromthe officesbyanelliptical void enclosedbyaswirling, shimmeringglasswall suspendedfromthe roof that cascadesdown to apool below. Two glazedliftsglide upand downthroughthe voidlike air bubbles. Gehryhasclearlytakenthe Pariser Platz dresscode to heart;bothbank andapartment facadesare modelsof sobrietyandseverity. The apartment block ismarginallyless austere, steppingback asit risesover 10 storeyswithfacetedbaywindowslike concertinasanimatingthe wall plane. But the mainbank facade overlookingPariser Platz is anutterlyplain, utterlystrippeddown compositionof creamybuff limestone (to matchthe BrandenburgGate) andglass. Openingsare punchedinto the stone to create deeplyrecessedwindowsthat slide back at the touchof abuttonto reveal terracesenclosedbyblade-like glass balustrades. Cladin4 inchthick stone, the bank facade isalmost asshockinginitssolid, rationalist monumentalityasGehry’s signature sinuousnessanditsextreme weight andabstractiononlyserve to show upthe flimsinessof the surroundingpastiche. Ironically, inBerlin’straumatizedcityscape, suchsolidityalso embodiesareassuringsense of permanence andinstitutional stability, doubtlessimportant concernsfor Gehry’s banker clients. (‘The bank guyslovedit’, he observed, ‘althoughit cost themalot of moneyto do it’.) Sadly, most Berlinerswill never see beyond thismassive stone wall to the real dramaand spatial pyrotechnicswithin. Radically upturninghisexpressive gestural vocabulary andrelocatingit to the interior, Gehryhas hadto pour hisdesigninto the cavityof the perimeter block. Here, Californianad-hocism meetsthe Europeanmasterplan. The inside is scoopedout to formanimmense atrium– allegedlyone of the largest inthe world– enclosedbyadelicate steel andglasslattice, improbablymorphedandwarpedto forma barrel-vaultedroof canopythat curvesintwo directions. Withinthe atriumisafree- standingstructure like agiant horse’shead rearingandwrithingthroughthe space. Encasedinathinskinof stainlesssteel, this extraordinaryobject containsaconference chamber. The inner surface islinedwithstrips of redoak (finelyperforatedfor acoustic reasons), so beinginside the chamber islike beingcocoonedinside acontortedship’shull. The regimentedorthogonalityof the exterior extendsto the perimeter offices, whichare edgedbyaseriesof arcadeslinedwithred- oak veneer. Fromthese vantage points, the squirmingbiological specimenof the conference chamber canbe fullyappreciated. Beneaththe shell of the chamber isa basement level containingalecture theatre, alongwiththe bank’scafeteriaandalarge foyer;these canbe combinedto create a BAN K OFFICES AN D FLATS, BERLIN , GERMAN Y ARCHITECT FRAN K O. GEHRY 7 Officesare arranged around perimeter, overlooking a writhing horse’shead conference chamber and glassroof enclosing staff cafeteria at lower ground level. 8 Staff cafeteria, which can also be used as a banqueting and meeting space. 9 Clad in a thin skin of burnished steel, the conference chamber appears to float in the vast space. 10 Seductive play of form and materials. BANK OFFICES & FLATS, BERLIN, GERMANY ARCHITECT FRANK O. GEHRY 4 Rippling concertina facade of the apartment block steps back as it rises. 5 W indows are punched deep into the bank wall. Blade-like glass balustrades enclose terraces. 6 Atrium is framed by a gridded arcade. 4 5 6 7 9 8 10 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 89 -
  27. 27. 55 |8longitudinal section BANK OFFICES & FLATS, BERLIN, GERMANY ARCHITECT FRANK O. GEHRY 11 Inside warped hull of conference chamber. cross section54 |8 lower ground floor plan ground floor plan (scale approx 1:1000) first floor plan fourth floor plan fifth floor plan ninth floor plan 1 staff cafeteria 2 executive dining 3 kitchen 4 foyer 5 lecture theatre 6 rampto parkingbelow 7 bankentrance 8 bankoffices 9 conference chamber 10 apartmentsentrance 11 lift lobby 12 apartments 11 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 90 -
  28. 28. 56 |8 generousspace suitable for banquetsand meetings. Another warpedglasscanopy, smaller cousinto the mainroof, encloses these spacesallowinglight to percolate down to the lower levels. (Duringthe course of site excavationsAlbert Speer’sbunker was discovered, but no trace of it now remains.) AswithGehry’sother projects, the translationof initial ideasto built formis achievedthroughadesignandconstruction processthat combinessophisticated computer software programswithacraft approachto building. Initial generative sketches, whichdefyconventional logicand geometry, must be painstakinglyinterpreted asaprecise systemof co-ordinatesand knownstructural andmaterial properties. Gehrydevelopshisideasslowly, fromrough drawingsthroughanexhaustive seriesof handmade models. Usingthe Catiaprogram to represent complex three-dimensional objects, these crude woodandcardboard mock-upsare scannedinto the computer and digitallytranslatedback into workingmodels anddrawings. Employedasaninstrument of translationrather thangenerative device, the computer enablesthe representationand manipulationof that whichcannot otherwise be drawn. Inthiscase, unusually, the exterior presentedno suchchallenges, but the glass roofsandconference chamber provedtestsof designandmanufacturingingenuity. The triangulatedspace frame of the roof ismade upof solidstainlesssteel rodsthat formsix pointedstarsscrewedinto nodal connectors. The complex geometryof the roof meant that the rodsmeet at different angles, so to match themprecisely, the nodal connectorswere cut from70mm-thick stainlesssteel plate by computer-controlledmillingmachines. The frame isinfilledby1500 triangular glazing panelsbeddedonneoprene gaskets. The conference chamber iscladina2mmskinof brushedstainlesssteel plates(basic dimensions2mx 4m) stretchedandfashioned byskilledboatbuildersto accommodate the conflationof complex, bulbousforms. Superficially, thismight well appear a conservative building, but clearlyit isanything but. Inthe extreme andstartlingcontrast betweenitsouter andinner life, it resembles some kindof weirdrock or geode that, split open, revealsaspectacular mineral formation. It istemptingto see the entire exercise asa metaphor for Berlin– beneaththe haughty Prussianexterior liesdecadence and debauchery– but after all it isonlyabank and the morphological conspicuousnessof the conference spacesisperhapsasmuchto do withcommercial viabilityasbeingvehiclesof architectural imagination. Yet inthe decorous context of Pariser Platz, it isdefinitelyone of the more unorthodox andwelcome guests. CATHERINESLESSOR Architect Gehry Partners, Santa Monica, USA Project team Frank O. Gehry, Randy Jefferson, CraigWebb, Marc Salette, Tensho Takemori, Laurence Tighe, Eva Sobesky, George Metzger, Jim Dayton, John Goldsmith, JorgRuegemer, Scott Uriu, Jeff Guga, Michael Jobes, Kirk Blaschke, Nida Chesonis, Tom Cody, Leigh Jerrard, Tadao Shimizu, Rick Smith, Bruce Shepard Associate architect PlanungsAG – Neufert Mittmann Graf Structural engineers Ingenieur Büro Müller Marl Schlaich Bergermann & Partner Servicesengineer Brandi Ingenieure Facade consultant Planungsbüro für Ingenieurleistungen Photographs All photographsby Christian Richtersapart from 1 and 5 which are by Waltraud Krase 12 Glazed wall of conference chamber. 13 Curving steel and glass lattice of barrel- vaulted roof gracefully encloses atrium. 14 Apartment block is arranged around an elliptical void. BANK OFFICES & FLATS, BERLIN, GERMANY ARCHITECT FRANK O. GEHRY 12 13 14 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 91 -
  29. 29. 75 |8 m at er ialit y Makino Museumof Plantsand People isspread over the gentle slopesof Mt Godai above Kochi Cityonthe island of Shikoku. Designed byNaito Architect & Associates, the place isdedicated to the memoryof Tomitaro Makino, eminent scholar and father of Japanese botany. This inspiration, the museum’s botanical purpose, and the fact that Kochi Prefecture isan important timber-producing region, suggested wood asthe mainmaterial for construction, and Naito’smanipulationof it has produced structuresof extraordinarypoeticpower. Because of complex land ownershipthe museumwassplit into two parts:amuseumwith researchfacilitiesand an exhibitionhall;withthe two linked bya170mcorridor. To disturbthe landscape as little aspossible, bothbuildings are low and sinuous, their organicformshuggingthe mountaincontoursso that they seemalmost apart of the topography. Suchformspresent little resistance to the salt-laden windsto whichthe site is exposed and constructiontakes account of the region’s occasionallysevere storms. Neither buildingistaller than surroundingtrees. The site, anangular S-shape, stretchesacrossthe mountain fromthe museumonthe west to the laboratoryonthe east. Both Doublecurvature A museum on the island of Shikoku, Japan, hugsthe contoursof itsmountain site and celebratesthe organic through form, materialsand contents. 1 Upper deck of main museum building with central well. Deck of local silvery cypress responds to silver roof of zinc and stainless steel. 2 Exterior of exhibition hall. 3 Exhibition room of exhibition building. MUSEUM, SHIKOKU, JAPAN ARCHITECT NAITO ARCHITECT & ASSOCIATES site plan: museum to left, exhibition hall to right 1 2 3 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 92 -
  30. 30. 76 |8 buildings, eachonplanlooking like afossil, wrapround acentral courtyard and are covered with continuouslycurvingroofs. Spun round the courtyardsare galleries, cafés, meetingrooms, officesand so on. The museumis equipped withalaboratory, libraryand studies. Enclosingthe buildingswith sinuouswallsof reinforced concrete, hollow steel sections formridges, eavesand columns, spanningbetweenridgesand eaveswithlaminated wooden beamsof Douglasfir. The roofs’ complex geometrymeant that eachbeamisdifferent, connected at the ridge bycast metal jointswhichallow for variationsinangle. During design, wind-tunnel tests, simulatingthe effectsof asevere typhoon, were carried out, exertingapressure of over aton per square metre onpartsof the roofsand buildingframes adjusted accordingly. Roofsare typhoon-proof withlaminated panelsof zincand stainlesssteel, their unique dimensionsand formsachieved bycomputer- aided design. Asafurther precautionagainst Kochi’swinds and rain, the architectsdevised a special gutteringsystembetween eachpanel. Sensuallythe interiorsand exteriorsof the buildingsare distinct. Externally, the smooth silveryformsof the roofsemerge fromvegetationinserpentine manner. Internally, the wonderful scale and articulations of the sweepingroof dominate. Unlike itscool external carapace, itsunderside iswarmand red, sheathed inthe inner surfacesof Kochi-grownJapanese cedar (sugi). The upper level of the mainmuseumbuildingextends out onto adeck where the wood changesinresponse to the roof covering, to local silvery Japanese cypress(hinoki). P. M. Architect Naito Architect & Associates, Tokyo Project architects Hiroshi Naito, Nobuharu Kawamura, Tetsuya Kambayashi, Daijirou Takakusa, Taku Yoshikawa Structural engineer Kunio Watanabe, Structural Design Group Photographs Kazunori Hiruta/Naito Architect & Associates museum section exhibition hall section upper level plan of museum exhibition hall plan museum ground floor plan (scale approx 1:750) 1 mainentrance 2 deck 3 shop-restaurant 4 audio-visual hall 5 meetingroom 6 gallery 7 studio 8 study 9 machine room 10 Japanese room 11 office 12 laboratory 13 library 14 bookstacks 15 storage 16 courtyard 17 lecture hall MUSEUM, SHIKOKU, JAPAN ARCHITECT NAITO ARCHITECT & ASSOCIATES 4 Interiors are dominated by sweeping wooden roof. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 93 -
  31. 31. 39 |7 One of the few Modernistsof the postwar generation to continue workingin the Heroic tradition, Harry Seidler isbest known for hisinnovative and sometimescontroversial urban high-rise structures(see for instance AR August 1991 and June 2001). At the other end of the scale, Seidler also hasan outstanding record of house designs, of which thisrecently completed holiday house in the Southern Highlandsof New South Wales isthe latest. He wasacquainted asastudent in the USwith such luminariesasGropius, Breuer, Albersand Niemeyer. His early career in Sydney was distinguished by carefully sited timber-framed houses, strongly influenced by Breuer’sNew England work; they fitted surprisingly well with Australian buildingtraditions. Thishouse owesmore to Niemeyer, with whom Seidler worked in Brazil, and to Seidler’s own later inclination asamature architect towardssculpted and bold forms. It standsin direct opposition to the more modest and restrained tradition of contemporary Australian residential architecture established by Glenn Murcutt, Philip Cox and Rex Addison, whose sophistication and foreign influencesare mostly concealed by more obviousregional elements. Situated in the midst of wildernessand dramatically poised on the crest of ared sandstone escarpment overlookingariver, Seidler’s design assertsitself asaself- consciously Modern work, shaped asmuch by aglobal culture and technology asby the rugged landscape it inhabits so forcefully. Seidler achievesthissplendidly confident result through a number of classic Modernist devices. A simple, ‘L’-shaped plan accommodatesbedrooms, bathroomsand other private roomsin the shorter legalonga north-south axisat the rear, parallel with the cliff. Living, diningand kitchen are grouped in one large space in the other, longer legpointingwestwards over the cliff edge. Functional and spatial division into cellular and open plan spacesisfurther marked by a drop in floor level from east to west which followsthe fall in the rocky plateau. The north-south axisisalso picked up again by a 1 Vertiginously poised on the crest of a rocky escarpment, the house forcefully inhabitsthe landscape. 2 The long leg of the L-shaped plan, containing the main living, dining and kitchen spaces, pointswestwardsover the cliff edge. 3 Curved roof planesgracefully envelop the house, like a gentle wave. AUSTRALIAN CLIFFHANGER Teetering on the edge of a cliff, Harry Seidler’slatest remarkable house isan assertive work in the tradition of Heroic Modernism, shaped equally by global culture and technology and local influencesfrom site and place. 38 |7 1 2 3 HOUSE, SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS, NSW , AUSTRALIA ARCHITECT HARRY SEIDLER & ASSOCIATES [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 94 -
  32. 32. 41 |740 |7 swimmingpool cut out of the rock to the north and by a separate garage to the south, the two beinglinked by acontinuous sandstone retainingwall running under the house, where it forms part of the basement. A differentiation of the structure from heavy below (reinforced concrete floors, random rubble wallsand fireplaces) to lightweight above (steel superstructure) helpsto root the house securely into itssite. Thisclassic design iscombined with more recent concernswith energy efficiency, the isolated house beingby necessity relatively self-sufficient in power, heat and water supply, as well aswaste management and bush fire sprinklers(which are fed from the swimming pool/reservoir). What turnsthisessentially straightforward and mostly familiar configuration into stunningspectacle, isSeidler’s handlingof the curved, overhanginglinesof the white painted steel roof, which seems to float above the rest of the house and the yawningspace beyond the cliff, defyinggravity. Made from curved steel beams with differingradii usingnew industrial technologiesand covered with corrugated steel roofingbent to suit – alocal touch there – the sculptured roof shapesloudly proclaim an artistic intent aswell asmodern technique. A suspended steel balcony thrustingitsway out below the dippingroof line from the livingspace invitesvisitors (those who don’t suffer from vertigo that is) to step out into the void and reinforcesthe generally assertive tone of the design. Heroic Modernism is dead?Not in Seidler’shands. CHRISABEL Architect Harry Seidler & Associates, Milsons Point, NSW, Australia ground floor plan (scale approx 1:300) longitudinal section 4 Pool and terrace enclosed by a random rubble wall. 5 Living space is a glazed eyrie with breathtaking views. A suspended steel balcony enhances the drama. 4 5 HOUSE, SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS, NSW , AUSTRALIA ARCHITECT HARRY SEIDLER & ASSOCIATES [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 95 -
  33. 33. ar house Asanarchitect, Werner Sobek is informedbyhisconvictionthat, informulatinganarchitecture that istrulymodern, whichhasa radical andpositive relationship withthe natural environment and inhabitants, architectsmust make demandsonthe wealthof technologies, materialsand techniquesavailable, rather than havingrecourse to tradition. (He hasnever forgottenFrei Otto’s heartfelt plea, made inaspeech for the Schinkel celebrationsin 1977:‘Will youplease stop buildingthe wayyouhave been doing’). Thishouse inRömerstrasse, designedbySobek for himself and hisfamily, isset onasteephillside overlookingStuttgart. Risingfour storeyshighout of light woodland, it isapure crystalline box whichat night becomesan illuminatedbeacon. Inspite of appearances, it isagreenbuilding, made of recyclable components; it isfree fromnoxiousemissions andenergyefficient. The slopingsite presented problems, for aswell asbeingat the edge of the hillside, it wasat the end of, and some distance from, asteep narrow road. It contained adilapidated and dangerousstructure datingfrom the early ’20swhich had to be demolished with light equipment and agreat deal of manual labour. But it provided a footprint for new foundations– aconcrete raft with built-in frost apron over achannel for cables and pipelines. Most of the foundation work had to be done by hand. There isno basement, so the buildingdid not require deep excavations. HOUSE, STUTTGART, GERMANY ARCHITECT W ERNER SOBEK PHOTOGRAPHS ROLAND HALBE 1 Lowest floor opens onto deck, but access … 2 … is by bridge to topmost level. 3 Modern glass and a sophisticated environmental control system make interior equable. Crystalbox Houseschart the continuing, century-old romance of architecture and glass. Thisisan elegant, ecologically aware addition to the canon.1 2 3 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 96 -
  34. 34. HOUSE, STUTTGART, GERMANY ARCHITECT W ERNER SOBEK long sectionsite plan Beingmodular, the buildingcould be erectedquickly, (and, equally, dismantledandrecycled). A steel frame stiffenedbydiagonal membersstandsonthe concrete floor slab. The entire four-storey frame wasassembledinfour days. Floorsof prefabricatedwooden panelswere thensimplyplaced betweenbeams, againwithout screwsor bolts. Beingmodular, loadbearingandnon-loadbearing elementsare heldtogether by easilydetachable connections. There isno plaster or screedso no wet-trade waste. Andno concealedinstallations– cabling andpipelinesare containedin sheet metal ductingalongwalls. Insteadof light switches, fittings, door or window handles, the house isactivatedbytouchless radar sensorsandvoice control. The buildingisentirely transparent for, inadditionto the suspendedtriple-glazedskin, there are no internal wallsand space isdefinedbyafew, strategicallyplacedpiecesof furniture. Entrance isfroma cross section structural junction bridge to the fourthfloor and kitchenanddiningroom. Below, are livingquarters, andbelow again, mainbedroom, with children’sandservice roomson the lowest level. All floorsare linkedbythe vertical stairwell. To create suchahouse, the architect hadto devise anew way of managingenergywithout compromisingaestheticideals andcomponents, eachby themselvesinnovatory, are workedinto acoherent system. Triple glazing, withcoatedpanels, hasak-value of 0.4. Solar radiationpassingthroughthe facade isabsorbedbywater- cooledceilingpanelsandthe energytransportedthrougha heat exchanger to aheat accumulator whichhelpswarm the house inwinter. Ceiling panelsact asthermal radiators and, saysSobek, there isno need for additional heating. Bathrooms are containedinacubicunit, two storeyshigh;andall operations like flushing, openingdoors, water flow andtemperature, are controlledbysensorslinkedto a central computer. Sobek saysthat the house was never intendedto be auniversal model – after all not everyone wouldchoose to live inwhat wouldappear to be anelegant fishbowl. But it isanexperiment that worksverywell onmany levelsandwhichhasprovidedthe practice withthe opportunityof developingideasfor the future. Asanexquisite architectural essay, it isaverypersonal manifestationof architectural, artisticandsocial convictions. V. G. Architect Werner Sobek, Stuttgart Project architects Zheng Fei, Robert Brixner Structure and facade Ingo Weiss Photographs Roland Halbe Böhelmstrasse 45 70199 Stuttgart Germany Tel: 0711-607 40 73 Fax: 0711-607 41 78 Mobile: 0172-711 580 Email: third floor: cooking and dining second floor: living first floor: sleeping ground floor: workshops (scale 1:200) 4 Top floor – entrance from bridge is to right of void. 5 Living floor: note bathroom, left. 6,7 House is a series of horizontal planes in space: planes radiate heat in winter and absorb it in summer. Some glass wall panes can be opened for direct ventilation. 4 5 6 7 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 97 -
  35. 35. m at er ialit y 1 In Ginza, Tokyo’sprestigious shopping area, Hermès’ calm authority contrastswith more strident traditional shopping. 2 Discreet entrance. Glassblocks in the huge wall are intended to show imperfectionsof craftwork. 3 At night, the building radiates territory around itself, a new public space determined by event, not geometry. With well-dressed bodies sleepingrough on the street outside, two daysbefore its doorsopened to the public, Hermès’ new Tokyo flagship store can clearly disregard Japan’scurrent economic recession, the most serious since the war. Thisbuilding’sinspiration was asmuch cultural ascommercial, an expression of the principles that have underlain Hermès productsfor generations– handmade craftsmanship and quality materials– and the way that these characteristicsare consistent with the historic architecture of Japan. It iswithin thiscontext that Renzo Piano established his design. With amuseum, gallery and cinema, thisiseffectively a themed public buildingrather than purely acommercial space. By day, the curved planesof the glass-block veil flicker and glisten and transform the chaotic streetsoutside into subtle shadeswhen viewed from within. By night, the building becomeswhat Piano describes as‘amagic lantern’ – avast glowingcrystal that establishes, by the light it radiates, a territory around itself – anew public space in acity that conceivesof such thingsas placesof event, rather than urban geometry. Suspended Japaneselantern Tokyo’snew Hermèsbuilding isasmuch a cultural centre asa big shop, and it isbecoming a significant moment in the city’splay. Piano’scombination of high technology and handcraft humaniseslarge urban intervention. SHOP, GIN ZA, TOKYO, JAPAN ARCHITECT REN ZO PIAN O BUILDIN G W ORKSHOP PHOTOGRAPHS MICHEL DEN AN CÉ/ARCHIPRESS 1 2 3 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 98 -
  36. 36. SHOP, GIN ZA, TOKYO, JAPAN ARCHITECT REN ZO PIAN O BUILDIN G W ORKSHOP PHOTOGRAPHS MICHEL DEN AN CÉ/ARCHIPRESS shop level plan (scale approx 1:250) sketch detail of glass-block wall (scale approx 1:15) from the top, the glassveil expressesmassbut at the same time defiesgravity – itssupport system beingimperceptible. And, on thislong, narrow site – only 12m wide – the translucent wall createsinterior spacesthat are both intimate and infinite. Thiswasnot easily done. The glassblocksare the largest ever made – 450mm square – cast in Italy, then hungin Tokyo in a steel frame transported from Switzerland. It isamarriage of handcraft and high-precision engineering, each block being unique – the glasspoured by hand into single-sided moulds, leavingdifferent flow-linesand imperfections– adifferentiation that iscrucial to Piano’svision that thisproject be clearly the work of artisans. The large size of the blocks wasdetermined by Piano’swish that thisbe perceived asa translucent wall, not asanet of opaque horizontal and vertical joints. For the same reason, he rejected assemblingthe blocks within asteel-frame super grid that preventslower blocksbeing crushed by those above. Instead, each block issupported individually between slender steel barsthat are silvered on each side face, renderingthem all but invisible, and which allow 4mm movement at every joint, in both directions, to cope with seismic disturbances. Integral to thisconcept isthe revolutionary flexible design of the building’slong, thin structural steel frame. At 50m tall and with amain structural span of only 3.8m, the unusual slendernessof the structure resultsin high overturning momentsduringan earthquake and high levelsof tension in the columns. The engineer, Ove Arup & Partners, found inspiration in the tall, thin wooden Buddhist pagodasof Japan. Recordsshow that, in the past 1,400 years, only two have collapsed – believed to be because the columnsare discontinuousfrom floor to floor. In the Hermèsbuilding, the same principle wasadopted, with the columnson one side of the frame beingheld in base jointsthat allow uplift and rotation simultaneously and seismic energy to be absorbed by viscoelastic dampers. Thisis the first buildingof modern timesto have columnsthat lift off the ground in an earthquake. One particularly fascinating aspect of the interior spacesis the way that, despite the different palette of Piano and RenaDumas– the interior designer of Hermès’ shops worldwide, includingthe lower five floorsof the Ginzabuilding– there isconvincingconsistency between all parts, which Piano describesasthe consistent ‘vibrationof work done byhand’. Dumas’ spacesare elegant, discretely lit arrangementsof fine wooden furniture and precioustactile materials, generously spaced to reveal the glass-block perimeter wall at all times. Piano’supper levelsare handcrafted in an entirely different tradition, with precisely detailed partition systems, minimalistic steel-frame doors, exposed light fittingsand electric raceways– all rigorously controlled, and meticulously fabricated and assembled. These different, but complementary, approachesto spacemakingare united, appropriately, by the productsthey display, the works of the painstakingHermès craftsmen. TOM HENEGHAN cross section 4,5 The glassveil givesAlice in W onderland quality to spaces, in which all elementsare detailed with great precision. 6 Glassblocksare the largest ever made, and are cast individually by hand (standard blocks, left). W hole glassveil issuspended, and can flex in earthquakes. 4 6 5 1 shop 2 atelier 3 office 4 exhibition 5 plant 6 storage Architect, landscape and interiors Renzo Piano Building Workshop with Rena Dumas Architecture Intérieure (Paris) Design team (architecture) P Vincent, L Couton, G Ducci, P Hendier, SIshida, F La Rivière, C Kuntz, C Colson, Y Kyrkos Structure and servicesconsultant Ove Arup & Partners Photographs Michel Denancé, Archipress, 16 rue de la Pierre Levée 75011 Paris France Tel: (1) 43 38 51 81 Fax: (1) 43 55 01 44 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 99 -
  37. 37. 51 |750 |7 1 Looking from patio to living area with screen drawn back. 2 Pool in living area acts as separation between formal and more private parts of house, as well as throwing light upwards. 3 Living area: combination of Oriental and W estern formality. SIN GAPORE SITE A tall thin house in the Singapore suburbssuggestsnew patternsof development which will increase density, much needed in a tightly-packed island. But it drawson Chinese tradition and abstractsfrom it. HOUSE, SIN GAPORE ARCHITECT SCDA ARCHITECTS Land isat apremium in the island state of Singapore, so permitted densitieshave been allowed to rise in the suburbs. Asaresult, new individual housescan be more tightly packed together and made taller than what wasallowed before. So the Tengresidence, designed for asingle professional man and hismother, hasaparti which almost totally coversthe plot, leavingonly enough room for a patio at the front of the house and longthin gardensat side and back. Such little stripsof open land would seem very mean in other latitudes, but at the equator, where there isvertical sun and luxuriant vegetation, they can work and be pleasant to look into, if not be in. SCDA Architectswisely chose to elaborate on an ancient model for the basic design. The traditional Chinese shop house hasavery deep plan with narrow frontages. To make it bearable, atria(in the proper sense) were often carved into the middle of the footprint to bringlight and air to most of the inner rooms. At the Tenghouse, the stratagem isabstracted and used with finesse. Basically, it hasathree-storey stack of roomsat front and back with a vertical circulation and light void in the middle. Thisshaft of light isirregularly linked to along metre-wide slot between the house proper and ablank wall that risesbetween the house and itsneighbour to the left. 1 2 3 [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 100 -
  38. 38. 53 |752 |7 Only at ground floor level isthe wall pierced, to allow viewsfrom the livingroom to the thin garden between the two houses. So the livingroom, the first space you come to after the constrained entrance from the car port, isfull of light both from above (the central well) and the side (the sliver of garden between neighbour and shear wall). Luminance isincreased by white wallsand floor. And the almost surreal device of along Lshaped pool which reflects light upwards, and actsalmost as abarrier between formal and informal worlds. Inner areasof the house are suggested through translucent glasspanels. A stair iscantilevered over the granite clad pool, drawingyou up through the central well. At first floor level, the straight flight convertsto asculptural spiral, almost hoveringin space, and connectingfirst and second floors. Honed steel and wood bridgesconnect front and back stacksof roomsacrossthe void. Up at the top isone of the most movingspacesof the house: the studio that looksinto acalm little patio where Typha Angustifoliagrowsagainst the white concrete shear wall, and looksout through alouvred screen over the more conventional housesaround. Externally, the louvred first and second floorsmake an elegant, veiled box hovering over the virtually transparent ground level, which can open at the front to throw livingroom and patio into one large space, interior and exterior at the same time. Structure islargely steel, over aconcrete ground floor. The upper floorshave, in effect, adouble wall with the louvres shadingaglassbox that has movable panesso spacescan be cooled naturally aswell asby air conditioning. HELMUT GRÖTZ Architects SCDA Architects, Singapore Design team Chan Soo Khian, Rene Tan Structural engineer T.H. NgManagement & Consultancy Services Services engineer GKL Associates Photographs Peter Mealin ground floor (scale approx 1:250) first floor roofsecond floor 4 Studio on top floor looks into small patio with tall elegant strands of Typha Angustifolia. 5 Upper stair is spiral object almost floating in space. cross section long section HOUSE, SIN GAPORE ARCHITECT SCDA ARCHITECTS 1 carport 2 entrance 3 landscape 4 patio 5 living 6 kitchen 7 pool 8 maid 9 bridge 10 bed 11 altar room 12 void 13 studio 14 rooflight 4 5 6 6 Bedroom can have floor to ceiling windows because louvres provide privacy screen. [Architecture.Ebook] The Architectural Review - Sellection(2002-2005) - 101 -