Kappelman tribalnet - trends in IT infrastructure - 16nov2011 h

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Slide deck from a talk on "Trends in IT Infrastructure - What you don't know CAN hurt you" given at 'the TribalNet Conference on 16 November 2011 in Phoenix.

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Kappelman tribalnet - trends in IT infrastructure - 16nov2011 h

  1. 1. Trends in IT Infrastructure: What You Don’t Know CAN Hurt You Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Professor of Information Systems Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences  Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698  pp@ Founding Chair, Society for Information Management Enterprise Architecture Working Group© 1991‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman TribalNet12, Scottsdale, 16‐November‐2011
  2. 2. LOOKING LOOKING "Those who Those who BACK AS A BACK AS A cannot remember  the past are WAY OF WAY OF condemned to  d dtLOOKING LOOKING repeat it repeat it"  George SantayanaAHEAD 2
  3. 3. LOOKING LOOKING "Those who Those who BACK AS A BACK AS A cannot remember  the past are WAY OF WAY OF condemned to  d dtLOOKING LOOKING repeat it repeat it"  George SantayanaAHEAD 3
  4. 4. LOOKING BACK LOOKING BACK• Mid 1940s •The Computer is Born  •The Information Age is Born The Information Age is Born • Three Technological Roots of the Information Age (and all computers) f i ( d ll ) • Phone system – more complex Phone system  more complex 4
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  8. 8. LOOKING BACK LOOKING BACK•Mid 1940s •The Computer is Born  •The Information Age is Born The Information Age is Born •Technological Roots of the Information Age and all Information Technologies  d ll f i h l i • Phone system – more complex Phone system  more complex • Nuclear – smaller 8
  9. 9. Electron microscope constructed by Ernst Ruska in 1933 9
  10. 10. "Gadget“ – the first atomic bomb detonatedTo test the complex design of Fat Man (dropped on Nagasaki), a prototype  p g ( pp g ), p ypbomb known as "the gadget", was exploded at the Trinity test site at the Alamogordo Bombing Range in New Mexico, on July 16, 1945. 10
  11. 11. LOOKING BACK LOOKING BACK•Mid 1940s •The Computer is Born  •The Information Age is Born The Information Age is Born •Technological Roots of the Information Age and all Information Technologies  d ll f i h l i • Phone system – more complex Phone system  more complex • Nuclear – smaller • Radar – faster 11
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  14. 14. Radar invented around 1935 (its roots  around the turn of the 20th century)The Freya FuMG 39GTh F F MG 39G was the first operational early warning radar defense  th fi t ti l l i d d fsystem.   In 1938 eight of these units had been delivered and deployed along the German border. 14
  15. 15. The Freya was developed by Telefunken.  Twenty Telefunken. Twenty(20) of the units were delivered by 1940 to delivered by 1940 tothe Ruhr area.  By the end of the war, over  d f h5,000 units of this and upgraded models (Wuerzburg D) had D) had been in deployed in Europe.Europe 15
  16. 16. General trends driving the evolution of IT   ever since …  • More capacity (phone system) • Smaller (nuclear) • Faster (radar) Faster (radar) • More usable • More reliable • Hardware cheaper (per unit) p (p ) • Software cheaper (per unit) • if bought off the shelf (the power of “reuse”) if bought off the shelf (the power of “reuse”) • but more expensive to custom develop • "More Bang for the Buck"© 1991‐2009 Leon A. Kappelman 16
  17. 17. FOUR KEY TRENDS OF THE INFORMATION AGEFour key trends have driven the evolution of the technologies that are  y gcentral to the Information Age. These forces characterize these e‐times and affect the organizations and industries in which we work, as well as the social and economic milieus in which we live.  Understand and anticipate the effects of these four forces, if only a little, and you re likely to succeed. Ignore or overlook their influence only at your youre likely to succeed Ignore or overlook their influence only at yourperil.  The four defining forces of these e‐times are: • Velocity: Increasing the pace of almost everything. Velocity: Increasing the pace of almost everything.• Productivity: Doing more with less.• Convergence: Blurring boundaries of all kinds. g g• Brains: Managing data, information, & knowledge, and change. Leon A. Kappelman, IS for Managers, McGraw-Hill, 1993, & “Working In The pp g g Global Village” (InformationWeek, March 20, 2000, page 150). 17
  18. 18. LOOKING FORWARD Three Trends Driving ITI • Two drive the evolution of IT  infrastructure itself infrastructure itself –“Doing more with less” –“Doing IT anywhere”• Thi d d i Third drives the evolution of how we think h l i fh hi k –About IT in particular About IT in particular  –About organizations in general –Perhaps about almost everything 18
  19. 19. Two Trends Drive Evolution of IT  Infrastructure (ITI) :These are about the “PARTS” or PIECES of ITI PARTS• “Doing More With Less” – More Capability: Larger, faster, cheaper, more powerful – Density & Efficiency: Density & Efficiency:  • Virtualization, mainly of servers and desktops , , pp , , • Consolidation, of servers, applications, networks, data centers • To some, cloud computing is a consolidation of disparate ITI. – Conservation: energy, space, people, devices, $/€, etc.   gy, p , p p , , $/ , 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Two Trends Drive Evolution of IT  Infrastructure (ITI) :These are about the “PARTS” or PIECES of ITI PARTS• “Doing More With Less” – M More Capability: Larger, faster, cheaper, more powerful C bili L f h f l – Density & Efficiency:  • Virtualization, mainly of servers and desktops • Consolidation, of servers, applications, networks, data centers • To some, cloud computing is a consolidation of disparate ITI. – Conservation: energy, space, people, devices, $/€, etc. gy, p , p p , , $/ ,• “Doing IT anywhere” – Mobility – Telecommuting – Tele‐presence – Cloud   Cl d 21
  22. 22. Third Trend Drives Evolution of our Thinking: gAbout parts fitting together for the good of the whole• Foundations of it are of it are – Systems thinking and Holistic thinking – Architecture and Engineering g g• In IT we call this “Enterprise Architecture” (EA)• About managing change and complexity, while reducing  entropy, cost, and “time to market” t t d “ti t k t”• Seeks to better balance: – The whole and its parts The whole and its parts – Short‐term/long‐term trade offs• These ideas are not just applicable to ITI or even just to  organizations but also energy and environmental policy,  i ti b t l d i t l li medical science and health care, management and logistics,  economics and so on. 22
  23. 23. The act of discovery  y consists not in finding  consists not in finding new lands but in  new lands but in seeing with new eyes. i ith – Marcel Proust Marcel Proust 23
  24. 24. Why Enterprise Architecture? Wh E t i A hit t ? f ’ “ ”i h ’•If you can’t “see” it, then you can’t effectively change it or manage it. effectively change it or manage it fy , y•If you can’t “describe” it, then you can’t communicate about it. •Especially if it’s complicated or big, or will grow, evolve, or change at some will grow evolve or change at someppoint in time. 24
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  28. 28. Organization, g ,“know thyself”! know thyself ! – Socrates Soc ates 28
  29. 29. Organization, g ,“know thyself”! know thyself ! – Socrates Soc ates – Socrates Consulting 29
  30. 30. EA is about the creation of a sharedlanguage (of words, images, and so on) on)to communicate about, think about, andmanage the enterprise.If the people in the enterprise cannot communicateIf the If th people i th l in the enterprise cannot communicate t i t i t well enough to align their ideas and thoughts  well enough to align their ideas and thoughts  about the enterprise (e.g., strategy, goals,  b t th t i ( t t l objectives, purpose, …), then they cannot align the things they manage (e.g., then they cannot align the things they manage (e.g.,  applications, data, projects, goods and services,  jobs, vehicles, people, …).  Nor can they optimally  govern, devise strategy, create value, … 30
  31. 31. DoD we really need a ll d“shared language”? h dl 31
  32. 32. No EA = no shared language = you get:“KEY ISSUES FOR IT EXECUTIVES 2005” MISQuarterly Executive, 2006, Luftman, Kempaiah, & Nash. 32
  33. 33. Top  IT Management Concerns 1980‐2010 Top  IT Management Concerns 1980‐ IT Management 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1994 1990 1986 1985 1983 1980 Concerns CBusiness productivity & cost reduction 1 1 7 4Business agility and speed to market 2 3 13 17 7 5 7IT and business alignmentIT d b i li 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 9 7 5 2 7 9IT reliability and efficiency 3 6Business Process Reengineering 3 4 18 15 11 5 10 10 2IT Strategic planning IT Strategic planning 6 7 3 8 4 4 4 2 10 3 1 1 1 1Revenue generating IT innovations 6 8THIS IS SYMPTOMATIC OF NOT SUFFICIENTLY  IT cost reduction 8 5 7 4 y p ySecurity and privacy 9 9 8 6 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12UNDERSTANDING THE “REQUIREMENTS”):UNDERSTANDING THE “REQUIREMENTS”)Globalization 10 15Change management 11 14 6 7 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12 • SPECIFIC DETAILS OF A PARTICULAR  OBJECTIVE, Outsourcing/vendor management 12 11 13 11 11 33 15 15 9 8 4 1 8 ACTIVITY, AND/OR PROCESS. Enterprise architectureIT human resource considerations 13 17Knowledge management 13 17 • OVERALL CONTEXT – THE BIG PICTURE OF HOW IT OVERALL CONTEXT THE BIG PICTURE OF HOW IT Project managementProject management 13 11 10 23 5 10 13 17 ALL FITS TOGETHER.Sourcing decisionsCIO leadership role 10 16 10IT organization design 15 • OR BOTH OR BOTHSocietal implications of IT 20 33
  34. 34. Top  IT Management Concerns 1980‐2010 Top  IT Management Concerns 1980‐ IT Management 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1994 1990 1986 1985 1983 1980 Concerns CBusiness productivity & cost reduction 1 1 7 4Business agility and speed to market 2 3 13 17 7 5 7IT and business alignmentIT d b i li 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 9 7 5 2 7 9IT reliability and efficiency 3 6Business Process Reengineering 3 4 18 15 11 5 10 10 2IT Strategic planning IT Strategic planning 6 7 3 8 4 4 4 2 10 3 1 1 1 1Revenue generating IT innovations 6 8THIS IS SYMPTOMATIC OF NOT SUFFICIENTLY   “What we got here is a What we got here is a IT cost reduction 8 5 7 4 y p ySecurity and privacy 9 9 8 6 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12UNDERSTANDING THE “REQUIREMENTS”):UNDERSTANDING THE “REQUIREMENTS”)Globalization 10 15Change management 11 14 6 7 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12 • SPECIFIC DETAILS OF A PARTICULAR  OBJECTIVE,  failure to communicate. failure to communicate ”Outsourcing/vendor management ACTIVITY, AND/OR PROCESS. Enterprise architectureIT human resource considerations 12 13 13 11 11 17 11 33 15 15 9 8 4 1 8 – Cool Hand Luke Cool Hand LukeKnowledge management 13 17 • OVERALL CONTEXT – THE BIG PICTURE OF HOW IT OVERALL CONTEXT THE BIG PICTURE OF HOW IT Project managementProject management 13 11 10 23 5 10 13 17 ALL FITS TOGETHER.Sourcing decisionsCIO leadership role 10 16 10IT organization design 15 • OR BOTH OR BOTHSocietal implications of IT 20 34
  35. 35. EA is about the creation of a sharedlanguage (of words, images, and so on) on)to communicate about, think about, and Enterprise pmanage the enterprise. Governance Enterprise  Architecture pIf the people in the enterprise cannot communicateIf the If th people i th l in the enterprise cannot communicate t i t i t well enough to align their ideas and thoughts  well enough to align their ideas and thoughts  Strategy about the enterprise (e.g., strategy, goals,  b t th t i ( t t Goals/Objectives (e.g., Alignment) l objectives, purpose, …),  IT Architecture IT Architecturethen they cannot align the things they manage (e.g., then they cannot align the things they manage (e.g.,  IT Projects applications, data, projects, goods and services,  jobs, vehicles, people, …).  Nor can they optimally  govern, devise strategy, create value, … 35
  36. 36. It’s not that we don’t govern, devise strategy, create value, build & run great ISs, and succeed.   l b ild & t IS d d• But because we lack a shared language and holistic thinking (that is, Enterprise Architecture), we do so in a thinking (that is, Enterprise Architecture), we dthi ki (th t i E t i A hit t ) do so in a  ireductionist manner.  Rather than a holistic manner. •A “reductionist manner “ is a tt A “reductionist manner “ is an attempt or tendency to  d ti i t “i t t d t explain a complex set of facts, entities, phenomena, or  structures by another, simpler set  t t b th i l t •"For the last 400 years science has advanced by  reductionism ... The idea is that you could understand  d ti i Th id i th t ld d t d the world, all of nature, by examining smaller and  smaller pieces of it. When assembled, the small pieces  ll i f it Wh bl d th ll i would explain the whole" (John Holland).• Thi l d t t This leads to stovepipes, excessive complexity, dis This leads to stovepipes, excessive complexity, di ‐ i i l it dis‐integration, redundancy, high cost, and slow change. 36
  37. 37. How ddoes an EAshared language help g g pIT perform better? 37
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  40. 40. Artwork by Russell Douglas in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age  Artwork by Russell Douglas in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture Creating the Information Age The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise Architecture As Strategy: Creating a Foundation for Business Execution,  Jeanne Ross,  Enterprise,  2010, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com). Enterprise,  Peter Weill, & David Robertson, Harvard Business Press,  2006. 40
  41. 41. Artwork by Russell Douglas in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age  Artwork by Russell Douglas in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture Creating the Information Age The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise Architecture As Strategy: Creating a Foundation for Business Execution,  Jeanne Ross,  Enterprise,  2010, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com). Enterprise,  Peter Weill, & David Robertson, Harvard Business Press,  2006. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Oh, so it’s about getting the system requirements right?  We know how to do that!Don’t we? 43
  44. 44. Brooks on the difficulties of software development … “To see what rate of progress one  can expect in software  ti ft technology, let us examine the  difficulties of that technology.  difficulties of that technology. Following Aristotle, I divide them  into essence, the difficulties  inherent in the nature of  software, and accidents, those  difficulties that today attend its  difficulties that today attend its production but are not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet ‐ Essence & Accidents of  Software Engineering” 1986 in Information Processing  86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069‐1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress  86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man‐Month, 20th Anniversary  Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison‐Wesley, 1995.David Hay, 2003 44
  45. 45. Brooks on the difficulties of software development … “To see what rate of progress one  can expect in software  ti ft technology, let us examine the  difficulties of that technology.  difficulties of that technology. Following Aristotle, I divide them  into essence, the difficulties  inherent in the nature of  software, and accidents, those  difficulties that today attend its  difficulties that today attend its production but are not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet ‐ Essence & Accidents of  Software Engineering” 1986 in Information Processing  86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069‐1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress  86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man‐Month, 20th Anniversary  Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison‐Wesley, 1995.David Hay, 2003 45
  46. 46. Brooks on the difficulties of software development … “The hardest single part of building a software system is “To see what rate of progress one To see what rate of progress one  deciding precisely what to build. can expect in software  No other part of the conceptual technology, let us examine the  work is as difficult as difficulties of that technology.  establishing the detailed Following Aristotle, I divide them  technical requirements i No requirements…. into essence, the difficulties  i h diffi l other part of the work so inherent in the nature of  cripples the system if done software andyaccidents those pp software, and accidents, those  wrong. No other part is more difficulties that today attend its  difficult to rectify later.” production but are not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet ‐ Essence & Accidents of  Software Engineering” 1986 in Information Processing  86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069‐1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress  86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man‐Month, 20th Anniversary  Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison‐Wesley, 1995. Editi F d i k P B k J Addi W l 1995David Hay, 2003 46
  47. 47. SIMEAWG IT Management Practices Study Averages (Scale: 1[=awful] to 5 [=superior]) Averages (Scale: 1[=awful] to 5 [=superior])• 3.67  Overall average (64 questions) g ( q )• 3.92  Purpose / function of EA (7 questions)• 3.90  Potential benefits of EA (20 questions)• 3.68  ISD CMM practices and capabilities (12 questions)• 3.53  Use of requirements artifacts (10 questions)• 3.33  Requirements practices & capabilities (15 questions) The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the  Information Age Enterprise,  Information Age Enterprise, 2010, edited by Leon A.  Kappelman, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC,  l l d (www.crcpress.com). 47
  48. 48. INDUSTRY DATA ON DEFECT ORIGINS Because defect removal is such a major cost element, studying defect origins is  a valuable undertaking. IBM Corporation (MVS) SPR Corporation (client studies) 45% Design errors g 20% Requirements errors q 25% Coding errors 30% Design errors 20% Bad fixes 35% Coding errors 5% Documentation errors Documentation errors 10% Bad fixes Bad fixes 5% Administrative errors 5% Documentation errors 100% 100%TRW Corporation Mitre Corporation Nippon Electric Corp. 60% Design errors g 64% Design errors g 60% Design errors g 40% Coding errors 36% Coding errors 40% Coding errors 100% 100% 100% Copyright © 2009 by Capers Jones.  All Rights Reserved. SWQUAL0848 48
  49. 49. What is an Enterprise?What is an Enterprise? Logical L i l Physical Ph i l 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. LOGICALPHYSICAL 51
  52. 52. RESOURCES BEHAVIORS 52
  53. 53. Things  |  Behaviors |  |    | |Logical | |___________________________________________ | |Physical | |   | | | 53
  54. 54. Things  |  Behaviors |  |    | |Logical | |___________________________________________ | |Physical | |   | | | 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. Architecture/Requirements((Strategy, Design, & Plans) gy g ) Project Management (Execution & Implementation) Instantiation / O I t ti ti Operations ti (Functioning Enterprise) 56
  57. 57. 57
  58. 58. Strategist s Strategist’s Vision Business Model B i M d l Logical M d l L i l Model Physical ModelComponent p (Subcontractor’s) View Functioning Enterprise 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. W H W W W WH O H H H HA W E O E YT ? R ? N ?? E ? ? 60
  61. 61. I P S G N O C S F R H O E A O R T D LD F A A L U L S SA T T S E S / &T W R R / TA U E I R A C P M O I U R T R N L U G E R T S E S S E 61
  62. 62. Zachman’s Framework for EA …… is a tool for thinking and communicating about Es. is a tool for thinking and communicating abo t Es… is an ontology, a data model (schema) for all the knowledge about the enterprise.… is process and method agnostic It doesn’t care is process and method agnostic. It doesn t care how you get the knowledge.… posits that if you want to be aligned, agile,  h f b l d loptimized, or whatever your objectives, then this is what you will likely need to know in order to effectively and efficiently : effectively and efficiently : • achieve your objectives; • manage change and complexity; manage change and complexity; • manage the enterprise & all its resources, including IT. 62
  63. 63. Strategy gyExecution 63
  64. 64. ESSENCEArchitecture/Requirements((Strategy, Design, & Plans) gy g ) Project Management (Execution & Implementation) ACCIDENT Instantiation / O I t ti ti Operations ti (Functioning Enterprise) 64
  65. 65. An EA View of IT InfrastructureIT Infrastructure: A Holistic View Data       Apps Hardware     People Timings Policies 65
  66. 66. An EA View of IT InfrastructureIT Infrastructure: A Holistic View Data       Apps Hardware     People Timings Policies 66
  67. 67. What is EA?• EA is a different way of seeing, communicating about, &  managing the enterprise & all of its assets, including IT. • EA gets to essence of IT success: Knowing &  communicating the organization’s requirements. • EA is key to: – achieving & keeping business‐IT alignment & other objectives. – helping the organization create value.• EA includes many things you are already do; such as  requirements analysis, system design, strategic planning,  i l i d i i l i network design, standard setting, knowledge  management, data warehousing, SOA, BPR, etc., etc., … management data warehousing SOA BPR etc etc – BUT EA is much, much more than that. – Still you can build your EA practice on what you are Still, you can build your EA practice on what you are  already doing 67
  68. 68. IT System Acquisition: Perfect World y q 68
  69. 69. More often than we’d like to admit practice: IT System Acquisition 69
  70. 70. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition yp y q 70
  71. 71. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition yp y q 71
  72. 72. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition yp y q Assessment: Strategic Alignment 72
  73. 73. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition yp y q 73
  74. 74. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition yp y q Audit of Controls & Compliance 74
  75. 75. Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA• This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet. 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA• This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet.• This will take time and determination, as well as vision, courage and  commitment: Do not underestimate the difficulty and complexity of  commitment: Do not underestimate the difficulty and complexity of architecting and engineering one of humankind’s most complex  objects – the Enterprise.• Enjoy the ride – Do not get discouraged: This is a revolution in  thinking, a discipline, an engineering process. Change of this  g p magnitude takes time and perseverance.• Be Real ‐ Set realistic expectations: Things have to be implemented  and modified periodically so you have to accept some risk of “scrap  and rework. Progress trumps perfection. and rework "  Progress trumps perfection.• Educate, dont assume anything: Make executive education and  technical training a continuous process.  It is easy to forget long‐term  issues in the short‐term stress of daily life.  issues in the short term stress of daily life• Learn!: The state of the art is only about 25 years old and the  "playing field" still pretty level – there is still much to learn and  Sdiscover, and countless opportunities to create value and  advantage. 77
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79. You will also need  some EA processes and  governance bodies that  integrate EA into the  processes and  governance activities  for everything else (IT  and business).  )Example of an EA development Example of an EA developmentprocess: TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) cycle http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8‐doc/arch/chap03.html 79
  80. 80. VA’s IT Governance Structures VA Executive Board Strategy Culture Organizational Executive Change Steering Management Committee Strategic Management Council Quality Office of Cyber Security Information Technology IT Steering Capital Board CommitteeResource InvestmentAllocation Council IT Strategy Project Technology Management EA Architecture Council Steering Office CommitteeIT project delivery Technology Architecture 80
  81. 81. Three Trends Driving ITI  Three Trends Driving ITI• Two drive the evolution of IT Two drive the evolution of IT  infrastructure itself –“Doing more with less” –“Doing IT anywhere”• Third drives the evolution of how we think Third drives the evolution of how we think p –About IT in particular  –About organizations in general –Perhaps about almost everything 81
  82. 82. EA Implementation Guidelines: Getting Started• Build on what you are already doing including current projects Build on what you are already doing, including current projects.• Use collaborative approaches to doing and governing EA: – Organize an EA working group or EA council.  – Learn together & work toward agreement about language, models, methods h k b l l h• Get participation & commitment from IT & business management: – At all levels (but start as high as possible).   Leadership counts!• Determine the goals, focus, scope, and priorities: – Aim for completeness & comprehensiveness.   Deal with day‐to‐day needs.• Embrace continuous change, learning, and communication: g , g, – Remember, it’s a journey and a process. – Evangelize.  Have an “elevator speech”.  Get your “converters” one at a time.  • Start small and show early success Then build on it Start small and show early success.  Then build on it.  – Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization.   – Help the value creators, it creates champions and wins hearts and minds.• Monitor evaluate and improve on a continuous basis: Monitor, evaluate, and improve on a continuous basis: – Quantify the benefits – Regularly take a hard look at EA cost‐value proposition, and make it better.• U EA i IT f CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF IT ALL d t Use EA in IT for CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF IT ALL and to  COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS & STAKEHOLDERS. 82
  83. 83. An EA View of IT InfrastructureIT Infrastructure: A Holistic View 83
  84. 84. “No one has to change. gSurvival is optional.” p – Dr. W. Edwards Deming 84
  85. 85. SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture A project of the SIM EA Working Group Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Edited by Leon A Kappelman Ph D Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): ib i h li & i ( l h b i ll ) • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. Paras • Larry Burgess  • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon • Jeanne W. Ross40% discount code  • Larry R. DeBoever • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas g • Anna Sidorova = 542KA 542KA • Randolph C. Hite • Gary F. Simons at   • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock Tim Westbrock CRCPress.com CRCP • Thomas McGinnis • John A. Zachman All authors’ royalties support the work of  y pp the not‐for‐profit SIMEAWG. 85

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