IT Strategy, Governance, & Value    Strategy Governance                         Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D.                  ...
Enterprise Strategy, Alignment, & Architecture                   Enterprise                  Governance             Enterp...
Assessment                  &       Continuous Improvement                    p                Basic Feedback Loop•Measure...
http://www.aprocessgroup.com/offerings/index.asp
Architecture? What’s that?              What sArchitecture “the set of descriptive              therepresentations about a...
Why Enterprise A hiWh E       i Architecture?                         ?•If you can’t “see” it, then you can’teffectively c...
EA is about the creation of a sharedlanguage (of words, images, and so on) tocommunicate about, think about, andmanage the...
Top IT Management Concerns 1980-2010                                                1980-          IT Management          ...
It’s not that we don’t govern, devise strategy, createIt s                don tvalue, build & run great ISs, and succeed.•...
“Governance” Governance of IS DepartmentsHow do you organize for   IS/IT governance?
It starts with “Structure”                Structure Organizational Structure of IS   Departments/FunctionsIT department’s ...
Simplified IS Department Structure                                CEO                                           CIO  User ...
Governance “Structure” of ISG          “St t ” fI/T department’s governance  structure reflects I/T’s mission             ...
“Executive                                                          CEO                                  Steering         ...
What is an Enterprise?        Logical        L i l        Physical        Ph i l
LOGICALPHYSICAL
RESOURCES/  THINGS             BEHAVIORS/              ACTIONS
Things   | Behaviors                        |                        |                        |Logical                 |  ...
Strategist s  Strategist’s Vision   Business Model   B i        M d l    Logical M d l    L i l Model    Physical ModelTec...
W   H   W   W   W   WH   O   H   H   H   HA   W   E   O   E   YT   ?   R   ?   N   ??       E       ?        ?
I   P   S   G        N   O   C    S   F   R   H                    O                E   A    O   R   T   D   LD   F   A   ...
Architecture/Requirements((Strategy, Design, & Plans)       gy      g          ) Project Management (Execution & Implement...
Strategy      gyExecution
Zachman sZachman’s Framework for EA …… is an ontology, a data model (schema) for all theknowledge about the enterprise.   ...
http://zachman.com
By whatever means you get them, these arethe data you must have and use …         “holistic           holistic      reduct...
Although I did say “governance starts with structure” the most important dimensions of all this are really leadership ( ma...
Some M d l andS     Models dTheories about ITStrategy,StrategyGovernance,Governance andValue
Strategy                       IT operations &Resource Allocation     service delivery
VA’s IT Governance Structures                                    VA Executive                                       Board ...
IT Governance Institute – http://www.itgi.org
IT Governance Institute – http://www.itgi.org
™                              ISACA’s Val IT  •     Many enterprises practice elements of Val IT™ already  •     Val IT™ ...
™                    ISACA’s Val IT                                             © 2009 ISACAhttp://www.isaca.org/         ...
Strategy   “Alignment” &      Business    Architecture                              Resource                              ...
5 key areas of IT decisions                            Design objectives?Structures, Processes, and Business Rules        ...
IT Strategic Vision                                          Technology Strategy & Architecture                           ...
From Peter Weill “DON’T JUST LEAD, GOVERN: HOW TOP-PERFORMING FIRMS GOVERNIT” MIS Quarterly Executive Vol. 3 No. 1 / March...
Strategy            Rs 1&2Execution   Rs 5&6
TM                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK               DATA                       What  ...
Simplified IS Department Structure                                             CEO                                        ...
Simplified IS Department Structure  + Executive (“Planners & Owners”) Level                                               ...
Simplified IS Department Structure  + Executive (“Planners & Owners”) Level    E    ti (“Pl           O     ”) L l        ...
Simplified IS Governance Structure      + Executive (“Planners & Owners”) Level        E ec ti e              O ners”) Le ...
VA’s IT Governance Structures              VA Executive                 Board                                   Executive ...
TM                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK               DATA                       What  ...
Simplified IS Governance Structure                                              BofD                                      ...
Executive &                                                          CEO                                IS Steering       ...
Strategy                       IT operations &Resource Allocation     service delivery
ESCTSCITSCFrom Peter Weill “DON’T JUST LEAD, GOVERN: HOW TOP-PERFORMING FIRMS GOVERN IT” MISQuarterly Executive Vol. 3 No....
Empirical E idE i i l EvidenceaboutIT Governance
IT GAP Model       The theoretical model proposed in this research posits       direct and indirect effects among the thre...
IT GAP Model
IT Assessment - Implementation GuidelinesMeasure performance toward objectives on a fair & consistent basisacross organiza...
EA Implementation GuidelinesBuild on what you’re already doing (including projects).Use collaborative approaches to doing ...
“No one has to change.                     gSurvival is optional.”             p            – Dr. W. Edwards Deming
SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture               A project of the Society for Information               Management’s EA ...
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
Kappelman   it strategy, governance, & value ho
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Kappelman it strategy, governance, & value ho

  1. 1. IT Strategy, Governance, & Value Strategy Governance Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu Phone: 940 565 4698 940-565-4698 Founding Chair, Society for Information Management Enterprise Architecture Working Group© 1990-2011 L. A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. ITPMI, Philadelphia, 9-November-2011
  2. 2. Enterprise Strategy, Alignment, & Architecture Enterprise Governance Enterprise Architecture Strategy St t Goals/Objectives (e.g., Alignment) IT Architecture IT Projects
  3. 3. Assessment & Continuous Improvement p Basic Feedback Loop•Measurement provides feedback about execution & performance.•It tells us how the organization is doing against planned goals,objectives, targets, milestones, outcomes, and values.
  4. 4. http://www.aprocessgroup.com/offerings/index.asp
  5. 5. Architecture? What’s that? What sArchitecture “the set of descriptive therepresentations about an object”. [John Zachman] [J h Z h ]Enterprise Architecture is “the pholistic set of descriptions about theenterprise over time“. [SIMEAWG]Enterprise Architecture ismodeling the enterprise. g p
  6. 6. Why Enterprise A hiWh E i Architecture? ?•If you can’t “see” it, then you can’teffectively change it or manage it. it•If you can t “describe” it, then you If can’t describecan’t communicate about it.•Especially if it’s complicated or big, orwill grow, evolve, or change at some grow evolveppoint in time.
  7. 7. EA is about the creation of a sharedlanguage (of words, images, and so on) tocommunicate about, think about, andmanage the enterprise.If th people i the enterprise cannot communicate the l in th t i t i t well enough to align their ideas and thoughts about th enterprise ( b t the t i (e.g., strategy, goals, t t l objectives, purpose, …),then they cannot align the things they manage (e.g., applications, data, projects, goods and services, jobs, vehicles, people, …). Nor can they optimally govern, devise strategy, create value, …
  8. 8. Top IT Management Concerns 1980-2010 1980- IT Management 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1994 1990 1986 1985 1983 1980 Concerns CBusiness productivity & cost 1 1 7 4reductionBusiness agility and speed to market 2 3 13 17 7 5 7IT and business alignment 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 9 7 5 2 7 9IT reliability and efficiency 3 6Business Process Reengineering 3 4 18 15 11 5 10 10 2IT Strategic planning 6 7 3 8 4 4 4 2 10 3 1 1 1 1Revenue generating IT innovations 6 8THIS IS SYMPTOMATIC OF NOT SUFFICIENTLYIT cost reduction 8 5 7 4UNDERSTANDING THE “REQUIREMENTS”):SecuritySec rit and privacy pri acGlobalization “REQUIREMENTS”) 9 10 9 15 8 6 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12 11 14 6 7 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12 • SPECIFIC DETAILS OF A PARTICULARChange managementOutsou c g/ve doOutsourcing/vendor management a age e t 12 11 OBJECTIVE, ACTIVITY, AND/OR PROCESS.Enterprise architectureIT human resource considerations 13 13 11 17 11 33 15 15 9 8 4 1 8 13 17 • OVERALL CONTEXT – THE BIG PICTURE OFKnowledge managementProject management 13 11 10 23 5 10 HOW IT ALL FITS TOGETHER.Sourcing decisionsCIO leadership role 13 17 10 16 10IT organization design g g 15 • OR BOTHSocietal implications of IT 20
  9. 9. It’s not that we don’t govern, devise strategy, createIt s don tvalue, build & run great ISs, and succeed.• It s that we do so in a reductionist manner. Rather It’sthan a holistic manner. •An attempt or tendency to explain a complex set of e p o e de cy o e p co p e se o facts, entities, phenomena, or structures by another, simpler set p •"For the last 400 years science has advanced by reductionism ... The idea is that you could understand y the world, all of nature, by examining smaller and smaller pieces of it. When assembled, the small pieces p , p would explain the whole" (John Holland).• This leads to stovepipes, excessive complexity, dis- pp , p y, dis-integration, redundancy, high cost, and slow change.
  10. 10. “Governance” Governance of IS DepartmentsHow do you organize for IS/IT governance?
  11. 11. It starts with “Structure” Structure Organizational Structure of IS Departments/FunctionsIT department’s structure p reflects IT’s mission:To manage technology for the good of the enterprise. h d f h i
  12. 12. Simplified IS Department Structure CEO CIO User IT Communications IS Support Personnel Development Data IT Operations IT Planning Administration Other critical concerns: • Project management office • Chief Enterprise Architect • IS Audit/Performance Measurement • Legal • Finance & accounting y • CyberSecurity y • Organizational development/Change management • Continuity (COOP), Disaster prevention & recovery • ++++
  13. 13. Governance “Structure” of ISG “St t ” fI/T department’s governance structure reflects I/T’s mission fl I/T’ i i too: To manage technology for the good of the enterprise.By having the business“owners”“owners” govern.
  14. 14. “Executive CEO Steering Committee” Marketing/ Legal COO CFO CIO HR Strategy Sales CounselTechnical Architecture/ IS Project Operations Development Security Service Standard Management End user Data System Support Administration Development Program Application Network Maintenance Development Data Communication
  15. 15. What is an Enterprise? Logical L i l Physical Ph i l
  16. 16. LOGICALPHYSICAL
  17. 17. RESOURCES/ THINGS BEHAVIORS/ ACTIONS
  18. 18. Things | Behaviors | | |Logical | |___________________________________________ | |Physical | | | | |
  19. 19. Strategist s Strategist’s Vision Business Model B i M d l Logical M d l L i l Model Physical ModelTechnician/Contractor’s View Functioning Enterprise
  20. 20. W H W W W WH O H H H HA W E O E YT ? R ? N ?? E ? ?
  21. 21. I P S G N O C S F R H O E A O R T D LD F A A L U L S SA T T S E S / &T W R R / TA U E I R A C P M O I U R T R N L U G E R T S E S S E
  22. 22. Architecture/Requirements((Strategy, Design, & Plans) gy g ) Project Management (Execution & Implementation) Instantiation / O I t ti ti Operations ti (Functioning Enterprise)
  23. 23. Strategy gyExecution
  24. 24. Zachman sZachman’s Framework for EA …… is an ontology, a data model (schema) for all theknowledge about the enterprise. i… is process and method agnostic. It doesn’t care howyou get the knowledge. h k l d… posits that if you want to be aligned, agile, optimized, orwhatever your enterprise design objectives, then these are h t t i d i bj ti ththe data you must have and use in order to efficientlyand effectively: • achieve those objectives; • manage change and complexity; g g p y; • manage the enterprise & all its resources including its technologies. g g
  25. 25. http://zachman.com
  26. 26. By whatever means you get them, these arethe data you must have and use … “holistic holistic reductionism reductionism” – decompose in context t t http://zachman.com
  27. 27. Although I did say “governance starts with structure” the most important dimensions of all this are really leadership ( make it happen) y p (to pp ) and organizational culture (to sustain it).It’s all about becoming a Learning Organization,“where people are continually learning to see thewhole together.” An organization characterized by: • Holistic/systems thinking (big picture & connections) • Team learning (collaboration)EA • Shared mental models (shared language & models) • B ildi shared vision ( h d goals) Building h d i i (shared l) • Personal mastery (working with great people) (Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline, 1990) Senge, Discipline
  28. 28. Some M d l andS Models dTheories about ITStrategy,StrategyGovernance,Governance andValue
  29. 29. Strategy IT operations &Resource Allocation service delivery
  30. 30. VA’s IT Governance Structures VA Executive Board Strategy Culture Organizational Executive Change Steering Management Committee Strategic Management Council Q Quality y Office of Cyber Security Capital Information Technology I f ti T h l IT Steering BoardResource Investment CommitteeAllocation Council IT Strategy gy Project Technical Management Office EA Architecture Council Steering g CommitteeIT project delivery Technology Architecture
  31. 31. IT Governance Institute – http://www.itgi.org
  32. 32. IT Governance Institute – http://www.itgi.org
  33. 33. ™ ISACA’s Val IT • Many enterprises practice elements of Val IT™ already • Val IT™ provides a consistent, repeatable & comprehensive approach • IT and business become equal shareholders because Val IT™ helps management to answer these key questions:* The strategic question The value questionThe architecture question The delivery question * Based on the Four ‘Are’s as described by John Thorp in his book The Information © 2009 ISACA Paradox, written jointly with Fujitsu, first published in 1998 and revised in 2003. All rights reserved.40
  34. 34. ™ ISACA’s Val IT © 2009 ISACAhttp://www.isaca.org/ All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Strategy “Alignment” & Business Architecture Resource AllocationIT project delivery Technology Architecture
  36. 36. 5 key areas of IT decisions Design objectives?Structures, Processes, and Business Rules Accountability and Assessment
  37. 37. IT Strategic Vision Technology Strategy & Architecture IT Strategic Alignment & Resource Allocation g gFrom Peter Weill “DON’T JUST LEAD, GOVERN: HOW TOP-PERFORMING FIRMS GOVERN IT” MISQuarterly Executive Vol. 3 No. 1 / March 2004, pp. 1-17.
  38. 38. From Peter Weill “DON’T JUST LEAD, GOVERN: HOW TOP-PERFORMING FIRMS GOVERNIT” MIS Quarterly Executive Vol. 3 No. 1 / March 2004, pp. 1-17.
  39. 39. Strategy Rs 1&2Execution Rs 5&6
  40. 40. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK DATA What Wh t FUNCTION How H NETWORK Where Wh PEOPLE Who Wh TIME When Wh MOTIVATION Why WhSCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE Planner s Planner’s View to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE Owner s Owner’s ViewENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGYMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = ActionDETAILED e.g. Data Definition g e.g. Program g g e.g. Network Architecture g e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition g g e.g. Rule Specification g p DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531
  41. 41. Simplified IS Department Structure CEO CIO See P634(D) Information End user End-user System Personnel Support Communications Development Data Operations Admin istration CQI/TQM Planning
  42. 42. Simplified IS Department Structure + Executive (“Planners & Owners”) Level CEOCFO COO HR CIO See P634(D) CLO S&M Information End user End-user System Personnel Support Communications Development Data Operations Admin istration CQI/TQM Planning
  43. 43. Simplified IS Department Structure + Executive (“Planners & Owners”) Level E ti (“Pl O ”) L l BofD CEOCFO COO HR CIO See P634(D) CLO S&M Information End-user System Personnel Support Communications Development Data Operations Admin istration Ad i i t ti CQI/TQM Planning
  44. 44. Simplified IS Governance Structure + Executive (“Planners & Owners”) Level E ec ti e O ners”) Le el CEOCFO COO HR CIO See P634(D) CLO S&M“Executive Steering Committee” g AND “IT S Steering C i Committee” i ” BUT Not always combined into one structure: Mostly a function of size and culture
  45. 45. VA’s IT Governance Structures VA Executive Board Executive Steering Committee Strategic Management Council Information Technology I f ti T h l IT Steering Board Committee Technical EA Architecture Council Steering g Committee
  46. 46. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK DATA What Wh t FUNCTION How H NETWORK Where Wh PEOPLE Who Wh TIME When Wh MOTIVATION Why WhSCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat to the Business Business Performs SCOPE the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business(CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL)Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISEENTERPRISE SystemMODEL MODEL(CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL)Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEMSYSTEM Architecture Architecture Designer’s Vi D i ’ View MODELMODEL (LOGICAL)(LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural AssertionDesigner Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY Builder’s ViewMODEL MODEL(PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System BuilderBuilder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action Subcontractor’s ViewDETAILED e.g. Data Definition g e.g. Program g g e.g. Network Architecture g e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition g g e.g. Rule Specification g p DETAILEDREPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS(OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT)Sub-Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step ContractorFUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGYENTERPRISE ENTERPRISEJohn A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231-0531
  47. 47. Simplified IS Governance Structure BofD CEOCFO COO HR CIO See P634(D) CLO S&M Information End-user System Personnel Support Communications Development “Technology Steering Committee” Data Operations Admin istration Ad i i t ti CQI/TQM Planning
  48. 48. Executive & CEO IS Steering Committee PMO Marketing/ Legal COO CFO CIO HR Strategy Sales Counsel Technology Steering CommitteeTechnical Architecture/ IS Project Operations Development Security Service Standard Management End user Data System Support Administration Development Program Application Network Maintenance Development Data Communication
  49. 49. Strategy IT operations &Resource Allocation service delivery
  50. 50. ESCTSCITSCFrom Peter Weill “DON’T JUST LEAD, GOVERN: HOW TOP-PERFORMING FIRMS GOVERN IT” MISQuarterly Executive Vol. 3 No. 1 / March 2004, pp. 1-17.
  51. 51. Empirical E idE i i l EvidenceaboutIT Governance
  52. 52. IT GAP Model The theoretical model proposed in this research posits direct and indirect effects among the three constructs Organizational g IT Governance Performance IT –Business Alignment“TESTING A MODEL OF THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE, IT- IT-BUSINESS ALIGNMENT, AND IT GOVERNANCE” -- Aurora Sanchez Ortiz
  53. 53. IT GAP Model
  54. 54. IT Assessment - Implementation GuidelinesMeasure performance toward objectives on a fair & consistent basisacross organizationUse a prototyping approach: In the early stages manage to speed ratherthanth quality (it is more important to get started than to have perfect data), lit i i t tt t t t d th t h f td t )and expect it to evolve rapidly.Learn to work with “dirty” data, because the data will almost never be asgood as you’d like. But also learn how to assess data quality.Focus on the harder job of integrating measures with the value-generating actions than on establishing the information-delivery processes. information delivery processesCollect facts needed to demonstrate: Goal and mission achievement Effective resource utilization ec ve esou ce u oResist the temptation of automation – it will distract you from moreimportant tasks.Embrace learning & continuous improvement. Monitor, evaluate, andimprove on a continuous basisExpand the use of metrics in IT to continuously improve systemsdevelopment and operations in order to better serve the needs of theenterprise – Eat your own cooking!
  55. 55. EA Implementation GuidelinesBuild on what you’re already doing (including projects).Use collaborative approaches to doing & governing EA: Organize an EA working group or EA council council. Learn together & work toward agreement about language, models, methodsGet participation & commitment from IT & business at alllevels (as high as possible). Leadership counts! possible)Determine the goals, focus, scope, and priorities: Aim for completeness & comprehensiveness. Deal with day-to-day needs.Embrace continuous change, learning, & communication: change learning Remember, it’s a journey and a process. Evangelize. Have an “elevator speech”. Get your “converters” one at a time.Start small and show early success. Then build on it. Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization. Help the value creators, it creates champions and wins hearts and minds.Monitor, evaluate, and improve on a continuous basis: , , p Quantify the benefits Regularly take a hard look at EA cost-value proposition, and make it better.Use EA in IT for CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT andCOMMUNICATION WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS &STAKEHOLDERS
  56. 56. “No one has to change. gSurvival is optional.” p – Dr. W. Edwards Deming
  57. 57. SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture A project of the Society for Information Management’s EA Working Group ( (SIMEAWG). ) •Free shipping & 40% discount: buy at http://www.crcpress.com with code 542KA. •All author royalties go to further the work of the not-for-profit SIMEAWG.40% discount Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D.code = 542KA Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): at • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. ParasCRCPress.com • Larry Burgess • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon C • Jeanne W Ross J W. R • Larry R. DeBoever • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas • Anna Sidorova • Randolph C. Hite • Gary F. Simons • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. Zachman

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