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Enterprise Architecture 201:
Creating the Information Age Enterprise




                       Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D.
 ...
Architecture? What’s that?

 •Architecture is“the set of 
  descriptive representations about 
  an object”    [John Zachm...
Enterprise Architecture:
        Why Bother?
If you can t  see it you
If you can’t “see” it, you 
can’t effectively manage...
“It is not the strongest of
  the
  th species th t survives,
           i that       i
  nor the most intelligent, but
  ...
EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved.   9




                                      Ontology
The met...
The practice of Enterprise
Architecture is the
ontological examination of a
particular enterprise in order
to know its nat...
SIMEAWG IT Management Practices Study
           Averages (Scale: 1[=awful] to 5 [=superior])
    3.67  Overall average (6...
Requirements
    Analysis
    & Design




The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture,
  Leon Kappelman, editor, CRC Press, ...
EA is about the creation of a shared 
language to communicate about, 
think about, & manage an enterprise.  
If the people...
EA is all about
     creating the
          ti th
     Information Age
     enterprise.
EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappel...
“Information Age Organization”
Peter Senge: “The Learning Organization”
                                                  ...
EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved.   23




      Zachman’s Enterprise Framework
  is an ontology...
W    H   W   W   W   W
H    O   H   H   H   H
A    W   E   O   E   Y
T    ?   R   ?   N   ?
?        E       ?
         ?
...
What is EA?
• EA is a different way of seeing, communicating about, & 
  managing the enterprise & all of its assets, incl...
Typical SA&D - 2




EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved.   29




Better SA&D = Broad context – ea...
“Someday you’re
          go g o e y w s
          going to really wish
          you had all those
          models; so y...
Strategic Planning
                                 Business Modeling
                                  us ess c tectu e
 ...
Rules Management
             Business Rules
             Expert Systems




EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All ri...
Disaster Recovery
             Continuity of Operations (COOP)
             Continuity of Government (COG)
EA 201: © 2000-...
Network
                                                              Net ork Design




EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappe...
Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA
• This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet.
• This wil...
The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture:
            Creating the Information Age Enterprise
                            ...
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Enterprise Architecture 201: Creating the Information Age Enterprise (handouts)

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Graduate-level introduction to enterprise architecture made to the DFW DAMA chapter in October 2009. Overview of EA with a focus on building your EA practice on what you are already doing in areas like data architecture, systems analysis and design, strategic planning, network architecture, rules management, software architecture, and so on. Basically what EA is and how to get started.

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Enterprise Architecture 201: Creating the Information Age Enterprise (handouts)

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture 201: Creating the Information Age Enterprise Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group http://eawg.simnet.org htt // i t Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698     Fax: 940‐565‐4935 EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. DFW DAMA 29-Oct-09 1 The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise A project of the Society for Information Management’s Enterprise Architecture Working Group, published by CRC Press. All author royalties go to further the work of the not-for-profit SIM EA Working Group. not for profit 20% discount code = 460GA Free shipping from http://www.crcpress.com Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. Paras • Larry Burgess • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon • Jeanne W. Ross • Larry R. DeBoever • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas • Anna Sidorova • Randolph C. Hite • Gary F. Simons • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. Zachman EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 2 1
  2. 2. Architecture? What’s that? •Architecture is“the set of  descriptive representations about  an object”    [John Zachman] •Architecture is modeling EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 3 Every model is imperfect • The map is not the highway.   – Every model contains assumptions, enunciated or not.   – Every model filters reality, whether you realize it or not. yg , – "Our models may get closer and closer, but we will never reach  direct perception of reality.” Stephen Hawking • Important truths:  – “All we ever know is our models.” Stephen Hawking – Data are a model. – Language is a model.  – News media, pundits, and talking heads represent models. – Architecture is models. • The important questions are:  – Is the model useful for the purpose(s) at hand?   – Do we agree on the meaning of the symbols in the model? – Do we acknowledge and understand its shortcomings? EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 4 2
  3. 3. Enterprise Architecture: Why Bother? If you can t  see it you If you can’t “see” it, you  can’t effectively manage it.  Especially if it’s big, or  ill complicated, or will grow/ li t d / shrink, or change, in some  way, at some point in time. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 5 Four Trends of the Information Age EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 6 3
  4. 4. “It is not the strongest of the th species th t survives, i that i nor the most intelligent, but the one that is most responsive to change. change.” – Charles Darwin EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 7 Fred Brooks got it decades ago! You can’t build IT (or manage  IT) if you don’t know what IT is. ) fy “The hardest single part of building a software  system is deciding precisely what to build.  No  other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as  establishing the detailed technical requirements….   No other part of the work so cripples the system if  No other part of the work so cripples the system if done wrong.  No other part is more difficult to  rectify later.” "No Silver Bullet — Essence and Accidents of  Software Engineering,” 1986, in Information Processing 86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier,  1069‐1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress '86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man‐Month,  20th Anniversary Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison‐Wesley, 1995. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 8 4
  5. 5. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 9 Ontology The metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence. Ontology applied to enterprises: • Study of the nature of their existence. • Answers questions like: • What is an enterprise? • What does it mean to be an enterprise? • What do I need to know about an organization if I want to know it? EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 10 5
  6. 6. The practice of Enterprise Architecture is the ontological examination of a particular enterprise in order to know its nature, essential properties, and the relationships among them. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 11 Architecture? What’s that? •Architecture is “the set of  descriptive representations about  an object”.   [John Zachman] •Enterprise Architecture is “the  holistic set of descriptions about  the enterprise over time“.    the enterprise over time“ [SIMEAWG] •Enterprise Architecture is  modeling the enterprise. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 12 6
  7. 7. SIMEAWG IT Management Practices Study Averages (Scale: 1[=awful] to 5 [=superior]) 3.67  Overall average (64 questions) • 3 67 O ll (64 i ) • 3.92  Purpose / function of EA (7 questions) • 3.90  Potential benefits of EA (20 questions) • 3.68  ISD CMM practices and capabilities (12 questions) • 3.53  Use of requirements artifacts (10 questions) 3 53 Use of requirements artifacts (10 questions) • 3.33  Requirements practices & capabilities (15 questions) The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture, Leon Kappelman, editor, CRC Press, 2010. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 13 Software Development The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture, Leon Kappelman, editor, CRC Press, 2010. 7
  8. 8. Requirements Analysis & Design The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture, Leon Kappelman, editor, CRC Press, 2010. U.S. AVERAGES FOR SOFTWARE QUALITY (Data expressed in terms of defects per function point) Defect Removal Delivered Defect Origins Potential Efficiency Defects Requirements 1.00 77% 0.23 Design 1.25 85% 0.19 Coding 1.75 95% 0.09 Documents 0.60 80% 0.12 Bad Fixes 0.40 70% 0.12 TOTAL 5.00 85% 0.75 (Function points show all defect sources - not just coding defects) Software Engineering Best Practices: Lessons from Successful Projects in the Top Companies, Capers Jones, 2010, McGraw-Hill) Copyright © 2009 by Capers Jones. All Rights Reserved. SWQUAL0816 EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 16 8
  9. 9. EA is about the creation of a shared  language to communicate about,  think about, & manage an enterprise.   If the people in the enterprise cannot communicate well enough to align their ideas and thoughts  about the enterprise (e.g., strategy, goals,  objectives, purpose, mission, vision),  then they cannot align the things they manage ( th th t li th thi th (e.g.,  applications, data, projects, rules, goods and  services, jobs, vehicles). EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 17 Economist & Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben  Bernanke (June ‘06 MIT commencement speech) said: • "In the case of information and communication  technologies, new economic research suggests that  the investments in associated intangible capital ‐‐ figuring out what to do with the computer once it's  out of the box ‐‐ are quite important indeed.   • In my view, important investments in intangible  capital remain to be made, as much still remains to  be learned about how to harness these technologies  most effectively. most effectively. • This research also suggests that the current  productivity revival still has some legs, as the full  economic benefits of recent technological changes  have not yet been completely realized."  EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 18 9
  10. 10. EA is all about creating the ti th Information Age enterprise. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 19 • EA is about “modeling” the enterprise in order to understand, communicate about, and manage what you cannot “see.” • EA is all about: Systems thinking Mental M t l models d l Building shared vision Team learning EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 20 10
  11. 11. “Information Age Organization” Peter Senge: “The Learning Organization” (The Fifth Discipline, 1990) “Where people continually expand their capacity to create the  results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns  results they truly desire where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, …where people are continually  learning to see the whole together.” Characterized by the mastery of five basic disciplines or  ‘component technologies’.  They are: – Personal mastery Personal mastery – Systems thinking – Mental models – Building shared vision – Team learning EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 21 EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 22 11
  12. 12. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 23 Zachman’s Enterprise Framework is an ontology, a data model (schema) for all the knowledge about the enterprise. is process and method agnostic. • It d doesn’t care how you do it. ’t h d it • It is not a method or a methodology. posits that these are the data you must capture and use to effectively & efficiently … • achieve & maintain your enterprise objectives (e.g., aligned, agile, optimized, lean, green, etc ) (e g aligned agile optimized lean green etc.). • manage change and complexity. is fundamental to creating & managing an Information Age enterprise, and all its resources, including its technologies. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 24 12
  13. 13. W H W W W W H O H H H H A W E O E Y T ? R ? N ? ? E ? ? Strategist’s Vision Business/Executive Model Logical Model Physical Model Subcontractor’s View Functioning Enterprise 13
  14. 14. What is EA? • EA is a different way of seeing, communicating about, &  managing the enterprise & all of its assets, including IT.  • EA gets to essence of Enterprise and IT success: For IT =  g g g q Knowing & communicating organization’s requirements. • EA is key to: – achieving & keeping business‐IT alignment & other objectives. – helping the organization create value and achieve goals. • EA includes many things you are already do – such as  requirements analysis, system design, strategic planning, data  architecture, rules architecture, network design, standard setting,  architecture rules architecture network design standard setting knowledge management, data warehousing, SOA, BPR, etc., etc., … – BUT EA is much, much more than that. – You can build your EA practice on what you are  already doing. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 27 Perfect World Architecture Project Management Instantiation EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 28 14
  15. 15. Typical SA&D - 2 EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 29 Better SA&D = Broad context – early EA EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 30 15
  16. 16. “Someday you’re go g o e y w s going to really wish you had all those models; so you might as well get started now.” – John Zachman EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 31 Data Design Data Architecture Data Warehousing EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 32 16
  17. 17. Strategic Planning Business Modeling us ess c tectu e Business Architecture EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 33 Human Resources Organization Design g g Job Design EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 34 17
  18. 18. Rules Management Business Rules Expert Systems EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 35 Business Process Reengineering Process Improvement EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 36 18
  19. 19. Disaster Recovery Continuity of Operations (COOP) Continuity of Government (COG) EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 37 Software Architecture Systems Analysis Systems Design EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 38 19
  20. 20. Network Net ork Design EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 39 Implementation Guidelines: Getting Started • Build on what you are already doing, including current projects. • Use collaborative approaches to doing and governing EA: – Organize an EA working group or EA council.  – Learn together & work toward agreement about language, models, methods • Get participation & commitment from IT & business management: – At all levels (but start as high as possible).   Leadership counts! • Determine the goals, focus, scope, and priorities: – Aim for completeness & comprehensiveness.   Deal with day‐to‐day needs. • Embrace continuous change, learning, and communication: – Remember, it’s a journey and a process. – Evangelize.  Have an “elevator speech”.  Get your “converters” one at a time.   • Start small and show early success:  – Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization.   – Help the value creators, it creates champions and wins hearts and minds. • Monitor, evaluate, and improve on a continuous basis: – Quantify the benefits – Regularly take a hard look at EA cost‐value proposition, and make it better. • Use EA in IT for CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT and to  COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER & ALL YOUR STAKEHOLDERS. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 40 20
  21. 21. Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA • This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet. • This will take time and determination, as well as vision, courage and  commitment: Do not underestimate the difficulty and complexity of  architecting and engineering one of humankind’s most complex  objects – the Enterprise. objects the Enterprise • Do not get discouraged: This is a revolution in thinking, a discipline,  an engineering process. Change of this magnitude takes time and  perseverance. • Set realistic expectations: Things have to be implemented and  modified periodically so you have to accept some risk of “scrap and  rework."  Progress trumps perfection. • Don't assume anything: Make executive education and technical Don t assume anything: Make executive education and technical  training a continuous process.  It is easy to forget long‐term issues in  the short‐term stress of daily life.  • Learn!: The state of the art is only about 25 years old and the "playing  field" still pretty level – there is still much to learn & discover, & many  opportunities to create advantage & value. EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 41 “No “N one h t change. has to h Survival is optional.” – Dr. W. Edwards Deming EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 42 21
  22. 22. The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise A project of the Society for Information Management’s Society for Information Management Enterprise Architecture Working Group, published by Enterprise ArchitectureSIMroyalties go toGroup. the work p CRC Press. All author further of the not-for-profit Working Group not for profit EA Workingg p 20% discount code = 460GA Free shipping from http://www.crcpress.com New members welcomed Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. Paras http://eawg.simnet.org http://eawg simnet org • • Larry Burgess Ed Cannon • • Alex Pettit Jeanne W. Ross • Larry R. DeBoever • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas • Anna Sidorova Next meeting: Dallas, Jan. 12-13, 2010 • • Randolph C. Hite Leon A. Kappelman • • Gary F. Simons Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. Zachman EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 43 “We shape our buildings – t e ea te t ey s ape us. thereafter they shape us.” — Sir Winston Churchill “We shape our enterprises and their systems – thereafter they shape us.” h ” — Leon Kappelman EA 201: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 44 22

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