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คู่มือวิทยุสมัครเล่น โดย Hs5 ayo

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@hs1wfk:ท่านHS5AYO รวบรวมความรู้วิทยุสมัครเล่นเป็นภาษาไทยกว่าร้อยหน้า ให้แก่ผู้สนใจตั้งแต่ปี 2541 download ได้ที่นี่ครับ

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คู่มือวิทยุสมัครเล่น โดย Hs5 ayo

  1. 1. ก ก F F F ก F ก ก F THAILAND GROUP 1996 F F ก F F HS5AYO F F F F ก F ก ก F ก ก F F F F ก F ก F ก Fก F Fก ก F กก F Fก F ก กF ก F ก F F F ก F F F F ก ก F ก ก F Fก F F F ก F 200 F กF F ก HS5AYO ก F FF กF HS5AYO F ก F F F กF F F Fก F F ก F F F F กF -HS0ACT, -E21EIC, F Fก -E21IZC ก -E20GJW F F F F F F F F ก F FF F ก ก F กF F ก ก F F ก ก ก F FกF F F THAILAND GROUP 1996 2541 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 1
  2. 2. ก F ก ก ก ก F F F ก Fก . . 2538 ( ) F F F ก F F ก F F ก F F F F F ก F FF ก F F F F ก F กF F F F F F ก ก F FF ก FF ก ก F F ก F F F F F F F F F E21EIC F F F ก F Fก F F ก F THAILAND GROUP 1996 ก F F กก F F ก F F ก F ก F E21IZC F ก F ก F F F F ก กF F F F FF ก F ก F F Fก ก F ก F ก F F F . . F F กกF F ก ก F F F F F 73 HS5AYO 23 ก. . 412 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  3. 3. Q-CODE Q-SIGNALS ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 F ................................................................................................................................................................................. 12SIGNAL REPORT........................................................................................................................................................................ 16CW ก MCW F F F .................................................................................................................................................. 20 HERTZIAN ........................................................................................................................................................................... 21 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 ก (ATMOSPHERE)................................................................................................................................................... 27ก Fก ............................................................................................................................................................... 29 KNIFE - EDGE DIFFRACTION ............................................................................................................................................ 37 GRAY - LINE PROPAGATION ............................................................................................................................................ 37 LONG - PATH PROPAGATION ........................................................................................................................................... 38 F F ........................................................................................................................................................ 39 ก IONOSPHERIC LAYER ก F MUF........................................................................................ 39 SID : SUDDEN IONOSPHERE DISTURBANCE ................................................................................................................ 40 ก FADING ......................................................................................................................................... 41 THE SCATTER MODES ก ก F.................................................................................................................. 41 F ก F ..................................................................................................................................................... 43 ก F MF HF ........................................................................................................................................................ 43 FF F F .............................................................................................................. 49TECHNICAL TERMS................................................................................................................................................................... 57 F F F ก .......................................................................................................................... 65 ก ................................................................................................................................................... 71 ก ............................................................................................................................................................................ 72 AMPLITUDE MODULATION AM....................................................................................................................................... 72 FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM).................................................................................................................................... 73 PHASE MODULATION (PM) ............................................................................................................................................... 74 F F ......................................................................................................................................................................... 77 CW TRANSMITTER .............................................................................................................................................................. 77 F CW ก .............................................................................................................................................. 78 AM TRANSMITTER (AM) .................................................................................................................................................... 79 FM TRANSMITTER ............................................................................................................................................................... 81 RESONANT CIRCUIT F ............................................................................................................................... 86 ก OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT ........................................................................................................................ 87 TUNE CIRCUIT ............................................................................................................................................ 89 TRAP CIRCUIT ก ............................................................................................................................................. 89 ก FILTER CIRCUIT .................................................................................................................................... 89 F F ............................................................................................................................................ 92 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 3
  4. 4. F ก ก - F ................................................................................................................................................ 93 . 2498 .............................................................................................................................................................. 1004 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  5. 5. Q-CODE Q-SIGNALS F F ก Q-CODE FHAM ก F Q-CODE ก F ก F F ก F F ก F ก ก ก F F F ก ก F ก F F ก ก F ก Q-CODE ก F F ก ก ก ก F F ก F F ก Q-CODE F F F กARRL F HAM F F F F HAM F F Q-CODE ก ก FACE TO FACE QSO ก F F ก ก ก F F Q-CODE F F CW F F F ก ( PLAIN TEXT ) ก F F ก F F Q-CODE F F F F F F F ก ก F F F QRD ? ( ? F F Q-CODE )Q-CODE ก 3 ก ก 1 F ก QRD ? F ( F )ก F F ( F F ก ?) F ก F F ก ........ F QRD ก .QRD ก F ก F Fก F F QRX ? ก F ก F F กF F ก ? F F QTR ? ก ก Fก FกFQTR F ( ) ก F F HF F F Fก ก กก กF F F F F F F ก F ก Fก F F FF F F F F F ก F ก กF F F F กF F F ก กก F Fก F F F ก F ก F MODE F F HAM F F F QTR ก ก F F F QTR = F QTR FEYEBALL F F ก Fก F ก HAM F Q-CODE ก F กQ-CODE F กF F :- QRA - QRZ F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 5
  6. 6. QSA - QSZ QTA - QTZ QUA - QUZ ก F F F ก F ก ก ก F ก F F ก F ก ก ก F ก F ก Q-CODE ก F ก ก F F 2 F QRA - QRZQRA F F F .....................QRB F F F ก F F F F ................ก .QRC F F ก F F F ก .........QRD F ก F F F ก F Fก F F .... ก.....QRE F ...... ก....... F F .... ก .......QRF F ก ก ............ F Fก ก .................QRG F F F F F ..............MHz.QRH F F SHIFT F F SHIFTQRI TONE ก F F F F TONE ก F F ................ 1. F ก F 2. F ก 3. F F F ก ก F 4. F ก F 5. ก F ก 6. ก Fก ก F 7. ก ก F F 8. ก F 9. ก FQRJ F ก ก F Fก F F ก ก F F......QRK F F F ........ 1. F ก F F 2. F 3. ก 4. 5.QRL F F ก F F F F F F ก F ก .......... F กQRM F ก กก ก F F Fก ก QRM ก (QRM ก 1. F F ก6 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  7. 7. F ก ) 2. ก F 3. ก 4. F F ก 5. กQRN F ก F F F ก ก 1. F F ก 2. ก F 3. ก 4. F F ก 5. กQRO F ก FF F ก F F ก FQRP F ก FF F ก F ก FQRR F F F F F F F ...........WPM.QRS F ก FF F F F F ก F F ........WPM.QRT F F F F F F FQRU F F ก F F F F FQRV F F F F F F FQRW F F F F F กF.... F F ก ก ก F ........ F F ก ก ..........MHz. .........Mhz. FQRX F ก F F ก F F ก F ก ........... . ...........MHz.QRY F F F F F F F .QRZ F กF F F ก ก ก ............... ............MHz. QSA - QSZQSA F F F 1. F F 2. F 3. ก 4. 5.QSB F F F F ก ( FADING )QSC F ก F F F F ก FQSD ก F F F F ก F F (ก F )QSF F F ก F F F F F ก F ก F F ........ F F F .........QSG F F F F ก F F ........ F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 7
  8. 8. QSH F ก F D/F F F F F F ก F D/F F ....... F F CALLSIGN F F F F ก F ..........MHz.QSI F FQSJ F ก ก ก......... F F ก F ก ก ..... F F ก F F F F ก F F ...... ( ก )QSK F F F F F F F F Fก F Fก F F Fก F F F F F FQSL F ก F F F Fก F FQSM F F F ก F F F ก F F ...... ก FQSN F F F F ........ F F F F ...........MHz ...MHz FQSO F F ก ....... F F F ก ......... F ( ก F ) F F ( F ก F ก......)QSP F F F F ..... F F F F F F ..... F F กQSQ F F F F F F F ............. FQSR F ก F F F ก CALL FREQ ก ก ก CALL FREQ F ก F ก ก F F FQSS F F Fก F F F F F ........... MHzQST GENERAL CALL ARRL F ก ก F F F CQ ARRL F FQSU F F F F ก F ......MHz .............MHz FQSV F F F F V F F ก F VQSW F F F F F F FQSX F F ......................(CALLSIGN) F Fก ................ (CALLSIGN) .............MHz F F ..............MHzQSY F F F F ก F ...........MHzQSZ F F F F F กF ก F F 2 .......... QTA - QTZQTA F F F ก ก ..... Fก ก ก ...........QTB F F ก ก F F F F F F F F F ก F ก F F กF FQTC F F ก F F F F ........QTD F F F F F F F 1. F ......8 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  9. 9. 2. ก........ 3. ......QTE TRUE BEARING F F ก F F TRUE BEARING F กF F - - .............. ......... . TRUE BEARING F F ก........ TRUE BEARING .........(CALLSIGN) ก..... (CALLSIGN) F (CALLSIGN) ....... ....... . - - TRUE BEARING .....(CALLSIGN) ก.......(CALLSIGN) FQTF F F F F F F BEARING F ก BEARING F F ก D/F STATION D/F STATION F F F ..... F F F ....... ..... ...... .QTG ก F F2 10 F Fก F F2 F F F CALLSIGN F 10 F F CALLSIGN (.... ) ........MHz F F (....... ) ........MHz. - - F F F กF..........(CALLSIGN) F F F F F F กF...(CALLSIGN) F F F F2 10 F F2 10 F CALLSIGN (....... ) .......MHz. CALLSIGN (...... ) ...........MHz.QTH F F F F F F F . ...... ( )QTI F F ( F F .......... F ( ......... ก / ) ก )QTK F F F F ก ก...... F ก ก ( ... .ก / )QTL TRUE HEADING F F TRUE HEADING F F ....QTM MAGNETIC HEADING F F F MAGNETIC HEADING F F F ก ........QTN F ก ก ...... ( F ) F F ก ก........ ......... .QTO F ก ก F F F F F ก ก F ..................... - - - - F F F F FQTP F ก F F F F Fก F F - - - - F ก F F F Fก F ..................QTQ F Fก F F F F F F F F ก F F FQTR F F ................... .QTS F ก F CALLSIGN F F F F CALLSIGN F F F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 9
  10. 10. ก F ...... ก F F MHz F F ................MHz.QTT F FQTU F F F F ..... . ........ .QTV F F F GUARD F ก GUARD F .........MHz ..........MHz F ....... . ....... . F ...... . ........... .QTW ก F F F ก . F ก F .. FQTX F F F Fก F F F กF ก F ก ก F F F ก กก ก F FQTY F ก F F ก F F F Fก F F ก F ................ ............ .QTZ F ก F F F F F F ก F ......... F F ก ......... QUA - QUZQUA F F CALLSIGN F F F CALLSIGNQUB ก F F F กF F F F F F ก ......................... F F ................................................................ ก ............. ก ( ก )QUC F F F กF F F ก F F ก F F F ...QUD F F F F ก....( ) F F F F F F ก. . ....( )QUE F F ............ ( F F F .............. ก FF ) F F F F .............. MHz.QUF F F F F ก.... F F F F F ( ) F ก.................. ....................... .QUG F FF F F F F FF ...... ......... . FQUH F ก ก ก ก Fก F F ................ ( F )QUI F F F F F F Fก FQUJ ก F TRUE Track F F TRUE TRACK F F ........ ........ .QUK ก F ....... ( ) ........... ........ ( F) F FQUL ก F ก ........ F F ก . ( F F ..)QUM F F ก ก F F F ก ก FQUN F F F กF ก F F F TRUE COURSE F F F ....................................... - - ................................................................... F F F ..... ...................................................................10 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  11. 11. F F - - F F F กF ก . ....... F TRUE COURSE F FQUO F F ก F F กF .. . F ................... กF .. ..QUP F F F F F F F F F F F ก F ก F F FQUQ F F F กF F กF ก F F F F F F Fก F F F F ก F F FQUR F F * F ก F F F * F ก F F F * F F * F F * F ก F ก F * F ก F ก F F FQUS F F F F F * F * F *QUT F F F ก F ก F ... ....QUU F F ก F F F F F Fก F F F F F ... .( ,CALLSIGN ) F *ก F F F F CALLSIGN F ...................MHz *ก F TRUE TRACK Fก F .................... MHz.QUV F FQUW F F F ..... F F F F .. .... FQUY F F F F F ....... . F ......... ( )QUZ F F***** F Q-CODE ( 100 )***** Q-CODE F F ก HS1AQX ***** F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 11
  12. 12. FAA : ALL AFTERAA : NEW LINEAB : ALL BEFOREAR : END OF MESSAGEAS : WAIT , STANDBYABT : ABOUTADR : ADDRESSAGN : AGAINANT : ANTENNABCI : BROADCAST INTERFERENCEBT : F กFBCL : BROADCAST LISTENERBK : BREAK , BREAK ME , BREAK INBN : ALL BETWEEN , BEENBUG : SEMI AUTO KEY. ELBUG = F FB4 : BEFOREC : YESCFM : CONFIRM , I CONFIRMCK : CHECKCL : I AM CLOSING MY STATION , CALLCLD : CALLEDCLG : CALLINGCQ : CALLING ANY STATIONCUD : COULDCUL : SEE YOU LATERCW : CONTINUOUS WAVE ( F )DLD : DELIVEREDDLVD : DELIVEREDDR : DEARDX : DISTANCE , FOREIGN COUNTRYES : ANDFB : FINE BUSINESS , EXCELLENTFM : FREQUENCY MODULATIONGA : GO AHEADGB : GOOD BYEGBA : GIVE BETTER ADDRESSGE : GOOD EVENING12 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  13. 13. GG : GOINGGM : GOOD MORNINGGN : GOOD NIGHTGUD : GOODHI : TELEGRAPHIC LAUGH, HIGHHR : HERE, HEARHV : HAVEHW : HOW ( F HOW DO YOU COPY ?) F FLID : POOR OPERATOR ก F F F F ก ก ก ( F F ก F F )MA,MILS : MILLIAMPERESMSG : MESSAGEN : NONCS : NET CONTROL STATIONND : NOTHING DOINGNIL : NOTHING , I HAVE NOTHING FOR YOU ( RTTY )NM : NO MORENR : NUMBERNW : NOW , I RESUME TRANSMISSIONOB : OLD BOYOC : OLD CHAPOM : OLD MAN ( กF ก ก)OR,OPR : OPERATOROT : OLD TIMER , OLD TOPPBL : PREEMBLEPSE : PLEASEPWR : POWERPX : PRESSR : ARE , RECEIVED F F F F 100%RCD : RECEIVEDRX : RECEIVERRCVR : RECEIVERREF : REFER TO , REFERENCERFI : RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCERIG : STATION EQUIPMENTRPT : REPEAT , REPORTRTTY : RADIOTELETYPEF ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 13
  14. 14. SASE : SELF ADDRESSED and STAMPED ENVELOPESED : SAIDSIG : SIGNATURE , SIGNALSINE : NICK NAME (HANDLE = , )SKED : SCHEDULESN : UNDERSTOODSK : กFSRI : SORRYSSB : SINGLE SIDEBANDSVC : SERVICET : ZEROTFC : TRAFFICTMW : TOMORROWTNK,TKS : THANKSTT : THATTU : THANK YOUTVI : TELEVISION INTERFERENCETX : TRANSMITTERTXT : TEXTUR : YOU ARE , YOURURS : YOURSVA : SK กFVFO : VARIABLE FREQUENCY OSCILLATORVY : VERYWA : WORD AFTERWD : WORDWDS : WORDSWKD : WORKEDWKG : WORKINGWL : WELL , WILLWUD : WOULDWX : WEATHERXCVR : TRANSCEIVERXMTR : TRANSMITTERXTAL : CRYSTALXYL : WIFEYL : YOUNG LADYZAN : F F ( ก ก ก F F)14 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  15. 15. 73 : BEST REGARD88 : LOVE AND KISSก F ?1. F F F F F F - F Q-CODE QRL ? ก ก กF F F F F - F F C F YES ก F F QRL ? F - F ก ก F F2. F F ก ก CQ CQ-CALL - CQ CQ CQ DE HS5AYO K. 3 3 ก F F CQ F ก CQ ก - ก K Fก F F F ก F3. ก QSO - KN F F F F - AR ก F F - BK -R F F F 100%4. ก กF - SK QRZ = ก F F F - SK KN = ก F F F ก F - SK SZ = ก F STANDBY ก ก ก - SK (VA) = ก - CL = F I AM CLOSING MY STATION***** F F ก F F **** F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 15
  16. 16. SIGNAL REPORT F กก F ?ก F ก กF ก F กF F F F ก F F RST ก R= ก READABILITY S= F SIGNAL STRENGTH T= F TONER F5 1 = F F UNREADABLE 2 = F F ก 3 = F F ก ก 4 = F F ก 5 = F F FS F9 1 = F ก F F 2 = F ก VERY WEAK SIGNAL 3 = F WEAK SIGNAL 4 = F F FAIRY SIGNAL 5 = F FAIRY GOOD SIGNAL 6 = GOOD SIGNAL 7 = ก MODERATELY STRONG SIGNAL 8 = STRONG SIGNAL 9 = EXTREMELY STRONG SIGNAL F F F ก ก ก F F ก กก R ก ก F F F F F F ก F F ก Fก F F ก F F ก. Fก ก ก . F ก F BATT ก F . ก F ก F FT F9 1= F ก F 2= F ก VERY ROUGH AC , VERY HARSH AND BROAD 3= F F ก F F ก ก F F ROUGH AC TONE , RECTIFIED BUT NOT FILTERED 4= F ก ก ก F ROUGH NOTE , SOME TRACE OF FILTERING16 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  17. 17. 5 = ก F ก FF F F Fก RIPPLE MODULATED F 6 = ก F RIPPLE MODULATION 7 = ก RIPPLE MODULATION F ก F 8 = ก ก F ก 9 = F ก RIPPLE MODULATION ก ก F F FR-Sก F Fก F F F Fก F ก TONE F F ก F กF F F TONE FTONE F ก F ก CLICKS CHIRPS SUPER-IMPOSED HUM F ก F FTONE = 9 OK TONE REPORT ก F F F F POWER SUPPLY FILTER ก FกF ก ก AC RIPPLE F ก F F ก ก F F F F CRYSTAL CONTROL ก F F ก F F F F ก X RST 469 X F F F CHIRPS F F F F RST 469 C F F F KEY CLICKS KEY TRANSIENT F ก F F F RST 469 K CHIRPS KEY CLICKS ก F ก RST 469 CK F ก F RST F ก CW F HF F TONE SIGNAL F F F F F ก Fก F CW F F F3 F กF KEY CLICKS CHIRPS SUPERIMPOSED HUM F 3 F VOICE FกFKEY CLICKS F ก ก ก ก CW F F F ก ก F ON OFF KEY CLICKS KEY CLICKS F F กF F ก ก กF F ก ก ก กF F F F CW KEY CLICKS F WAVE FORM ก ก F F F F ก ก CW3.720 MHz F F F F OUTPUT ENERGY ก ก F 3.720 MHz F F F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 17
  18. 18. F ON-OFF TRANSMITTER OUTPUT F F กENERGY F F ก KEY CLICKS KHz F F F F F F F KEY CLICKS ก F F TURN ON ก TURN OFF F F ON-OFF F F F F ก F F F 40 / F F F F ก POWER = 0 F FULL POWER Fก 0 (ZERO) ก ก RISE TIME DECAY TIME RF OUTPUT MAKE BREAK TIME DELAY DELAY KEYER OUTPUT KEY DOWN KEY UP MAKE BREAK ก F ก F ก F ก NO POWER FULL POWER F RISE TIME ก ก FULL POWER ZERO POWER F FALL TIME (DECAY TIME) (A) (B) (C) A ก F CW F SHORT RISE TIME ก SHORT FALL TIME KEY CLICKS B F CW ก KEY CLICKS F WAVE FORM F F C F กF ก F ก GENERATE ก ก ก ก KEY CLICKS ENERGY F F KHz ก F F F ( - F )18 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  19. 19. กF KEY CLICKS F KEY CLICKS FILTER F SHAPING FILTER ENERGY F F F FTRANSMITTER OUTPUT F F F TRANSMITTER OUTPUT ก F F WAVE FORM F ก ENERGY F F F F ก KHz Fก F Hz F F F F F F F ก KEY CLICKS CW ? F F F SHORT RISE TIME SHORT FALL TIME F ก FCHIRPS CHIRPS ก ก ก ก F CHIRPS ก F F SHIFT ก F F กก ( F กก F F F OFF F ก ) CHIRPS F F F CHIRPING SOUND PURE TONE ก F F F กก ก F F CHIRPS ก ก กก OSCILLATORPOWER SUPPLY F ก F ก ก F F CHIRPS F F F ก F ก POWER SUPPLY F F VOLTAGE REGULATION F F VOLTAGE REGULATOR F กSHIFT F ก F F ก ก FF Fก ก ก ก F? AMPLIFIER STAGE F ก OSCILLATOR LOADING DOWN OSCILLATOR F F F F BUFFER ก F F MIXER ก F F F OSCILLATOR ก STAGEOSCILLATOR F Fก F ก ก F F F RESONANT FREQ. F F F F ก F ก ก ก F FSUPERIMPOSED HUM F F SUPERMIPOSED HUM ก POWER SUPPLY F ก F F ก AC RECTIFIER OUTPUT F DC OUTPUT F F CAPACITOR F F F Fก F F F F ก F AC ก กOUTPUT POWER SUPPLY ก AC ก OUTPUT F F AC ก RAPSY TONE CW SIGNAL F กก F F POWER SUPPLY FILTER FILTER ก Fก F กF F CW PHONE กก F F F ก F F F F ก F กF F F กF F FF ก F ก F ก F F ก F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 19
  20. 20. CW ก MCW F F F CODE PRACTICE OSCILLATOR AUDIO OUTPUT ก AUDIO OSCILLATOR KEY CODE PRACTICE OSCILLATOR Fก F F ก BATTERY OR POWER SUPPLY OSCILLATOR F F F INPUT F DC OPERATING VOLTAGE LOW POWER RF OSCILLATOR RF OUTPUT F F RF OSCILLATOR KEY F F ก F ก RF BATTERY OR OSCILLATOR F F F ก ก F ก ก F ก F F POWER SUPPLY ก ก ก F F F F F F ก F F ก F F ก ก ก F F CW ก F F F RF CARRIER ก F UNMODULATED CARRIER F F F RF CARRIER AMPLITUDE Fก F F ก F F ON OFF F F F ก F ก ON-OFF F F ก MODULATESIGNAL F F F F MODULATION ก ก VARYING AN RF.CARRIER F F F ก F F F F ก F Fก F F F F F ก ก ก F ก F F กF F F F F F F CW ก F F ก ก F F BLOCK XTAL OSCILLATOR DRIVER POWER AMPLIFIER DIAGRAM F CRYSTAL CW ( A) F B F TELEGRAPH KEY VFO CONTROLLED F (A)MCW VFO DRIVER POWER AMPLIFIER F F F ก ก F F FM ก F AUDIO TONE F F TELEGRAPH KEY ก Fก F AUDIO TONE ON OFF F MORSE (B)CODE MODULATED CW. MCWSIGNAL FF F FF F ก F ก ก F F F F F CW MCW MODULATION F ก F ก ก F20 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  21. 21. ก F F (TELEGRAPHY) MODULATION ก F 2ก F ก F AURAL RECEPTIONก F กF RTTY (RADIO TELETYPE), CONTINUOUS-WAVE, MORSE TELEGRAPHYก F F ก ON-OFF KEYING กF กF F F F OOK ก F F OOK ก F F ก CW F F F CW ก Fก ก Fก ก F F CW ก F OOK (OOK TELEGRAPHY) F MORSE CODE ก ก F F F F CW UNMODULATED CARRIER F OOK Fก F AMPLITUDE-SHIFT KEYING F ก F F ASK*** FCW ก F OOK TELEGRAPHY F FOOK ก ASKOOK F ก ON-OFF KEYING HERTZIAN . . .2498 4ก ก HERTZIAN F ก F F ITU ก F ก F 10 KCs 3,000,000 MCs (3 F กก ) 10 KHz - 3,000,000 MHz 10,000 Hz - 3,000,000,000,000 Hz (1012) 10 KHz - 3,000 GHz HERTZ - 3 F F HERTZ (3 THz) 100 Km - 0.1 mm (3 KHz - 3 THz) F RESTRICTED FREQUENCY ITU ก F ก F 10KHz - 275 GHz 10,000 Hz - 275,000,000,000 Hz /F F 300 - 3,400 Hz ก AM 5,000 Hz ก FM 15,000 Hz ก F ก F - ก F 1. 144.000 - 146.000 MHz 2. 7.000 - 7.100 MHz 3. 14.000 - 14.350 MHz 4. 21.000 -21.450 MHz 5. 28.000 - 29.700 MHzก F ก F 4 2530 ( ก F F ก F )F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 21
  22. 22. F VHF F F กF ก ก F F 1-2 F 144.000 - 144.050 MHz EME, F (ก ก ) 144.075 - 144.875 MHz F 144.900 MHz F ก F 144.925 - 144.975 MHz F 145.000 MHz F ก F ก 145.025 - 145.100 MHz REPEATER 145.125 - 145.450 MHz F 145.475 - 145.600 MHz F F (ก ก ) 145.625 - 145.700 MHz F REPEATER 145.725 MHz CW 145.750 - 145.800 MHz CW, F (ก ก ) 145.825 - 145.925 MHz ก ก / F (ก ก ) 145.950 146.000 MHz F F / F (ก ก ) --- ก 16 . . 2536 --- F HF ก F ก F 4 F ก F IARU F 40 7.000 - 7.100 MHz 7.000 - 7.300 MHz* F 20 14.000 - 14.350 MHz 14.000 - 14.350 MHz F 15 21.000 - 21.450 MHz 21.000 - 21.450 MHz F 10 28.000 - 29.700 MHz 28.000 - 29.700 MHz* F 40 BAND ก F IARUMODE F F 3 MODES 1. AM 2. FM 3. SSB* F F MODE F ก กก F ก. ก F ก 120 F . ก F ก 220 F22 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  23. 23. IARU HF BAND PLAN (OCTOBER 1992) กก F F REGION 3 THE REST OF ASIA AND OCEANIA. F frequency mode frequency mode 1800 - 1830 CW 18068 - 18100 CW 1830 - 1834 RTTY 18100 - 18110 NB 1834 - 1840 CW 18110 - 18168 PHONE 1840 - 2000 PHONE 21000 - 21070 CW 3500 - 3510 DX CW 21070 - 21125 NB 3510 - 3535 CW 21125 - 21149 CW 3535 - 3775 PHONE 21149 - 21151 BEACONS 3775 - 3800 DX PHONE 21151 - 21335 PHONE 3800 - 3900 PHONE 21335 - 21345 SSTV PHONE 21345 - 21450 PHONE 7000 - 7025 CW 7025 - 7030 NB 24890 - 24920 CW 7030 - 7040 NB CW PHONE 24920 - 24930 NB 7040 - 7300 PHONE 24930 - 24990 PHONE 10100 - 10140 CW 28000 - 28050 CW 10140 - 10150 NB 28050 - 28150 NB 28150 - 28190 CW 14000 - 14070 CW 28190 - 28200 BEACONS 14070 - 14099 NB 28200 - 28675 PHONE 14099 - 14101 BEACONS 28675 -28685 SSTV, PHONE 14101 - 14112 NB PHONE 28685 - 29300 PHONE 14112 - 14225 PHONE 29300 - 29510 SATELLITES. 14225 - 14235 SSTV PHONE 29510 - 29700 WB (6 KHz) 14235 - 14350 PHONE : 1. CW F F F กF F F F ก 2. 2 F SUBBAND ก F F กF 3. BEACONS Fก กF F 10 Fก ก 1993/1/1 4. DIGIMODE NB RTTY AMTOR PACKET F F F PACTOR ก CLOVER 5. NB NAROW BAND DIGITAL MODE ก 6. WB (6 KHz) F HF BAND PLAN IARU F F F F ก F F ก ก MODE ก F F F ก F ก กF F F F ก F F MODE F F JOHN S VAJO W2ZWW ก HS0ZAA F FFF F HF ก ก ก . F HS0ZAA F FF ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 23
  24. 24. 40 METERS (7.000 - 7.100 MHz) HF F 40 F ก ก F F F กFF ก F F F ก F F F ก F F F F HF SSB (J3E)CW (A1A) Fก F F F CW Fก F F F 40 F ก (NOISY) ก ก ก F F F ก กREGION 3 ก F กก HAM ก F F20 METERS (14.000 - 14.350 MHz) F FF F Fก ก ก ก BANDOPEN ก F 6 F 8 F EARLY MORNING F 20 F ก ก 6 4 F ก Fก FF ก ก 6 F CONTACT ก F F BAND ก OPEN F ก F15 METERS (21.000 - 21.450 MHz) ก F Fก F ก F SUNRISE / DAYLIGHT / TWILIGHT BAND ก F F ก BAND F Fก Fก FPACIFIC AUSTRALIA F F F F ก CONTACT ก ก ก F 10 F Fก F F F F F 3 F ก Fก F F10 METERS (28.000 - 29.700 MHz) F F ก F 10 F ก F F F Fก F F 20 Fก FPROBLEM AREAS F F ก กFก ก F F F กF PRIMARYOVERLOAD ก ก ก F F HARMONIC SIGNAL กก F TV F ก TV F 3 ก HF INTERFERENCE F HF F F F F ก TV F ก F F HIGH PASS FILTER กF ก ก ก F TV ก F HIGHPASS FILTER ก F HIGHPASS FILTER F Fก ก HIGHPASS FILTER CUTOFFFREQUENCY 54 MHz ก 80 dB F F TV F 3 F ก ก 55 - 56 MHzGROUNDING OF THE STATION ก ก 220 AC F COMMON GROUND F (3 )ก F F ก FILTER ก F POWER LINE F ก F POWER LINE F ก F HAM F FILTER F Fก F FILTER ก F F ก F F F F F ก F F F F F กF ก ก ก F ก F F F ก ก24 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  25. 25. F F F ก ก TV F F กก F กF F F ก ก F ก F F F ก F F F ก TVI ก F ก F F ก ก ก FF F ก F AB F CD F F (AMPLITUDE) (WAVE LENGTH) A F F F ก(AMPLITUDE) C B E H F ก ก D G AF ก F (WAVELENGTH) ก (CYCLE)ก กE F G F F H กFก ก 1 CYCLE F F (SINE WAVE)ก F F CYCLE F ก F F 100CYCLES กF 100 CYCLES / SEC F F HERTZ F ก F F Hz (AUDIO WAVE OR AUDIO FREQUENCY) F F F F ก F F F F 20- 20,000 Hz F Fก FF ก F F F F ก ก ก F F ก F ก F F F  กF F F Fก ก กF ก F ก Fก ก F ก F ก F ก F F F F F F กก F F F 2000 Hz 15,000 Hz Fก F F F (RADIO WAVE OF RADIO FREQUENCY) F ก F F 10 KHz 300 GHz (109) F 8 186,000 F/ 3 x 10 / (300 F / 3 ก ./ ) Fก F=V/λ F= (Hz) V= = 3 x 108 / λ= ( ) F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 25
  26. 26. F ก (ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE) ก กก ก Fก F F ก F ก F ก (MAGNETIC FIELD) ก F ก Fก (ELECTRIC FIELD) F F ก F F ก F F ก F2 ก F ก ก F ก F ก F ก 0 - 400 Hz 0 - 750 Km. 20 Hz 20 KHz 15000 Km - 15 Km 3 KHz - 3 THz (1012) 100 Km - 0.1 mm F ก Fก 300 GHz - 375 THz 1 mm - 0.8 µm ก Fก 375 THz - 750 THz 0.8µm - 0.4 µm 750 THz - 3 x 104 THz 0.4 µm - 10 nm ก F 3 x 103 - 3 x 107 THz 100 nm - 10 pm ก F 3 x 106 - 3 x 109 THz 100 pm - 0.1 pm 6 x 108 THz 0.5 pm ก F ก FVLF (VERY LOW FREQ.) 3 - 30 KHz 100 km - 10 km F F ก ก ก -LF (LOW FREQ.) 30 - 300 KHz 10 km - 1 km ก F กFMF (MEDIUM FREQ.) 300 KHz - 3 MHz 1 km - 100 m F F AM,HF (HIGH FREQ.) 3 - 30 MHz 100 m - 10 m ก F ก F HAMVHF (VERY HIGH FREQ.) 30 - 300 MHz 10 m - 1 m TV F 2-13, FM, HAMUHF (ULTRA HIGH FREQ.) 300 MHz - 3 GHz 1 m - 10 cm TV F 14-83 FSHF (SUPER HIGH FREQ.) 3 GHz - 30 GHz 10 cm - 1 cm FEHF (EXTREMELY HIGH FREQ.) 30 GHz - 300 GHz 1 cm - 1 mm F F F F 300 GHz - 3 THz 1 mm - 0.1 mm F F26 F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996
  27. 27. ก. F ก F HERTZ F 3 1 KHz (Kilo Hertz) = 10 Hz 1 MHz (Mega Hertz) = 106 Hz 1 GHz (Giga Hertz) = 109 Hz 1 THz (Tera Hertz) = 1012 Hz . F กF กF F 3 1 Km (Kilometer) = 10 METER 1 cm (Centimeter) = 10-2 METER 1 mm (Millimeter) = 10-3 METER 1 µm (Micrometer) = 10-6 METER 1 nm (Nanometer) = 10-9 METER 1 pm (Picometer) = 10-12 METER . ก F (GAMMA RAYS) F ก ก F ก ก ก ก F ก กก F ก F . (COSMIC RAY) กF ก F F F F F F กF ก F ก F ก 1.5 200 ก (ATMOSPHERE) ก F F ก Fก Fก F ก ก F F ก F F ก F ก F F F F กก F กF ก ก ก F ก F F F ก F ก ก F F ก Fก F ก F F ก ก F F ก F ก 3TROPOSPHERE F ก ก 0-15 ก . F  F F ก F F Fก ก F ก ก Fก Fก ก ก F VHFSTARTOSPHERE F ก ก 15-50 ก . ก F F ก FIONOSPHERE F ก ก 50-500 ก . ก ก F ION ก ก F ก F (FREE ELECTRON DENSITY) ก F FD-LAYER ก ก 50-90 ก . ก ก ก F ก ก ION ก F กก F ION ก FREE ELECTRON ก ก F ก F ก F HS5AYO THAILAND GROUP 1996 27

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