CML2118 Introduction To Law 2008, Lecture 6

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CML2118 Introduction To Law 2008, Lecture 6

  1. 1. Today: 1. Finish History and Heritage of the Canadian Legal System 2. Introducing divisions of law
  2. 2. Joining of Common Law and Equity Rules of law and equity 96.(1)Courts shall administer concurrently all rules of equity 96. and the common law. R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 96 (1); 1993, c. 27, Sched. Rules of equity to prevail (2)Where a rule of equity conflicts with a rule of the common law, the rule of equity prevails. R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 96 (2); 1993, c. 27, Sched. Act, Courts of Justice Act, R.S.O. 1990, C.43.
  3. 3. Political Developments and the Courts • Parliament composed of regional representatives • Acted as court of last resort • 1332: Split into House of Commons and House of Lords • Lords retain judicial function today • Parliamentary Supremacy, Responsible Government, and Judicial Independence
  4. 4. Adoption of English Law in Canada • Date of Introduction vs. Date of Reception • Continued oversight by Judicial Committee of the Privy Council until 1949 • Confederation through the BNA (Constitution Act, 1867)
  5. 5. Introducing Divisions of Law
  6. 6. System of writs led to modern branches of law
  7. 7. Contract Law: covenant, assumpsit, debt Tort Law: trespass vi et armis, trespass on the case, trover Administrative Law: certiorari, habeus corpus
  8. 8. modern divisions in law but also recent collapsing of divisions
  9. 9. Conflict of Laws Domestic vs. Foreign Law Domestic vs. International Law
  10. 10. Domestic vs. Foreign Laws
  11. 11. Conflict of Laws example Morguard Investments Ltd. v. De Savoye, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1077.
  12. 12. Conflict of Laws example Morguard Investments Ltd. v. De Savoye, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1077. De Savoye Morguard Investments
  13. 13. Conflict of Laws example Morguard Investments Ltd. v. De Savoye, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1077. De Savoye Morguard Investments Ratio: “real and substantial connection”
  14. 14. Conflict of Laws example 2 Unifund v. ICBC, [2003] 2 S.C.R. 63, 2003 SCC 40.
  15. 15. Conflict of Laws example 2 Unifund v. ICBC, [2003] 2 S.C.R. 63, 2003 SCC 40. Marcia and Ronald Brennan Owner, driver Unifund and garage of Ontario Insurance Corp of British Columbia
  16. 16. Conflict of Laws example 2 Unifund v. ICBC, [2003] 2 S.C.R. 63, 2003 SCC 40. Marcia and Ronald Brennan Owner, driver Unifund and garage of Ontario Insurance Corp of British Columbia Ratio: Ontario Insurance Act inapplicable to ICBC
  17. 17. Domestic vs. International Law
  18. 18. Domestic vs. International Law • Treaties • Domestic law • International courts and tribunals • Application of Canadian law in Canada to nonCanadians • Application of Canadian law outside Canada
  19. 19. Application of Canadian law outside Canada 6. (2) Subject to this Act or any other Act of Parliament, no person shall be convicted or discharged under section 730 of an offence committed outside Canada. Criminal Code of Canada, R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 6. Anyone with internet access? Look up ss. 7(1)(b) and 7(2.31).
  20. 20. Form vs. Substance Procedure vs. Substantive Law
  21. 21. Substantive Law • Establishes legal relations • Provides for substantive rights • Provides for consequences of violations • Substantive law applied as at time of events
  22. 22. Procedural Law • Deals with the legal process used to enforce substantive rights • Different areas of substantive law have different procedural rules • Provides for process, parties, limitations, appeals and review, evidence, questioning • Procedural law applied as at time of trial
  23. 23. Evidence • A branch of procedural law • Differs in different areas of law • Best Evidence rule • “Hearsay” • General rule: To be admitted, evidence must be relevant and reliable • “Examination in chief” vs. “Cross−examination”
  24. 24. Distinguishing Proc. and Subst. rights • Substantive law applied as at time of events • Procedural law applied as at time of trial • Courts required to categorize rights • Justification for this difference?
  25. 25. For next class… Legal Reasoning • Pages 114−131 • In class, we will discuss the cases on pp. 132−146 (Carbolic Smokeball and Donoghue v. Stevenson)

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