Modern hindigrammar

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Modern hindigrammar

  1. 1. Modern Hindi GrammarOmkar N. Koul
  2. 2. Modern Hindi Grammar Omkar N. Koul
  3. 3. Modern Hindi Grammar Omkar N. Koul 2008 Dunwoody Press
  4. 4. Modern Hindi GrammarCopyright © 2008 by McNeil Technologies, Inc.All rights reserved.No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or byany means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying andrecording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without theprior written permission of McNeil Technologies, Inc.All inquiries should be directed to:Dunwoody Press6564 Loisdale Ct., Suite 800Springfield, VA 22150, USAISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5Library of Congress Control Number: 2004113175Printed and bound in the United States of America
  5. 5. ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-59 781931 546065
  6. 6. Table of ContentsPreface ..........................................................................................iAbbreviations............................................................................ iiiReferences ..................................................................................iv1. Introduction 1.1. Area and Its Speakers......................................................... 1 1.2. Dialects and Classification ................................................. 1 1.3. Hindi - Urdu ....................................................................... 2 1.4. Linguistic Characteristics................................................... 4 1.5. Status .................................................................................. 4 1.6. Grammars in Hindi ............................................................ 72. Phonology 2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental) ...................................... 11 2.1.1. Distinctive Segments .................................................. 11 Vowels ................................................................................ 11 Consonants .......................................................................... 12 2.1.2. Description of Phonemes ............................................ 12 2.1.2.1. Vowels ................................................................... 12 2.1.2.2. Consonants ............................................................. 14 2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones ............ 19 2.2. Phonotactics ..................................................................... 20 2.2.1. Vowel Sequences ........................................................ 20 2.2.2. Consonant Clusters ..................................................... 20 2.2.2.1. Word-initial Cosonant Clusters .............................. 20 2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant Clusters .......................... 21 2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant Clusters .............................. 23 2.2.3. Syllable Structure ........................................................ 24 2.3. Supersegmental Features ................................................. 25 2.3.1. Nasalization................................................................. 25 2.3.2. Length ......................................................................... 26 2.3.3. Stress ........................................................................... 26 2.3.4. Intonation .................................................................... 27 2.3.5. Juncture ....................................................................... 29 2.4. Morphophonemics ........................................................... 30 2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme ......................................................... 30 2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme .................................................. 30 2.4.3. Alternations ................................................................. 31
  7. 7. 3. Morphology 3.1. Nouns ............................................................................... 33 3.1.1. Noun Inflection ........................................................... 33 3.1.1.1. Gender .................................................................... 33 3.1.1.2. Number .................................................................. 35 3.1.1.3. Case ........................................................................ 36 3.1.2. Postpositions ............................................................... 37 3.1.2.1. The Postposition nao ne ............................................. 37 3.1.2.2. The Postposition kao ko ............................................ 41 3.1.2.3. The Postposition sao se ............................................. 47 3.1.2.4. The Postposition maoM mẽ ............................................ 52 3.1.2.5. The Postposition pr par .......................................... 53 3.1.2.6. The Postposition ka ka ............................................ 55 3.1.2.7. Compound Postpositions........................................ 57 3.1.3. Noun Derivation.......................................................... 68 3.1.3.1. Nouns from Nouns ................................................. 68 3.1.3.2. Nouns from Adjectives .......................................... 70 3.1.3.3. Nouns from Verbs .................................................. 71 3.1.4. Noun Compounds ....................................................... 72 3.1.4.1. Noun-Noun Compounds ........................................ 73 3.1.4.2. Copulative Compounds .......................................... 73 3.1.4.3. Reduplicated Compounds ...................................... 73 3.1.4.4. Partially Duplicated Compounds ........................... 73 3.1.4.5. Superordinate Compounds ..................................... 74 3.1.4.6. Complex Compounds............................................. 74 3.1.4.7. Hybrid Compounds ................................................ 74 3.1.4.8. Adjective-Noun Compounds.................................. 74 3.1.4.9. Modifier-Noun Compounds ................................... 75 3.2. Pronouns .......................................................................... 75 3.2.1. Personal Pronouns ....................................................... 75 3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns ............................................. 77 3.2.3. Relative Pronouns ....................................................... 77 3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns ..................................................... 77 3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns ................................................ 78 3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns ..................................................... 79 3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns ........................................ 79 3.2.8. Compound Pronouns ................................................... 80 3.3. Adjectives ........................................................................ 81 3.3.1. Inflected ...................................................................... 82 3.3.2. Uninflected .................................................................. 82 3.3.3. Types of Adjectives .................................................... 82 3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives................................................... 84
  8. 8. 3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives ............................................. 85 3.3.6. Numerals ..................................................................... 88 3.3.6.1. Cardinals ................................................................ 88 3.3.6.2. Ordinals .................................................................. 90 3.3.6.3. Fractions ................................................................. 91 3.3.6.4. Multiplicatives ....................................................... 92 3.3.6.5. Approximation ....................................................... 92 3.3.6.6. Aggregation............................................................ 933.4. Verbs ................................................................................ 93 3.4.1. The Verb hona: ........................................................... 93 3.4.2. Main Verbs.................................................................. 95 3.4.2.1. Intransitive Verbs ................................................... 95 3.4.2.2. Transitive Verbs ..................................................... 96 3.4.2.3. Ditransitive Verbs .................................................. 98 3.4.2.4. Causative Verbs ..................................................... 98 3.4.2.5. Dative Verbs ........................................................ 100 3.4.2.6. Conjunct Verbs .................................................... 102 3.4.2.7. Compound Verbs ................................................. 103 3.4.3. Tense ......................................................................... 105 3.4.4. Aspect ....................................................................... 107 3.4.4.1. Habitual Aspect .................................................... 107 3.4.4.2. Progressive Aspect ............................................... 111 3.4.4.3. Perfective Aspect ................................................. 113 3.4.5. Mood ......................................................................... 116 3.4.5.1. Indicative Mood ................................................... 116 3.4.5.2. Imperative Mood .................................................. 116 3.4.5.3. Subjuntive Mood .................................................. 119 3.4.6. Voice ......................................................................... 121 3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms .............................................. 122 3.4.7.1. Infinitives ............................................................. 122 3.4.7.2. Participles ............................................................. 124 3.4.7.2.1. Imperfective Participles .................................. 125 3.4.7.2.2. Perfective Participles....................................... 126 3.4.7.2.3. Conjunctive Participles ................................... 1283.5. Adverbs .......................................................................... 129 3.5.1. Types of Adverbs ...................................................... 130 3.5.2. Expressions of Time ................................................. 133 3.5.2.1. General Time Expressions ................................... 133 3.5.2.2. Time of Day ......................................................... 133 3.5.2.3. Period of Day ....................................................... 135 3.5.2.4. Days of the Week ................................................. 135 3.5.2.5. Months of the Year .............................................. 135
  9. 9. 3.5.2.6. Year ...................................................................... 136 3.5.2.7. Seasons ................................................................. 136 3.5.3. Frequentative............................................................. 137 3.6. Particles .......................................................................... 137 3.6.1. The Particle Bar bhi: ‘also’ ......................................... 137 3.6.2. The Particle hI hi: ...................................................... 150 3.6.3. The Particle tao to........................................................ 155 3.6.4. The Particle tk tak ‘up to’......................................... 157 3.6.5. The Particle Bar bhar .................................................. 158 3.6.6. The Particle maa~ ma:tr ................................................ 159 3.7. Connectives .................................................................... 160 3.7.1. Mono-morphemic ..................................................... 161 3.7.2. Poly-morphemic ........................................................ 161 3.7.3. Phrasal ....................................................................... 161 3.8. Interjections.................................................................... 1624. Syntax 4.1. Structure of Phrases ....................................................... 165 4.1.1. Noun Phrase .............................................................. 165 4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases ............................................... 171 4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases ..................................................... 173 4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases ..................................................... 176 4.2. Structure of Clauses ....................................................... 179 4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses .................................................. 179 4.2.2. Noun Clauses ............................................................ 180 4.2.2.1. Finite Noun Clauses ............................................. 181 4.2.2.1.1. The ik ki Complement Clauses........................ 181 4.2.2.1.2. Direct and Indirect Speech .............................. 182 4.2.2.1.3. Non-finite Noun Clause .................................. 184 4.2.3. Relative Clauses ........................................................ 187 4.2.3.1. Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses ............... 189 4.2.3.2. Non-finite Relative Clauses ................................. 194 4.2.3.3. Finite Relative Clauses......................................... 195 4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses ..................................................... 198 4.2.4.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time .................................. 198 4.2.4.2. Manner Clauses .................................................... 200 4.2.4.3. Purpose Clauses ................................................... 202 4.2.4.4. Cause Clauses ...................................................... 203 4.2.4.5. Condition Clauses ................................................ 204 4.2.4.6. Concession Clauses .............................................. 205 4.2.4.7. Result Clauses ...................................................... 206
  10. 10. 4.3. Sentence Construction ................................................... 207 4.3.1. Copular Sentences ..................................................... 207 4.3.2. Verbal Sentences ....................................................... 211 4.3.2.1. Direct Object ........................................................ 213 4.3.2.2. Indirect Object ..................................................... 214 4.3.2.3. Other Types of Verb Argument ........................... 215 4.3.3. Negation .................................................................... 216 4.3.3.1. Sentential Negation .............................................. 216 4.3.3.2. Constituent Negation ........................................... 217 4.3.3.3. Double/Multiple Negation ................................... 220 4.3.3.4. Negation and Coordination .................................. 220 4.3.3.5. Negation and Subordination................................. 221 4.3.4. Interrogative .............................................................. 222 4.3.4.1. Yes-No Questions ................................................ 222 4.3.4.1.1. Neutral Yes-No Questions .............................. 222 4.3.4.1.2. Leading Questions........................................... 225 4.3.4.2. Question-Word Questions .................................... 226 4.3.4.3. Echo-Questions .................................................... 246 4.3.4.3.1. Yes-No Echo-Questions .................................. 246 4.3.4.3.2. Question-Word Echo-Questions ..................... 248 4.3.4.4. Answers................................................................ 250 4.3.5. Imperatives ................................................................ 254 4.3.5.1. Unmarked or True Imperatives ............................ 254 4.3.5.2. Prohibitive Imperatives ........................................ 255 4.3.5.3. Degrees of Imperatives ........................................ 257 4.3.6. Anaphora ................................................................... 260 4.3.7. Reflexives ................................................................. 263 4.3.8. Reciprocals ................................................................ 269 4.3.9. Equatives ................................................................... 271 4.3.10. Comparison ............................................................. 274 4.3.11. Superlatives ............................................................. 277 4.3.12. Coordination ........................................................... 278 4.3.12.1. Coordination and Accompaniment .................... 286 4.3.12.2. Structural Constraints......................................... 2875. Lexicon 5.1. Animals, Birds and Insects............................................. 293 5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables ..................................... 294 5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals ......................................... 296 5.4. Miscellaneous Items....................................................... 296 5.5. Body Parts ...................................................................... 302 5.6. Occupations.................................................................... 303
  11. 11. 5.7. Kinship Terms ................................................................ 3055.8. Adjectives ...................................................................... 3075.9. Verbs .............................................................................. 3105.10. Adverbs ........................................................................ 3155.11. Conjunctions ................................................................ 3175.12. Pronouns ...................................................................... 317
  12. 12. PrefaceModern Hindi Grammar aims at providing basic information onvarious aspects of Hindi phonology, morphology, and syntax alongwith their unique features or characteristics.Hindi has a special status in India. It is spoken by the largestpopulation in India. It is the official language of the Union of Indiaand eleven state governments, including Delhi. It is taught as asecond language in all the non-Hindi speaking states under the three-language formula. Under this formula, a child is supposed to learnhis mother tongue, Hindi, and English. If a child’s mother tongue isHindi, (s)he is expected to learn an additional modern Indianlanguage or a foreign language. Hindi is taught as a foreign languagein a large number of countries throughout the world. Besides need-based language learning materials, there is a need for apedagogically oriented grammar of this language. The presentgrammar aims to fulfill the need of second/foreign language learnersof Hindi in India as well as other countries. A large number of Hindispeakers have settled in non-Hindi speaking states in India, or havemigrated and settled abroad. The second generation of thesemigrants is fast losing contact with their mother tongue in theabsence of its use in various domains of their day-to-day life in aliensurroundings. They are looking for suitable language learningmaterials including pedagogically oriented grammars formaintaining the language among their children.Hindi has a long tradition of grammars and grammatical literature.The existing grammars mentioned in the introduction as well as inreferences are either too old and do not describe modern spoken andwritten Hindi, or they are sketchy or too scholarly or detailed. Theydo not fulfill the needs of second and/or foreign language learners orthose native speakers who want to maintain the language in an alienatmosphere.This grammar is pedagogically oriented. It will be of special interestto Hindi language learners and teachers in different situations. It willalso be of interest to linguists and researchers working in the area oflanguage typology, and to general readers as well. i
  13. 13. In Modern Hindi Grammar we have utilized simple terminology andprovided suitable descriptions with tables for grammaticalcategories, phrases, and sentence types. The introduction gives asurvey of the Hindi speaking area and the number of its speakers, itsclassification and dialects, Hindi-Urdu relationship, the status ofHindi and its use in administration, education and mass media, Hindigrammars, and the objectives of the present grammar. Thephonology section describes segmental phonemes, suprasegmentals,and morphophonology. The morphology provides a description ofdifferent word classes: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals,adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections. It deals withinflectional as well as derivational morphology. The syntaxdescribes the structure of phrases, sentence types, complex andcompound constructions, special word order variations, and otherintricate syntactic features. The lexicon presents a list of usefulclassified vocabulary which is useful for students and teachers ofHindi as well as general readers. This grammar emphasizes specialfeatures of Hindi that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages.In short, it will fulfill the needs of the basic language learner as wellas provide useful information for the linguist and the general reader.I would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Thomas Creamer,Director, Language Research Center (a division of McNeilTechnologies) for asking me to write this grammar and for decidingto publish it. I would like to thank Prof. Anjani Kumar Sinha, andProf. Kashi Wali for going through the first draft of it and foroffering useful comments and suggestions. Finally, I would like tothank my colleagues at the Indian Institute of Language Studies forproviding their assistance.I hope students, researchers, teachers, and linguists will find thisbook useful.Omkar N. Koul ii
  14. 14. Abbreviations1. first person NP noun phrase2. second person obl oblique3. third person part particleabl ablative case pass passiveadv adverb pl pluralasp aspirated pol politeaux auxiliary poss possessivecaus causative postp postpositioncond conditional pre presumptivecor correlative prox proximatecp conjunctive participle psp past participledat dative ptc participleemp emphatic q question particleerg ergative refl reflexivefut future rel relativegen genitive case rem remotehon honorific sbj subjunctive moodimp imperative sg singularimpf imperfective unas unaspiratedinf infinitive VP verb phraseindef indefinite vd voicedms masculine singular vl voicelessneg negative * ungrammaticalnom nominativenon hon non honorific iii
  15. 15. ReferencesAbbi, Anvita 1980. Semantic Grammar of Hindi: A Study in Reduplication. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.___. 1984. The conjuctive participle in Hindi-Urdu. In International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 13: 252-63.Agnihotri, Rama Kant 2007. Hindi: An Essential Grammar. London: Routledge.Bahl, Kali Charan 1967. A Reference Grammar of Hindi. Chicago: University of Chicago (mimeographed).___. 1974. Studies in the Semantic Structure of Hindi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Bahri, U.S. ( ed.) 1981. Topics in Hindi Linguistics. vol. 1.New Delhi: Bahri Publications.Bhatia, Kailash Chandra 1964.Consonant Sequences in Standard Hindi. In Indian Linguistics, 25: 206-12.Bhatia, Tej K.1987. A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition: Hindi-Hindustani Grammar, Grammarians, History and Problems. Leiden: E. J. Brill.___. 1993. Punjabi: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar. London: Routledge.___. 1995. Negation in South Asian Languages. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.Comrie, B. and N. Smith 1977. Lingua Descriptive Series Questionnaire. Lingua 42,1: 1-71. Special Issue.Das, Pradeep Kumar 2006. Grammatical Agreement in Hindi-Urdu and its Major Variations. Munich: Lincom Europa.Davison, Alice 2000. Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Hindi/Urdu. In Lust, Barbara C. et.al. (eds.) Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Fairbanks, Gordon H. and Bal Govind Misra 1966. Spoken and Written Hindi. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.___. and P.B. Pandit 1965. Hindi: A Spoken Approach. Poona: Deccan College.Gambhir, Surendra K. Spoken Hindi-Urdu 1978. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for South Asian Studies.Gumperz, John J. and June Rumery 1967. Conversational Hindi- Urdu. Devanagri edition by Ripley Moore and S.M. Jaiswal. Delhi: Radhakrishna Prakashan. 2 Volumes.Guru, Kamta Prasad 1920. Hindi vya:karan. Kashi: Lakshmi Narayan Press. (1962 edition). iv
  16. 16. Hook, Peter Edwin 1974. The Compound Verb in Hindi. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan.___. 1970. Hindi Structures: An Intermediate Level. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan.Jagananathan, V. R. 1981. parayog aur prayog. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Jagannathan, V.R. and Ujjal Singh Bahri 1973. Introductory Course in Spoken Hindi: A Microwave Approach To Language Teaching Chandigarh. Bahri Publications.Kachru, Yamuna and Rajeshwari Pandharipande 1983. Intermediate Hindi. Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.Kachru, Yamuna 1966. An Introduction to Hindi Syntax. Urbana: The University of Illinois. (Mimeographed)___. 1978. On relative clause formation in Hindi-Urdu. Linguistics, 207: 5-26.___. 1980. Aspects of Hindi Grammar. New Delhi: Manohar.___. 2006. Hindi. Amsterdam: John Benjamin.Kelkar, Ashok R.1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu I: Introduction and Word Phonology. Poona: Deccan College.Kellog, S. H. 1876. A Grammar of the Hindi Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul ( 3rd edition 1963).Klaiman, M. H. 1976. Topicalization and Relativization in Hindi. In Indian Linguistics, 37: 315-33.Koul, Omkar N. (ed.) 1982. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 2. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.___. 1982. Coordinating Conjunctions in Hindi. In Koul, Omkar N. (ed.) Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 2.___. (ed.) 1994. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 3. New Delhi: Bahari Publications.___. 1994a. Use of Indian Languages in Administration. In Koul, Omkar N. (ed.) Language Development and Administration. New Delhi: Creative, 109-17.___. 1994b. Common Bases of Hindi and Urdu. In Gaveshna Vol. 63-64: 267-78.___. 1994c. Hindi Phonetic Reader. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.___. (ed.) 1999a. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 4. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.___. 1999b. The Use of Particles in Hindi. In Koul, Omkar N. (ed.) Topics in Hindi Linguistics, Vol.4, 61-75.___. 1999c. Interrogative Questions in Hindi. In Koul, Omkar N. (ed.), Topics in Hindi Linguistics, Vol.4, 165-187. v
  17. 17. ___. and Kashi Wali 2006. Modern Kashmiri Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.Masica, Colin P. 1976. Defining a Linguistic Area: South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.___. 1981. Identified object marking in Hindi and other languages. In Koul, Omkar N (ed.) 1982.McGregor, R. S. 1995. Outline of Hindi Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (3rd edition).Mehrotra, R. C. 1980. Hindi Phonology: A Synchronic Description of the Contemporary Standard. Raipur: Bhashika Prakashan.Mehrotra, R.R. 1977. Terms of Kinship, Modes of Address andReference in Hindi. A Study in Anthropological Linguistics.New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Mitner, V. 1969. Hindi. In Sebeok (ed.) Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol 5 Linguistics in South Asia. The Hague: Mouton.Montaut, Annie 1994. Reflexivisation et focalisation en hinid/oordou. In Bulletin de la society Linguistique de Paris, 89: 83-120.___. 2005. A Grammar of Hindi. Munich: Lincom Europa.Misra, K.S. 1977. Terms of Address and Pronominal Usage in Hindi. A Sociolinguistic Study. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.Ohala, Manjri 1983. Aspects of Hindi Phonology. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Porizka, Vincenc. 1963. Hindi Language Course. Prague. Statni pedagogicke nakladatelstvi (Revised edition 1972).Pray, Bruce 1970. Topics in Hindi-Urdu Grammar. Berkeley: Center for South Asian Studies, University of California.Rai, A. 1984. A House Divided: The Origin and Development of Hindi/Hindavi. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Rajgopalan, N.V. 1973. Hindi ka bhashavaigyanik vya:karan. Agra: Kendriya Hindi Sansthan.Schmidt, Ruth Laila 1999. An Essential Grammar of Urdu. London: Routledge.Schmidt, Ruth Laila 2003. Urdu. In Cardona, George and Dhanesh Jain (eds.) The Indo-Aryan Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 286-350.Shapiro, Michael C. 1989. A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Shapiro, Michael C. 2003. Hindi. In Cardona, George and Dhanesh Jain (eds.) The Indo-Aryan Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 250-285. vi
  18. 18. Sharma, Aryendra 1958. A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. New Delhi: Central Hindi Directorate (Fifth Edition 1994).Shukla, Shaligram 2000. Hindi Phonology. Munich: Lincom Europa.___. 2001. Hindi Morphology. Munich: Lincom Europa.Singh, K.S. (ed.) 1978. Readings in Hindi-Urdu Linguistics. New Delhi: National Publishing House.Singh, Rajendra and Rama Kant Agnihotri 1997. Hindi Morphology: A Word-Based Description. Delhi: Motilal Bnarsidass.Singh, Suraj Bhan 1999. Concept of Semantic Field and Collocation in Hindi/Urdu Lexicography. In Koul, Omkar N. (ed.) Topics in Hindi Linguistics,Vol 4, 143-63.___. 2003. angrezi-hindi anuva:d vya:karan (English – Hindi Translation Grammar). Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan.Sinha, Anjani Kumar, 1973. Factivity and relations between main and subordinate clauses in Hindi. In Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Linguistics, 351-58.Srivastava, R. N. 1968. Theory of monophonematics of aspirated phonemes of Hindi. Acta Linguistica, 363-73.Subbarao, K.V. 1984. Complementation in Hindi Syntax. New Delhi: Academic Publications.Upreti, M. L. 1964. Hindi me pratyay vica:r. Agra: Vinod Book House.Vajpeyi, K. 1958. Hindi shabdanushasan. Kashi: Nagri Pracharni Sabha.Verma, M.K. 1971. The Structure of Noun Phrase in English and Hindi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Wali, Kashi and Omkar N Koul 1997. Kashmiri: A Cognitive- Descriptive Grammar. London: Routledge. vii
  19. 19. 1. INTRODUCTION1. Introduction1.1. Area and Its SpeakersHindi is an Indo-Aryan language (a branch of the-Indo-Europeanfamily of languages), spoken primarily in the states of Bihar,Chattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, MadhyaPradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh in India.Besides being the official language of these states it is also theofficial language of government of India along with English.According to the 2001census, it is spoken by 422,048,642 speakerswhich include the speakers of its various dialects and variations ofspeech grouped under Hindi. It is also spoken by a large number ofpeople of Indian origin settled abroad.1.2. Dialects and ClassificationHindi and Urdu languages have their origins in Khariboli spoken inareas around Delhi. Khariboli was adopted by the Afghans, Persians,and Turks as a common language of interaction with the localpopulation during the period of Islamic invasions and theestablishment of Muslim rule in the north of India between theeighth and tenth centuries AD. In time, it developed a variety calledUrdu with significant borrowings from Arabic and Persian and thatuses a Persian script. It was also known as rexta “mixed language.”As Urdu gained patronage in the Muslim courts and developed intoa literature language, the variety used by the general populationgradually replaced Sanskrit, literary Prakrits, and Apabhramsas asthe literary language. This latter variety looked to Sanskrit forlinguistic borrowings and Sanskrit, Prakrits, and Apabhramsas forliterary conventions. It is this variety that became known as Hindi.Hindi and Urdu have a common form known as Hindustani which isessentially a Hindi-Urdu mixed language. This was the variety thatwas adopted by Indian leaders as a symbol of national identityduring the struggle for freedom. Hindi has been used as a literarylanguage since the twelfth century. The development of prose,however, began only in the eighteenth century, which marks theemergence of Hindi as a full-fledged literary language. 1
  20. 20. 1. INTRODUCTIONGrierson (1906) has divided Hindi into two groups: Eastern Hindiand Western Hindi. Between the Eastern and the Western Prakritsthere was an intermediate Prakrit called Ardhamagadhi. The modernrepresentative of the corresponding Apabhamsa is Eastern Hindi andthe Shaurasena Apabhramsa of the middle Doab is the parent ofWestern Hindi. In the Eastern group Grierson discusses threedialects: Awadhi, Bagheli, and Chattisgarhi. In the Western group hediscusses five dialects: Hindustani, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji, Bundeli,and Bhojpuri. Eastern Hindi is bounded on the north by the languageof the Nepal Himalaya and on the west by various dialects ofWestern Hindi, of which the principal are Kanauji and Bundeli. Onthe east, it is bounded by the Bhojpuri dialect of Bihari and byOriya. On the South it meets forms of the Marathi language.Western Hindi extends to the foot of the Himalayas on the north,south to the Jamna valley, and occupies most of Bundelkhand and apart of central provinces on the east side.The Hindi region is traditionally divided into two: Eastern Hindi andWestern Hindi. The main dialects of Eastern Hindi are Avadhi,Bagheli and Chattisgarhi. The Western Hindi dialects are Haryanvi,Braj Bhasha, Bhundeli, Kanuji and Khariboli. The dialects spoken inthe regions of Bihar (i.e., Maithili, Bhojpuri, Maghi etc.) inRajasthan (i.e., Marwari, Jaipuri, Malvi etc.) and some dialectsspoken in the northwestern areas of Uttar Pradesh, and HimachalPradesh were kept away from the earlier classification. Now, all ofthese dialects are also covered under the term Hindi. The standardHindi developed from the Khariboli has borrowed lexical items fromSanskrit and is the vehicle of all official literary and commercialcommunication. It is intelligible throughout the broad Hindilanguage region. Another literary style, Urdu, has also developedfrom Khariboli and it uses the Perso-Arabic script and borrows fromPerso-Arabic sources.1.3. Hindi – UrduHistorical and cultural processes and the linguistic affinity whichexists in Indian languages led to the emergence of Hindi-Urdu or so-called Hindustani as the lingua-franca of major areas of India longbefore its freedom. In an earlier period, the languages ofadministration, Sanskrit in the case of the earliest Hindu kingdoms,Persian in the case of the Muslim dynasties, and English in the caseof the British regime, have mostly remained confined to the elite. 2
  21. 21. 1. INTRODUCTIONBeginning with the invasion of Mohammed Ghori in the late 12thcentury AD, the foreign invaders settled down in India to rule. TheSlave, Tughluq, Lodi, and Mughal dynasties used Persian in theiradministration, but they used the local language spoken in andaround Delhi for communicating with the people for their day-to-day needs. This local language was a form of Apbhramsha, whicheventually became Khariboli; they called this language Hindi - alanguage belonging to Hind. Thus, the Hindi language derived itsname from the Persian towards the end of the 12th century orbeginning of the 13th century. During the Mughal period, the word“Urdu” was derived from the Turkish word “Yurt” or “ordu” thatmeant “military encampment.” This variety was distinguished on thebasis of Perso-Arabic influence at the lexical level and was writtenin the Perso-Arabic script. Hindi-Urdu became the medium ofcommunication between the Muslim rulers and the local people. Thesouthern variety of the speech, best known as Dakhini, also becamethe medium of literature and socio-religious discourse. This varietyis influenced by Dravidian languages as a result of language contact.Due to a common structural basis, Hindi and Urdu continued to betreated as synonymous for centuries at least up to the period ofMirza Ghalib. Mirza Ghalib called his language “Hindi” on severaloccasions, though he used the Perso-Arabic script for writing it. Henamed one of his works “ode-e-Hindi” (perfume of Hindi).Primarily in the domain of different genres of literature, Hindi andUrdu started drifting away from each other not only in the use oftwo different scripts, but also in literary styles and vocabulary. Hindistarted drawing more and more from Sanskrit, and Urdu fromPersian and Arabic. The processes continue today.During British rule, when English was adopted as the officiallanguage, local languages were assigned roles for certain functionsat lower levels of administration. A competition started between theproponents or supporters of Hindi and those of Urdu for officialrecognition of their languages. In the first instance, Urdu wasrecognized by the British in the Northwest and Oudh, Bihar, and theCentral Provinces in 1830 AD as the language of the courts. Thiswas followed by the recognition accorded to Hindi in certain areas.Hindi and Urdu were involved in controversy and mutualcompetition for their recognition in various domains of educationand administration. The mutual conflicts intensified at the beginning 3
  22. 22. 1. INTRODUCTIONof the 20th century. On the one hand, there were proponents of Hindiand Urdu who were eager to maintain separate linguistic identities,and, on the other hand, some national leaders wanted to developHindustani as a combined linguist identity on the basis of its use bythe general population.1.4. Linguistic CharacteristicsHindi shares major linguistic characteristics with other Indo-Aryanlanguages. It has ten vowels. The length of vowels is phonemic. Allvowels can be nasalized and nasalization is phonemic. The Hindisyllable contains a vowel as its nucleus, followed or preceded byconsonants. Words usually have two or three syllables.Nouns are inflected for number, gender and case. There are twonumbers: singular and plural, two genders: masculine and feminine;and two cases: direct and oblique. Nouns are assigned one of the twogenders. The gender of inanimate objects is not predictable from theform or meaning. Pronouns are inflected for number and case.Adjectives are of two types: declinable and indeclinable. The firsttype is uninflected for number, gender, and case, whereas the secondtype is not.Verbs are inflected for person, number, gender, tense, mood, andaspect. There are three tenses: present, past, and future; three moods:imperative, indicative, and subjective; two aspects: imperfective andperfective. Hindi is a verb-final language.Hindi is written in the Devanagari script which originated fromBrahmi. The Devanagari script for Hindi is standardized, but certainminor variations still exist. In this grammar we are using Devanagariand Roman scripts for the data from the language.1.5. StatusAs stated above, Hindi is the official language of the Union of Indiaand ten states. It is spoken by the largest number of people in India.It is widely used in administration, education, and mass media.The use of Hindi in administration at the Union level as well as inthe Hindi speaking states is not free from problems (Koul 1994a).There are some serious gaps in the Official Language Policy (OLP), 4
  23. 23. 1. INTRODUCTIONand the rules and procedures which are being followed in itsimplementation. There are problems related to the development ofits administrative register. The main problems related to thedevelopment of the administrative register are: (i) an artificialcoinage of terminology, (ii) lack of standardization, and (iii) lack ofcoordination between various agencies and duplication of efforts.Problems related to its practical use include the lack of propermonitoring, lack of encouragement, and absence of strong politicalwill.The implementation of the OLP at the Union level has become thevictim of political indecision, the attitude of its protagonists, the lackof will of the monitoring agencies, and the lack of adherence to therules and regulations set up for it. Even after its continuous use inadministration for more than sixty years, its development is stillquestioned by critics. There is a need to review the OLP, and therules and procedures of its implemenation to identify its problemsand resolve them.The Constitution of India adopted in 1950 provides for the use ofHindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the Union.Article 343 states:The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in the Devanagariscript. The form of numerals to be used for the official purpose ofthe Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.Article 351 provides a directive for the development of Hindi asfollows:It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindilanguage, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium ofexpression for all the composite culture of India and to secure itsenrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, theforms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the otherlanguages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing,whenever necessary or desirable, its vocabulary primarily fromSanskrit and secondarily from other languages.The Hindi language was supposed to replace English in 1965, fifteenyears after the adoption of the Constitution of India. The earlysixties witnessed resentment and agitation, primarily in the southern 5
  24. 24. 1. INTRODUCTIONstates of India, regarding the replacement of English by Hindi. Itwas argued that Hindi was not developed enough to replace Englishin its administrative domain. Thus, the Official Language Act(OLA) was passed in 1963 providing for the continuation of Englishas an associate official language in the Union and also for its use inparliament for an indefinite period of time. The Act dealt with thesetting-up of the Committee on Official Language, authorization ofthe Hindi translation of Central and State acts, optional use of Hindiin judgments of High courts, etc. The passing of the OLA wassuccessful in achieving timely political gains, but it has not been inthe interest of the development of Hindi and its use as the soleofficial language of the Union in the years to come.The development of Hindi has become a complex concern for theGovernment of India. The development of Hindi is often linked tothe development of other regional languages. The Ministry of HomeAffairs (Government of India) Resolution (1968) made someimportant recommendations in this regard: 1. It is the duty of the Government of India to promote the spread of the Hindi language. 2. The development of Hindi as well as other regional languages is in the interest of the educational and cultural advancement of the country. 3. Efforts should be made to implement the Three-Language Formula. 4. Compulsory knowledge of Hindi or English should be essential for the public service of the Union. 5. Languages of the Eighth Schedule should be used as alternative media for examinations for all-India and higher Central services.The Resolution adopted by the Ministry of Home Affairs has turnedout to be merely a political policy statement. It was not followed byan action plan for the promotion or the spread of the Hindi languagein a sustainable manner, although it was rightly realized that thedevelopment of Hindi and regional languages is necessary for theeducational and cultural advancement of the country. No clear-cutstrategies were framed for encouraging their use in education. It didnot stop the mushrooming of competing English-medium privateschools. Efforts were made to implement the Three-LanguageFormula, but, in the absence of proper monitoring of its 6
  25. 25. 1. INTRODUCTIONimplementation, the Formula itself was diluted by different states,which resulted in its several versions. The Union Public ServiceCommission (UPSC) has made a provision for the use of languagesof the Eighth Schedule as alternative media for competitiveexaminations, but, in the absence of adequate study materials inHindi and regional languages, English continues to reign supreme asthe only viable medium of examinations. Hindi is taught to theofficers and staff of the Central service during their in-servicetraining, but there is no urgency for its use as long as Englishcontinues as an associate official language. The Resolution makesimportant recommendations, but in the absence of an effectiveaction plan and a sense of urgency on the part of the agenciesinvolved, these recommendations are not implemented properly.Hindi has a significant role in education. It is used as a subject ofstudy as well as a medium of education in India from the primarylevel to the university level in all the Hindi-speaking states in India.It is also used as a medium for technical education at the lowerlevels. Various organizations at the Union and state levels areengaged in the preparation of textbooks and supplementaryinstructional materials in Hindi. English continues to be a preferredmedium of instruction for science and technology at the higherlevels.Hindi has a prominent role in both electronic and print media. Hindiis widely used in programs on radio and television and in films. Thelanguage style of Hindi used in electronic media is close to thespoken variety of so-called Hindustani. In the print media, stylesvary from high Hindi to that commonly understood by the Hindi-Urdu speech community. Whereas a few newspapers and periodicalsprefer high Hindi or the Sanskritized style, others prefer to use theUrdu vocabulary. A large number of newspapers, periodicals, andjournals are published in Hindi.1.6. Grammars in HindiBeginning in the eighteenth century, Hindi has a long tradition ofgrammatical literature which falls under the categories of (a)traditional grammars, (b) comparative and historical grammars, and(c) modern linguistic grammars. Bhatia (1987) provides a criticalsurvey of the Hindi grammatical tradition. Traditional grammarsdescribe the language using the traditional framework of Sanskrit 7
  26. 26. 1. INTRODUCTIONgrammars. Comparative and historical grammars are mostlyconcerned with presenting the diachronic description of thegrammatical features at different linguistic levels, especiallyphonology and morphology. They are useful for historical linguistsand those interested in the comparative linguistics of Indo-Aryanlanguages.Modern linguistic grammars in Hindi have been written with variousobjectives. Most of the modern linguistic grammars deal with someaspects of syntax at length and tend to apply the western theoreticalmodels and raise theoretical issues. They are useful for linguistsinterested in theoretical discussions and are of little use to thelanguage learners and teachers of Hindi or to general readers. It isimportant to mention a few grammars here.Aryendra Sharma (1958) prepared first detailed descriptive grammarof modern Hindi in English. It has been revised and printed severaltimes. Though written in a traditional format it presents a gooddescription of Hindi. Different linguistic aspects of Hindi have beendescribed in various dissertations and independent grammaticalstudies lately. I will specially mention three recent works: Mountaut(2005), Kachru (2006), and Agnihotri (2007) written with differentobjectives.Moutaut (2005) provides a functional description of Hindi from atypological perspective. She provides a brief phonological outline ofstandard Hindi, its morphological analysis, an analysis of simpleclauses and complex sentences. The final section providesrepresentative features of standard Hindi, its various dialects withspecial reference to other neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. Shepresents review of the earlier works on the subject and usesexamples from various written texts. It is a first linguistic grammarof Hindi written from a typological point of view and is useful forlinguists working in the area of linguistic typology with specialreference to Indo-Aryan languages.Kachru (2006) describes the structure of modern Hindi keeping inview primarily the sociolinguistic context of language use. Sheprovides description of sounds, devices of word formation, rules ofphrases, and sentence constructions and conventions and practices oflanguage use in spoken and written texts keeping in view recentlinguistic theories. She also deals with the information and 8
  27. 27. 1. INTRODUCTIONdiscourse structure of the current use of Hindi. This is quite usefulfor linguists and language learners of Hindi in various situations.Agnihotri (2007) is a practical reference guide to the core structuresand linguistic features of Hindi. He provides brief description ofvarious simple, compound and complex structures of Hindi. Wordmorphology, phonology, and issues related to Devanagari script aredealt with adequate examples. It is useful for linguists and studentsof Hindi for reference.There is a scope for a pedagogically oriented grammar whichprovides essential information for the use of Hindi language learnersas well as teachers. The present Modern Hindi Grammar is an effortin this direction. It is pedagogically oriented; utilizing simplerterminology and authentic data from standard spoken and writtenHindi; providing useful descriptions and tables of grammaticalcategories as well as simple descriptions of phrases, and sentencetypes designed for the use of language learners, teachers of Hindi atvarious levels. The Phonology describes segmental phonemes(vowels, consonants), suprasegmentals (length, stress, intonation),and morphophonology (alternations, deletion and insertion,allomorphs). The Morphology provides descriptions of nominalmorphology (noun inflection, gender, number, case, postpositions,pronouns, adjectives), verb morphology (types of verbs, verbinflections, voice, tense, aspect, mood, non-finite verb forms), andadverbs. The Syntax describes the structure of phrases, sentencetypes, complex and compound constructions, other syntacticconstructions among other items. The Lexicon presents a classifiedvocabulary of Hindi under 12 sub-sections. It is followed by Index. 9
  28. 28. 2. PHONOLOGY2. Phonology2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental)The pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved in theproduction of all phonetic segments of the language.2.1.1. Distinctive SegmentsThe inventory of the distinctive segments of Hindi is as follows:Vowels Front Central BackHigh i: u:Lower High i uMid e oLower Mid ´ øLow a a:The nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. It is represented by the nasalsign ˜ written above the vowel signs as given below: Front Central BackHigh ĩ: ũ:Lower High ĩ ũMid ẽ õLower Mid ´~ ø~Low ã ã: 11
  29. 29. 2. PHONOLOGYConsonants Retroflex Alveolar Bilabial Glottal Palatal Labio- Dental dental Stops velarvl.unasp p t t kvl.asp ph th th khvd.unsap b d d gvd.asp bh dh dh ghAffricatesvl.unas cvl.asp chVd.unas jvd.asp jhNasal m n n ηTrill rFlapunasp rasp rhLateral lFricativevl f s š xvd z hSemivowel v y2.1.2. Description of Phonemes2.1.2.1. VowelsOral VowelsThere is a contrast in the position of the tongue, the height of thetongue, and the rounding of the lips in the articulation of vowels./i:/ (high front unrounded long vowel): [-d i:d Eid naIr ni:r water jaldI jaldi: hurry 12
  30. 30. 2. PHONOLOGY/i/ (high front unrounded short vowel): [maart ima:rat building igarnaa girna: to fall pit pati husband/e/ (mid front unrounded long vowel): ek ek one rot ret sand jaUto ju:te shoes/a/ (low central unrounded short vowel): Agar agar if pr par but na na no/a:/ (low central unrounded long vowel): Aama a:m mango Aarama a:ra:m rest AcCa accha: good/u/ (high back rounded short vowel): ]znaa uthna: to rise pu~ putr son ikMtu kintu but/u:/ (high back rounded long vowel): }na u:n wool saUd su:d interest BaalaU bha:lu: bear/o/ (mid back rounded long vowel): Aaosa os dew raoTI roti: bread dao do two/´/ (lower mid unrounded front vowel) eonak ´nak mirror gaOr g´r stranger laO l´ tune/ø/ (lower mid rounded back vowel) AaOrt ørat woman daOlat dølat wealth saaO sø hundred 13
  31. 31. 2. PHONOLOGYNasal VowelsNasalization is phonemic in Hindi. All the vowels can be nasalized./ĩ/ [Mca ĩc inch ipMjara pĩjra: cage/ĩ:/ [IMT ĩ:t brick saIMcanaa sĩ:cna: to irrigate nahIM nahĩ: no/ẽ/ BaoMT bhẽt meeting maoM mẽ in/ã/ MAÐgaUza ãgu:tha: thumb zMD thãd cold/ã:/ AaMÐgana ã:gan courtyard maaÐga mã:g demand maaÐ mã: mother/ũ/ ]MÐsa ũs ounce mauMÐh mũh face/ũ:/ }ÐT ũ:t camel saUMÐGanaa sũ:ghna: to smell jaUMÐ jũ: louse/õ/ AaoMz õth lip gaaoMd gõd gum sarsaaoM sarsõ mustard/´~/ eoMznaa ´~thna: to tighten BaOMsa bh´~s buffalo maOM m´~ I/ø~/ AaOMQaa ø~dha: upside down caaOMtIsa cø~ti:s thiry-four BaaOM bhø~ eyebrow2.1.2.2. ConsonantsConsonants are classified into different groups on the basis of theirmanner and place of articulation. Examples of phonemicconsonantal segments of Hindi are presented in minimal or nearminimal pairs. Non-phonemic phonetic segments are alsoexemplified. The examples given below represent their phonetictranscription. 14
  32. 32. 2. PHONOLOGYStops and AffricatesIn the production of stops, air coming out of the lungs is stopped atthe point of articulation and then released with plosion. Stops occurat initial, medial, and final positions of words./p/ (voiceless unaspirated bilabial stop): pla pal moment kpD,a kapra: cloth saaÐp sã:p snake/ph/ (voiceless aspirated bilabial stop): fla phal fruit safla saphal successful saaf sa:ph clean/b/ (voiced unaspirated bilabial stop): bala bal strength AMbar ambar sky saba sab all/bh/ (voiced aspirated bilabial stop): BaalaU bha:lu: bear saBaa sabha: meeting laaBa la:bh profit/t/ (voiceless unaspirated dental stop): tar ta:r wire katnaa ka:tna: to spin rat ra:t night/th/ (voiceless aspirated dental stop): qaalaI tha:li: palate haqaI ha:thi: elephant haqa ha:th hand/d/ (voiced unaspirated dental stop): drvaaja,a darva:za: door vadI- vardi: uniform baMd band closed/dh/ (voiced aspirated dental stop): Qana dhan wealth AaQaa a:dha: half dUQa du:dh milk/t/ (voiceless unaspirated retroflex stop): TaokrI tokri: basket 15
  33. 33. 2. PHONOLOGY kaTnaa ka:tna: to cut kaoT kot coat/th/ (voiceless aspirated retroflex stop): zga thag cheat imaza[- mitha:i: sweets Aaz a:th eight/d/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex stop): D,alaI da:li: branch inaDr nidar fearless saaMÐD sã:d bull/dh/ (voiced aspirated retroflex stop): Zaola dhol drum gaZa gadha: ditch/k/ (voiceless unaspirated velar stop): kana ka:n ear lakD,I lakri: wood naak na:k nose/kh/ (voiceless aspirated velar stop): Kaodnaa khodna: to dig doKnaa dekhna: to see raK ra:kh ashes/g/ (voiced unaspirated velar stop): gad-na gardan neck Agar agar if Aaga a:g fire/gh/ (voiced aspirated velar stop): Gar ghar home saUMÐGanaa sũ:ghna: to smell baaGa ba:gh tigerIn the production of affricates, air coming out of the lungs passeswith friction when the articulator is released gradually. Affricatesoccur in the initial, medial and final positions of words./c/ (voiceless unaspirated palatal stop): caar ca:r four baccaa bacca: child kaMca kã:c glass/ch/ (voiceless aspirated palatal affricate): Co che six 16
  34. 34. 2. PHONOLOGY maClaI machli: fish kuC kuch some/j/ (voiced unaspirated palatal affricate): jaana ja:n life gaajar ga:jar carrot taja ta:j crown/jh/ (voiced aspirated palatal affricate): JaMDa jhãda: flag sauJaava sujha:v suggestion saaÐJa sã:jh eveningFricativesThere are alveolar and glottal fricatives. They occur at all positions./f/ (voiceless labio-dental fricative) f,ja,- farz duty naf,rt nafrat dislike isaf,- sirf only/s/ (voiceless alveolar fricative): saat sa:t seven sasta sasta: cheap dsa das ten/z/ (voiced alveolar fricative): ja,baana zaba:n language baaja,ar ba:za:r market gaja, gaz yard/š/ (voiceless alveolar fricative): Sak šak suspicion AaSaa a:ša: hope naaSa na:š destruction/x/ (voiceless velar fricative): K,bar xabar news AK,baar axba:r newspaper SaaK, ša:x branch/h/ (voiceless glottal fricative): haqaI ha:thi: elephant bahar baha:r spring rah ra:h way 17
  35. 35. 2. PHONOLOGYNasalsThere are bilabial, alveolar, and velar nasals. The velar nasal occursin medial and final positions only./m/ (voiced bilabial nasal): maaqaa ma:tha: forehead kmara kamra: room Aarama a:ra:m rest/n/ (voiced alveolar nasal): naak na:k nose laanaa la:na: to bring Qaana dha:n paddy/n/ (voiced retroflex nasal) ANau anu atom p`aNa pra:n life/η/ (voiced velar nasal): rMganaa raηna: to dye rMga raη colorTrillThere is a voiced alveolar trill which occurs in all positions./r/ (voiced alveolar trill): rssaI rassi: rope nama- narm soft tar ta:r wireFlaps/r/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex flap): saD,k sarak road BaID, bhi:r crowd/rh/ (voiced aspirated retroflex flap): pZ,naa parhna: to read QaaZ, dha:rh jaw 18
  36. 36. 2. PHONOLOGYLateralThere is a voiced alveolar lateral which occurs in all positions./l/ (voiced alveolar lateral): laaoga log people klaa kala: art jaala ja:l netSemi-vowels/v/ (voiced labio-dental semi-vowel): vaada va:da: promise dvaa[- dava:i: medicine naava na:v boat/y/ (voiced palatal semi-vowel): yaad ya:d memory saayaa sa:ya: shade raya ra:y opinion2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and AllophonesThe retroflex voiced aspirated stop Z /dh/ does not occur in the finalposition of words. The velar nasal = /η/, and the retroflex flaps D,/r/and Z, /rh/ do not occur in the word-initial positions.The nasal phoneme na /n/ has dental, retroflex, palatal, and velarallophones: na [n], Na [n], and = [η]. Palatal and velar nasals are notassigned any phonemic status in Hindi. Phonetically they arepronounced in the speech only when they are followed by palataland velar voiced consonant phonemes. They occur beforehomorganic voiced consonants. 19
  37. 37. 2. PHONOLOGY2.2. Phonotactics2.2.1. Vowel SequencesIn Hindi only two vowel sequences are permissible.ai: naa[- nai: newia: idAa dia: lampie cailae calie let’s goui: sau[- sui: needleuã: kuÐAa kuã: welloi: rao[- roi: weptoe Kaoe khoe lost2.2.2. Consonant Clusters2.2.2.1. Word-initial Consonant ClustersWord-initial consonant clusters are not as frequent as the word-medial consonant clusters.ky @yaa kya: whatkr k`ma kram ordergy gyaarh gya:rah elevengr ga`Mqa granth bookjy jyaoYz jyešth elderjv jvar jvar fevertr T/ona tren traindy DyaaoDa dyoda: two and a half timesdr D/amaa dra:ma: dramaty %yaaga tya:g sacrificetv %vacaa tvaca: skindhy Qyaana dhya:n attentionpy Pyaar pya:r lovepr pRqvaI prithvi: earthbr ba`hmaa bramha: Brahmaby byaah bya:h marriagešy Syaama šya:m Shyamšr Eama šram laborsv Svaasa šva:s breath 20
  38. 38. 2. PHONOLOGYsy syaar sya:r jackalzy j,yaada zya:da: morenr naR%ya nraty danceny nyaaya nya:y justicemr maRga mrig deervy vyai@t vyakti personhr )dya hriday heartInitial three-consonant clustersstr s~I stri: womanskr sk``Ina skri:n screensmr smaRit smriti: remembrance2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant ClustersConsonant clusters occur frequently in the medial position. Most ofthese clusters are formed across syllable or morpheme boundaries.There are some restrictions in the formation of consonant clusters asfollows: (i) two aspirated consonants do not combine to form aconsonant cluster, (ii) /ch/ is not combined to form a consonantcluster, (iii) /d/ does not occur as the second member of a consonantcluster. Examples of the consonant clusters are given below.pt kPtana kapta:n captainps vaapsaI va:psi: returnfs Afsaaosa afsos sorryfl gaF,lat gaflat mistakefr naF,rt nafrat hatefv AF,vaa afva: rumorbn Sabnama šabnam dewbz sabja,I sabzi: vegetabletm Aa%maa a:tma: souldt badtr badtar very baddm badmaaSa badma:š rougekb ma@baUla makbu:l popularkt ma@tba maktab schoolkt A@Tr aktar actorkd h@,dar hakda:r rightful owner/entitledkr [k,rar ikra:r acceptance 21
  39. 39. 2. PHONOLOGYks nau@saana nuksa:n lossgv Bagavaana bhagva:n Godck Acakna ackan a long button-up coatmb AMbar ambar skymd namda namda: a carpetmjh samJanaa samjhna: to understandmv hmvaar hamva:r smoothnd AMdr andar insident gaMTI ganti: a bellnd zMD,a thãda: coldnkh pMKa pãkha: fannj rMijaSa rãjiš angerns [Msaaf insa:ph justicenz maMija,la manzil destinationnv jaanavar ja:nvar birdsp Asptala aspata:l hospitalsb ksbaa kasba: townst sasta sasta: cheapsd hsdI hasdi: jealoussv tsvaIr tasvi:r picturešt kuStI kušti: wrestlingšm duSmana dušman enemyšv irSvat rišvat bribelt galtI galti: mistakelt ]lTa ulta: oppositelk hlka halka: light in weightlm if,lmaI filmi: related to filmls AalsaI a:lsi: lethargiclz mauilja,ma mulzim accusedrb gauba-t gurbat povertyrd gad-na gardan neckrx karK,anaa ka:rxa:na: factoryrz maja,I- marzi: consentrh sarhd sarhad frontierrv drvaaja,a darva:za: doorzm Aaja,maanaa a:zma:na: to tryhb rhbar rahbar guideht maaohtaja mohta:j dependenths thsaIla tahsi:l tehsil ( subdivision)hl maaohllaa mohlla: mohalla (dwelling ward) 22
  40. 40. 2. PHONOLOGYyd paayadar pa:yda:r strongyv pyavaMd payvand graftingMedial three consonant clustersmjhn samaJanaa samjhna: to understandpgr ]pga`h upgrah satellitetpr ]%p`aoxa utprokš metaphortthr p%qarIlaa patthri:la: stonycct ]ccata uccta: heightkšp pxapat pakšpa:t partialityjjv ]jjala ujjval brightndr And$naI andru:ni: internalndhk AMQakar andhka:r darknessndg baMdgaI bandgi: worshipnsk saMskar sanska:r ritesndn vaMdnaa vandna: prayernyv Qanyavaad dhanyva:d thanksrtk nat-kI nartki: dancer (f)rkht maUK-ta mu:rkhta: foolishnessrmc kma-caaarI karmca:ri workerršn dSa-naIya daršni:y worth seeingrvj saava-jainak sa:rvjanik publicsyt sadsyata sadasyta: membershipstm Asqamaa asthma: breathing problemštr raYT/Iya ra:štri:y nationalMedial four-consonant clustersntrt svatM~ta svatantrta: independencendrv pMd`hvaaÐ pandhrva: fifteenth2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant ClustersConsonant clusters occur less frequently in the word-final position.pp gaPp gapp gossippn svaPna svapn dreamtm K,%ma xatm finishtn ya%na yatn try 23
  41. 41. 2. PHONOLOGYtth laTz latth stickcc ]cca ucc highcch svacC svacch cleankt r@t rakt bloodmp lamp lamp lampnt sant sant saintnk baMk bank banknkh SaMK šankh conchst mast mast carefreešt gaSt gašt take a roundšt kYT kašt troublerth Aqa- arth meaningrkh maUK- mu:rkh foolFinal three-consonant clustersntr maM~ mantr hymnndr [Md` indr name of Godstr As~ astr weapon2.2.3. Syllable StructureHindi has a (C)(C)V(C)(C) syllable structure. The assignment of themedial units to syllables does not depend on morphologicalstructure. The first consonant of the medial cluster is assigned to thepreceding syllable and the remaining elements of the unit to thefollowing syllable. In the following examples, the syllable boundaryis marked with [+] sign.nak + Saa na@Saa nak+ša: nakša: mapsauna + dr sauMdr sun+dar sundar beautifuliksa + mat iksmat kis+mat kismat fateThe vowel-initial syllables are found only in the initial position ofwords.AakaSa a:ka:š skyAmaRt amrit nectar[maart ima:rat building[laaja ila:j treatment 24
  42. 42. 2. PHONOLOGYThere are different types of syllables.Monosyllable:maaÐ mã: mothercaaya ca:y teaGar ghar houseDi-syllable:fa,yada fa:ida: profitSaaolaa šola: flamekagaja, ka:gaz paperTri-syllable:nasaIyat nasi:hat adviceihrasat hira:sat arresthkIkt haki:kat factQuadra-syllable:ihMdustanaI hindusta:ni: Indianmaukabalaa muka:bila: competition[Msaainayat insa:niyat humanity2.3. Suprasegmental FeaturesNasalization, length, stress, intonation, and juncture aresuprasegmental features.2.3.1. NasalizationNasalization is an important suprasegmental feature in Hindi. Allthe vowels can be nasalized. Nasalization is distinctive so it hasphonemic status.saasa sa:s mother-in-law saaÐsa sã:s breathkaTa ka:ta: cut kaMÐTa kã:ta: thornpUC pu:ch ask pUMÐC pũ:ch tailgaaod god lap gaaoMd gõd gumqaI thi: was qaIM thĩ: were 25
  43. 43. 2. PHONOLOGY2.3.2. LengthLength is phonemic in Hindi. There are three pairs of short and longvowels: /i/ and /i:/; /a/ and /a:/; /u/ and /u:/. The following minimalpairs illustrate the contrast in the length of these vowels.imala mil mix maIla mi:l miledsa das ten dasa da:s servant]na un they (obl) }na u:n wool2.3.3. StressStress is not a distinctive feature of Hindi; it is not in phonemiccontrast. Hindi is a syllable-timed language, sometimes individualwords are stressed for emphasis only. Usually, the syllablepreceding the consonant cluster gets stress.bauiw buddhi intelligencesa%ya saty truthThe initial cluster of the word also gets stress.p`oma prem lovespYTta spaštta: clarityIn di-syllabic words where both syllables have long or short vowels,the first syllable is stressed.A@sar aksar alwaysAMdr andar insideAakar a:ka:r figureAasamaana a:sma:n skyIn di-syllable words wherein the first syllable contains low front orback vowels, the first syllable is stressed.f,aOjaI føji: soldierkOdI k´di: prisoner 26
  44. 44. 2. PHONOLOGYThe second syllable is stressed when the first syllable has a shortvowel and the second has a long vowel.nasaIba nasi:b fateiktaba kita:b bookIn tri-syllable words, the first syllable is stressed if the first syllablehas a long vowel, the second has a short vowel, and the third has along vowel.baohyaa behaya: shamelessbaovakUf bevaku:ph stupidThe last syllable is stressed if the first syllable has a short vowel andthe last two have long vowels.ihMdustana hindusta:n Indiabanajaara banja:ra: nomadIn words of more than three syllables, the stress is always on thepenultimate syllable.samaJadarI samajhda:ri: understanding2.3.4. IntonationThere are four major types of intonational patterns: (1) high-fall,(2) high-rise, (3) rise-and-fall, (4) mid-level. Intonations havesyntactic rather than emotional content. Statements have a high-fallintonation pattern. Intonation peaks are generally positioned on thepenultimate word or on the negative particle if there is one.1. vah iktaba pZ, rha hO. vah kita:b parh raha: h´. he book read-pr is He is reading a book.2. kagaja, AlamaarI maoM nahIM hMO. ka:gaz alma:ri: mẽ nahĩ: h´~ papers almirah in neg are The papers are not in the almirah. 27
  45. 45. 2. PHONOLOGYYes-no questions and tag questions have a high-rise intonation.3. @yaa vah kla Aayaa? kya: vah kal a:ya:? Q he yesterday came-Q Did he come yesterday?Information questions have a rise-and-fall intonation. The rise inintonation is registered on the question word and the fall is attainedgradually.4. Aap kba baaja,ar gae? a:p kab ba:za:r gaye? you when market went When did you go to the market?5. maaohna iksasao imalaa? mohan kisse mila:? Mohan who-dat met-3s Who did Mohan meet?Commands generally follow the mid-level intonational pattern.6. drvaaja,a baMd krao. darva:za: band karo. door close do-imp Close the door.Contrastive and Emphatic IntonationThe contrastive and emphatic intonations are the same as theyemploy more than the average stress on the constituents of asentence. The element to be contrasted carries a slightly higherstress than the emphasized segment. For example, any of theelements can be emphasized in the following sentence depending onthe degree of emphasis. The emphasis is indicated by boldingdifferent elements. 28
  46. 46. 2. PHONOLOGY7a. Aap idllaI jaa[e. a:p dilli: ja:ie. you Delhi go-fu-2p You go to Delhi.7b. Aap idllaI jaa[e. a:p dilli: ja:ie. You go to Delhi.7c. Aap idllaI jaa[e. a:p dilli: ja:ie. You go to Delhi.2.3.5. JunctureJuncture is functional in Hindi. Internal juncture may be consideredas phonemic juncture. Mostly, the medial clusters have juncturebecause those sequences of sounds do not occur in the samesyllable.mauiSkla muškil difficultAnajaana anja:n ignorantkuta- kurta: shirtbadmaaSa badma:š rogueThe following minimal pairs indicate the phonemic status ofinternal juncture:Kanaa kha:na: foodKa + naa kha: + na: to eatklaa[- kala:i: wristkla + Aa[- kal + a:i: came yesterdayisaka- sirka: vinegarisar + ka sir + ka: of the headThere are two types of juncture: (i) internal juncture and (ii)external juncture. The internal juncture (+) reduces words intophrases or compound words in the sentences. 29
  47. 47. 2. PHONOLOGY8a. ija,MdgaI + maaOt ka @yaa Baraosaa zindagi: + møt ka: kya: bharosa: life death-gen what guarantee There is no guarantee of life or death.External juncture (#) occurs between each word and the wordsjoined by this juncture retain their separate identity.8b. ija,MdgaI # maaOt ka @yaa Baraosaa zindagi: # møt ka: kya: bharosa: There is no guarantee of life or death.2.4. MorphophonemicsVarious morphological processes can be marked as loss, addition,and replacement of phonemes.2.4.1. Loss of PhonemeThe vowel /a/ in the last syllable is dropped when the suffix /-õ/ isadded to the word.AaOrt ørat womanAaOrtaoM øratõ women (obl)pagala pa:gal madpagalaaoM pa:glõ mad persons (obl)The consonant na /n/ of a numeral system is lost before any numeralsuffix beginning with /t t-, r r-, h h-/ is added.tIna ti:n three + rh rah ten marker = torh terah thirteen2.4.2. Addition of PhonemeThe vowel e /-e/ is added to the root before the suffixes are added toit.itr tir + pna pan = itropna tirepan fifty-threeitr tir + saz sath = itrosaz tiresath sixty-three 30
  48. 48. 2. PHONOLOGYWhen different suffixes are added to the root, the an addition of aconsonant takes place.ba ba + tIsa ti:s = batIsa batti:s thirty-twoSak šak + [- i: = SakI šaki: one who doubts2.4.3. AlternationsThe long vowel Aao /o/ of the verb root changes to a short vowel ]/u/ when the suffix -laa /-la:/ is added to the verb roots.Kaola khol open + laa la: = Kulaa khula: openedrao ro weep + laa la: = Élaa rula: to make weep?The long vowel [- /i:/ of the verb root becomes the short [ /i/ whenthe suffix A -a: is added to the verb root.pI pi: drink + laa la: = ipla pila: make drinksaIK si:kh learn + Aa a: = isaKa sikha: teachWhen the suffixes laa /-la:/ or Aa /-a:/ are attached to themonosyllabic verbal stems their vowels e /e/ and Aa /a:/ change into[ /i/.do de give + laa la: = idlaa dila: cause to giveKa kha: eat + laa la: = iKlaa khila: cause to eatdoK dekh see + Aa a: = idKa dikha: cause to seeIn certain morphophonemic changes, some consonants are replacedby others.tIna ti:n three + pna pan = itropna trepan fifty-three[k ik one + caalaIsa ca:li:s = [ktalaIsa ikta:li:s forty-oneMorphophonemic changes at junctural points or sandhi are verycommon in Hindi. They usually takes place in compound words.saUya- su:rya + Aaid a:di = saUya-aid su:rya:di sun and thesun etc. like.caMd` candr + ]dya uday = caMd`aodya candroday moonrisemoon rise 31
  49. 49. 3. MORPHOLOGY3. MorphologyThis chapter deals with the morphological structure of differentword classes, describing their inflectional and derivational forms.Word classes described include nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs,adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections.3.1. Nouns3.1.1. Noun InflectionNouns in Hindi are inflected for gender, number, and case. There arethree declensions of nouns; Declension I includes Aa /a:/ endingmasculine nouns; Declension II includes all other masculine nouns;and Declension III includes all feminine nouns.3.1.1.1. GenderThere are two genders in Hindi: masculine and feminine. Besidesthe natural gender of animate nouns, every inanimate noun isassigned a gender. Though the gender of a large number ofinanimate nouns can be predicted by their endings, there are no hardand fast rules for assigning the genders. Masculine forms aretraditionally taken as basic. The gender formation involves (a)suffixation, (b) phonological changes, and (c) suppletion. We canmake some general observations as follows.(i) Most of the Aa /a:/ ending masculine nouns have their feminineforms ending in [- /i:/.laD,ka larka: boy laD,kI larki: girlcaacaa ca:ca: uncle caacaI ca:ci: auntiballaa billa: he cat iballaI billi: she catbaccaa bacca: child (m) baccaI bacci: child (f)dada da:da: father’s father dadI da:di: father’s mothernaanaa na:na: mother’s father naanaI na:ni: mother’s mother saalaa sa:la: wife’s brother saalaI sa:li: wife’s sisterpgalaa pagla: a mad man pgalaI pagli: a mad woman 33
  50. 50. 3. MORPHOLOGYIn the above examples, the final -Aa /-a:/ in the masculine nouns isreplaced by - [- /-i:/ in their feminine forms.(ii) Most of the - [- /-i:/ ending animate masculine nouns have theirfeminine forms ending in -Ana /-an/.Masculine FeminineQaaobaI dhobi: washerman Qaaobana dhoban washerwomantolaI teli: oilman tolana telan oilwomanmaalaI ma:li: gardener (m) maalana ma:lan gardener (f)jaaogaI jogi: saint (m) jaaogana jogan saint (f)(iii) Some nouns ending in - Aa /-a:/ form their feminine (diminutive)by replacing -Aa /-a:/ with - [yaa /-iya:/.Dbaa daba: box iDibayaa dibiya: a small box(iv) Most of the -Aa /-a:/ ending inanimate nouns are masculine and -[- /-i:/ ending inanimate nouns are feminine.Masculine FemininepMKa pankha: fan pMKI pankhi: a small fansaaoTa sota: a big stick saaoTI soti: a small stickkTaora katora: a bowl kTaorI katori: a small bowlkaoza kotha: a room kaozrI kothri: a small roomIn the above examples, the final -Aa /a:/ in the masculine forms isreplaced by the suffix -[- /i:/.(v) The suffix -naI /-ni:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form thefeminine.Masculine FeminineSaor šer lion SaornaI šerni: lionessmaaor mor peacock maaornaI morni: peahenmaasTr ma:star teacher (m) maasTrnaI ma:starni: teacher (f)}ÐT ũ:t camel }ÐTnaI ũ:tni: she-camelnaaOkr nøkar servant (m) naaOkranaI nøkra:ni: servant (f) 34
  51. 51. 3. MORPHOLOGY(vi) The suffix -[- /-i:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form thefeminine.Masculine Femininedasa da:s servant dasaI da:si: maidpu~ putr son pu~I putri: daughtersauMdr sundar beautiful sauMdrI sundri: beautiful woman3.1.1.2. NumberThere are two numbers: singular and plural.(i) The -Aa /-a:/ ending masculine nouns (including pronouns andadjectives), with a few exceptions change into -e /-e/ ending formsin the plural.Singular PlurallaD,ka larka: boy laD,ko larke boysGaaoD,a gho:ra: horse GaaoD,o ghore horsesmaora mera: my maoro mere mykalaa ka:la: black kalao ka:le blackThe following -Aa /-a:/ ending masculine nouns do not change intheir plural form.ipta pita: father/fathersnaota neta: leader/leadersdiryaa dariya: river/rivers(ii) All other consonant and/or other vowel-ending nouns do notchange in their plural forms.maaor mor peacock(s)kaoT kot coat(s)ga`ama gra:m village(s)haqaI ha:thi: elephant(s)Émaala ruma:l handkerchief/handkerchiefsQaaoobaI dhobi: laundry man/ laundry men 35
  52. 52. 3. MORPHOLOGY(iii) The feminine plurals are formed by adding the suffix -eM /ẽ/ tothe consonant-ending singular forms.iktaba kita:b book iktabaoM kita:bẽ booksmaoja, mez table maoja,oM mezẽ tablesgaaya ga:y cow gaayaoM ga:yẽ cows(iv) The plural suffix -[yaaÐ -iyã: is added to the -[-M -i: ending femininenouns.laD,kI larki: girl + [yaaÐ -iyã: = laD,ikyaaÐ larkiyã: girlskusaI- kursi: chair + [yaaÐ -iyã: = kuisa-yaaÐ kursiyã: chairskhanaI kaha:ni: story + [yaaÐ -iyã: = khainayaaÐ kaha:niyã: storiesNotice that when the suffix is added the final vowel of the stem isdeleted.3.1.1.3. CaseThe syntactic and semantic functions of noun phrases are expressedby case-suffixes, postpositions and derivational processes. There aretwo cases: direct and oblique. Case-suffixes and postpositions areused to express syntactic and semantic functions. Case suffixes aredefined as bound suffixes, which do not occur independently aswords and are added only to the noun phrases. Case suffixes addedto the oblique forms of nouns agreeing in number and gender.Case Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg PlDirect Ø Ø Ø ØOblique -e -e -AaoM -õ -[ -i -AaoM -õVocative -e -e -Aao -o -[ -i -Aao -oThe vocative address forms may be preceded by the vocativemorphemes Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are. The role of case-suffixes andpostpositions is explained in the paradigms of laD,ka larka: ‘boy’ andlaD,kI larki: ‘girl’ given below. 36
  53. 53. 3. MORPHOLOGYCase Noun + Marker Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg PlDirect laD,ka laD,ko laD,kI laD,ikyaaÐ larka: larke larki: larkiyã:Oblique laD,ko laD,kaoM laD,kI laD,ikyaaoM larke larkõ larki: larkiyõVocative Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are laD,ko larke Oh boy Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are laD,kao larko Oh boys e e/ ho he/ Aro are laD,kI larki: Oh girl e e/ ho he/ Aro are laD,ikyaao larkiyo Oh girlsCase-suffixes followed by postpositions indicate variousrelationships between the noun phrases and the verb phrases.3.1.2. PostpositionsPostpositions have specific semantic functions. They express thesemantic dimensions of a noun such as benefaction, manner, orlocation. The main postpositions are: nao ne ‘ergative marker’; kao ko‘to’; ko ilae ke liye ‘for’; pr par ‘on’; maoM mẽ ‘in’; sao se ‘from’; sao se‘with’; ka /ko /kI ka/ke/ki: ‘of’.’ The postpositions are written asseparate words with nouns (Aimat nao amit ne, ]maa kao uma: ko), but theyare tagged to pronouns (maOMnao m´~ne ]sakao usko, iksaka kiska:).3.1.2.1. The Postposition nao neThe postposition nao ne is used with subject noun phrases usually withthe transitive verbs in the past tense. The verb agrees with the object.1. maOMnao p~ ilaKa. m´~ne patr likha: I-erg letter wrote I wrote a letter.1a. *maOMnao p~ ilaKa. *m´~ patr likha: 37
  54. 54. 3. MORPHOLOGY2. ]sanao kpD,o Qaaoe. usne kapre dhoye he-erg clothes washed He washed clothes.2a. vah kpD,o Qaaoyaa. *vah kapre dhoya:Whenever the objects are followed by the dative postposition kao ko,the verb remains in masculine singular form.3. maaohna nao baihna /bahnaaoM kao baulaayaa. mohan ne bahin/bahnõ ko bula:ya: Mohan-erg sister/sisters-dat called Mohan called (his) sister/sisters.4. hmanao laD,ko / laD,kaoM / laD,kI /laD,ikyaaoM kao pZ,ayaa. hamne larke/larkõ/larki:/ larkiyõ ko parha:ya: we-erg boy/boys/girl/girls-dat taught We taught the boy/boys/girl/girls.The nao ne postposition is not used with the subjects of the followingtransitive verbs: laanaa la:na: ‘to bring,’ Kolanaa khelna: ‘to play,’ baaolanaabolna: ‘to speak,’ BaUlanaa bhu:lna: ‘to forget,’ and baknaa bakna: ‘tochatter.’5. ]maa kmaIja, laa[-. uma: kami:z la:i: Uma-nom shirt brought Uma brought a shirt.5a. *]maa nao kmaIja, laa[-. *uma: ne kami:z la:i:6. laD,ka baaolaa. larka: bola: boy said The boy said.6a. *laD,ko nao baaolaa. *larke ne bola: 38
  55. 55. 3. MORPHOLOGY7. vah rasta BaUlaa. voh ra:sta: bhu:la: he way forgot He forgot/lost the way.7a. *]sanao rasta BaUlaa. *usne ra:sta: bhu:la:8. vah kafI dor baka. vah ka:phi: de:r baka: he-nom lot duration chattered He chattered for a long time.8a. *]sanao kafI dor baka. *usne ka:phi de:r baka:The postposition nao ne is used with the following intransitive verbs:CIMknaa chĩ:kna: ‘to sneeze’; KaÐsanaa khã:sna: ‘to cough’; nahanaa naha:na:‘to take a bath’; and qaUknaa thu:kna: ‘to spit’.9. ]sanao Gar sao inaklato samaya CIMka. usne ghar se nikalte samay chĩ:ka: he-erg house-abl from set out-ptc time sneezed He sneezed as he was leaving the house.10. baImaar vyai@t ³nao´o ja,aor sao KaÐsaa. bi:ma:r vyakti (ne) zo:r se khã:sa: ill person-erg loudly coughed The ill person coughed loudly.11. maOMnao garma panaI sao nahayaa. m´~ne garm pa:ni: se naha:ya: I-erg hot water with bathed I took a bath in hot water.12. tumanao saD,k pr @yaaoM qaUka? tumne sarak par kyõ thu:ka:? you-erg road on why spit-past Why did you spit on the road? 39
  56. 56. 3. MORPHOLOGYIt is not used in constructions using the modal verbs laganaa lagna:, cauknaacukna:, and saknaa sakna::13. vah saoba Kanao lagaa. vah seb kha:ne laga: he apple eat-inf-obl started He started eating apples.13a. *]sanao saoba Kanao lagaa. *usne seb kha:ne laga:14. maOM yah kama kr cauka. m´~ yah ka:m kar cuka: I this work do completed I finished this work.14a. *maOMnao yah kama kr cauka. *m´~ne yah ka:m kar cuka:15. vah icaTzI ilaK saka. vah citthi: likh saka: he letter write could He could write a letter.15a. *]sanoa icaTzI ilaK saka. *usne citthi: likh saka:In the case of a few transitive verbs like samaJanaa samjhna: ‘tounderstand’ and Kolanaa khelna: ‘to play,’ the use of this postposition isoptional.16. maOMnao ]sakI baat samaJaI. m´~ne uski: ba:t samjhi: I-erg his/her matter understood I understood what he said.16a. maOM ]sakI baat samaJaa. m´~ uski: ba:t samjha.: I his/her matter understood I understood what he said. 40
  57. 57. 3. MORPHOLOGY17. maOM samaJaa vah baImaar hO. m´~ samjha: voh bi:ma:r h´. I understood he sick is I thought he was sick.17a. maOMnao samaJaa vah baImaar hO. m´~ne samjha: voh bi:ma:r h´.18. vah hakI Kolaa. vah ha:ki: khe:la:. he hockey played He played hockey.18a. ]sanao hakI KolaI. usne haki: khe:li:. he-erg hockey played He played hockey.The use of the postposition nao ne is invariably found in compoundverb constructions with the verb samaJanaa samjhna: ‘to understand’ asthe main verb.19. maOMnao baat samaJa laI. m´~ne ba:t samajh li: I-erg matter understand took I understood the matter.19a. *maOM baat samaJa laI. *m´~ ba:t samajh li:3.1.2.2. The Postposition kao koThe postposition kao ko is used in different types of sentences and isplaced after nouns. It is optional when used with object nouns whichare followed by conjunct verbs with an adjective or adverb and theverb.1. maoja, (kao) saaf krao. mez (ko) sa:f karo table (dat) clean do-imp Clean the table. 41

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