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curriculum innovations: local and global trends


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report on Educ. 8 (Curriculum Development)

Published in: Education, Technology

curriculum innovations: local and global trends

  1. 1. Addressing the Future: Curriculum Innovations
  2. 2. Rodrigo B. Javier Ph.D. and Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D.
  3. 3. Reporter: CALAYLAY, Eddelyn Jessica S. BSED III-C (Soc.Sci.)
  4. 4. The Vision, Mission and Rationale of the Curriculum The Department of Education, envisions every learner to be functionally literate, equipped with life skills, appreciative of arts and sports and imbued with the desirable values of a person who is makabayan, makatao, makakalikasan at maka-Diyos.
  5. 5. This vision is in line with DepEd’s mission to provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lays the foundation for lifelong learning and service for the common good. The BEC developed through a dynamic process . It started with the review of existing basic education curriculum in 1997 which took into consideration world wide trends and Philippines realities.
  6. 6. Parameters of the Basic Education Curriculum The demands of the learning environment, the society and the Filipino learner defined the parameters that govern the elements of the curriculum. These elements include objectives, content, materials, teaching-learning process, and evaluation. The objectives are expressed in terms of competencies in knowledge, skills and attitudes. These determine the content which focuses on the processes and skills of learning how to learn rather than on the content coverage of facts and information.
  7. 7. The content is delivered using a variety of media and resources. From the traditional textbook resources, teachers are encouraged to use ICT and community resources. Content is contextualized so that the curriculum is adjusted to the situation and local culture. The use of multi-sensory materials is encouraged in teaching. Real objects, tri0dimentional models, audio- visuals and real life situations are effective tools in delivery of the teaching-learning process. The use of local or community resources as well as technology-driven support materials are utilized in the learning environment.
  8. 8. Leaning is assessed using a variety of measures. The use of both the traditional and the authentic assessment is mandated for purposes of gathering information about the learners in a holistic manner. Authentic assessment when appropriate should be encouraged in order for the students to apply knowledge and skills learned in the same way they are used in the real world.
  9. 9. Schools are encouraged to conduct their own evaluation. This will allow schools to take adjustments with regard to objectives, content, materials, teaching-learning process in order to achieve desired learning outcomes. The teaching-learning process considers the learners as active partners rather than objects of teaching. The learners are constructors of meaning, while the teachers act as facilitators, enablers and managers of learning.
  10. 10. Studies of the past curriculum indicate that there is over crowdedness which was a hindrance to lifelong learners. So to decongest the curriculum, BEC restructured it into only five learning areas, namely: English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino and Makabayan. Filipino, English, Science are the tool subjects. English, Mathematics and Science are subjects to develop internationalism, while Makabayantogether with Filipino is a learning area which will enhance nationalism. Makabayan is the “laboratory of life” to develop a healthy personal and national identity. Makabayanas a learning area requires an adequate understanding of Philippines history, our politico- economic system, local cultures, crafts, arts, music and games. It stresses on the development of social awareness, empathy, and firm commitment to the common good.
  11. 11. In the elementary, Makabayan includes Social Studies, Sibika at Kulturafor Grades 1-3, Kasaysayan at Sibika(HKS) for Grades 4-6, EdukasyongPantahanan at Pangkabuhayan(EPP) for Grades 4-6, Musika, Sining at EdukasyongPangkatawan(MSEP) for Grades 4-6 while in Grades 1-3, MSEP is integrated with Sibika at Kultura. Good Manners and Right Conduct (GMRC) is integrated in all subjects.
  12. 12. For high school, the components of the Makabayan are AralingPanlipunan (AP) or Social Studies. This Learning area has a focus for each curriculum year. For the first year, Philippine History and Governance, second year, Asian Studies, third year, World history and fourth year, Economics. Other subjects include Technology and Home Economics (THE), Physical Education, Health, Music and Arts (PEHMA) and EdukasyongPagpapahalaga(EP) or Values Education (VE). For all subject areas in the curriculum, Communication and Information Technology is utilized.
  13. 13. Integrative Teaching as Mode of Instructional Delivery Integrative teaching works best in the BEC. It is so because the curriculum is treated in a holistic manner. The process is interactive, collaborative and innovative. Four examples are given to describe integrative teaching. These are thematic teaching, content based instruction, focusing inquiry and generic competency model.
  14. 14. Thematic teaching requires organization of themes around the ideas. The theme provides focus and helps learners see the meaningful connections across subject areas. It links ideas to action and learning to life. For example, the theme chosen is Philippine Festivals. You must know that our country celebrates various festivals in its different provinces, towns or cities. The different subject areas (English, Science, Math, Filipino and Makabayan) in this particular case use the different features of a particular festival as the subject matter.
  15. 15. Here are the simple steps in using the Integrated Unit Design (Thematic Based) 1. Decide on a unit theme that will allow all subject areas to join. Example: Philippine Festivals. 2. Identify the major concepts to serve as a “common thread’ for all the subject areas. Example: Historical Background or Origin, Purposes of the Celebration, Dance steps, Costumes, Music, others. 3. Brainstorm and list generalizations that will be derived from the study of the theme. 4. Write questions that would facilitate the understanding and mastery of the generalization.
  16. 16. 5. For each subject area, write instructional objectives to be accomplished. 6. Identify instructional activities which will accomplish the objectives. 7. Based on the objectives, perform the activities. 8. Conduct culminating activity where all subject areas learning will be applied. 9. Design a scoring guide or rubric to assess the performance of the task in the culminating activity.
  17. 17. Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is the integration of content learning with language teaching. The language curriculum is centered on the academic needs and interests of the learners, thus CBI crosses the barriers between language and subject matter content. This approach aims at developing the learner’s academic language skills.
  18. 18. Focusing Inquiry is an interdisciplinary approach that uses questions to organize learning. Learners become creators rather than recipients of knowledge. Contents and concepts are given less importance than the process of conducting an investigation and communicating what was learned to others. Instructional process is built around inquiry, where teachers guide the students to discover answers to questions. Using what learners already know as a starting point, they generate questions about things they do not know yet. They design a method of investigation and gather information on their own.
  19. 19. Focusing Inquiry Cycle 1. Frame focusing questions. (Asking about prior knowledge) 2. Present field of facts. (Who? What? When? How?) 3. Help learners connect or relate facts. (interpret, infer, give meaning) 4. Help learners generate explanatory ideas. (generalization) 5. Help learners find answers.
  20. 20. Generic Competency Model In Generic Competency Model learners are enrolled in three to four linked or related courses or subject areas. In Makabayan for instance, competencies can be clustered into personal development, social competencies and work and special skills. The subject specialist teaches his/her subject and activities will draw on processes and skills important to each discipline.
  21. 21. Steps to be followed: 1. Decide on the generic competency (social, personal, productivity) that will allow related competencies from the many subjects. (Musika at Sining, Edukasyong Pangkatawan at Pangkalusugan, Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga, Teknolohiya, Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan at Araling Panlipunan) to enter the integration process. 2. Identify the culminating performance. (what, why and how)
  22. 22. 3. Brainstorm the specific skills derived from the project that would be expected of the learners. Find out if these skills will lead to the culminating performance. 4. Design the scoring guide criteria and standard to assess the performance tasks preferably performance tests and portfolio.
  23. 23. This was flagship project of the Department of Education in response to the Social Reform Agenda initiatives of the government. The project was focused only on the elementary level and the goals were improved learning achievement, improve completion rates, access to quality elementary education. Further TEEP aimed to build institutional capacity of the Department of Education to manage change and actively involve parents, teachers, community leaders as stakeholders for quality education.
  24. 24. Funded by World Bank (WB) and Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), TEEP began in 1996 and concluded in 2005. Evaluation of the different components were held and hopefully, the results would be coming out soon. Initial findings reveal that ther are indicators of improved learning achievement and rise in completion rates of the students. Access to quality elementary education had also been achieved. As planned, the best practices of the curricular innovations of the pilot divisions would be implemented by other divisions all throughout the country.
  25. 25. The major educational components of the TEEP are Advocacy, In-service training for Teachers (INSET), School Improvement and Innovation Facility (SIIF), Student Assessment (SA), Educational Management Information System (E-MIS) Procurement, and Monitoring and Evaluation. It also advocated principal empowerment in all the educational component.
  26. 26. SEDIP is a curricular innovation which dovetailed the Third Elementary Education Project or TEEP. Its purpose was to improve equitable access to secondary education in poverty affected areas. More specifically, the objectives included:  To improve the quality and relevance of secondary education in project provinces;  To increase the rates of participation in and completion of secondary education in the undeserved areas;  To support the decentralization process towards the transfer of greater management responsibilities and decision-making authority to the schools and offices at the provincial levels.
  27. 27. Curricular reform is SEDIP revolved around (a) Improving Teaching and Learning (b) Improving Access to Secondary Education and (c) Facilitating Decentralized Secondary Education Management. These three important components are within the parameters of curriculum development.
  28. 28. In improving teaching and learning, curriculum innovations centered on:  The development of skills and competencies of school heads in school planning and management and instructional support for teachers.  Improving teachers’ subject knowledge and teaching skills  Improving the availability of learning materials by providing textbooks, teaching manuals and other instructional materials.  Improving learning environment through the construction and/or rehabilitation of school facilities and procurement of furniture and equipment for classrooms, laboratories and other school facilities.
  29. 29. The two other components of the SEDIP are support components to curriculum innovations such as improving access to secondary education and facilitating decentralized secondary school management. Access to education to provided schooling alternatives to students who are unable to attend school regularly and opened new school with the assistance and collaboration of local government units with the provision of facilities, equipment, training of teachers and school heads.
  30. 30. Decentralizing secondary education management is an innovation which strengthened the planning and management capacity; supported the monitoring and evaluation capacity, developed policy research management and analysis capacity, improved the educational management information system, developed local and school based in-service training and supported the new textbook procurement and delivery system. The SEDIP innovation started in 2000 and ended in 2006. Initial results showed gains, and best practices have been replicated in other divisions which were not participants in the project.
  31. 31. Reporter: TALABIS, Sunshine V. BSED III-C (Soc.Sci.)
  32. 32. This new Teacher Education Curriculum was implemented by CMO 30, s, 2004. There are two teacher education degrees which are offered by the Teacher Training Institutions. These are the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEEd) and the Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd). The BEEd is structured to meet the needs of professional teachers for elementary schools and special education programs and the BSEd for the needs of professional teachers in the high schools in the Philippines.
  33. 33. The BEEd aims to develop elementary schools teachers who are either generalist who can teach across the different areas in grade school, special education teachers and pre-school teachers while the BSEd aims to develop high school teachers who can teach in one of the different learning areas in high school like Mathematics, Physical Science, Biological Sciences, English, Filipino among others.
  34. 34. The competency standards to developed by prospective teachers for both elementary and secondary levels are found in the list below. These are also aligned to the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) formulated for all teachers in the Philippines.
  35. 35. Graduates of BEEd and BSEd must: 1. Have the basic and higher level literacy. Communication, numeracy, critical thinking, learning skills needed for higher learning. 2. Have a deep and principled understanding of the learning processes and the role of the teacher in facilitating these processes in their students. 3. Have a deep and principled understanding of how educational processes relate to the larger historical, social, cultural and political processes.
  36. 36. 4. Have a meaningful and comprehensive knowledge of the subject matter they will teach. 5. Apply a wide range of teaching process skills (including curriculum development, lesson planning, material development, educational assessment, and teaching approaches.) 6. Have direct experience in the field/ classroom (as classroom observations, teaching assistance and practice teaching.) 7. Demonstrate and practice the professional and ethical requirements of the teaching profession.
  37. 37. 8. Facilitate the learning of diverse types of learners, in diverse type of learning environments using a wide range of teaching knowledge and skills. 9. Reflect on the relationships among the teaching process skills and learning in the students, the nature of the content and the broader social forces encumbering the schools and educational processes in order to improve their teaching knowledge, skills and practices. 10. Be creative and innovative in thinking of alternative teaching approaches, take informed risks in trying out these innovative approaches and evaluate the effectiveness of such approaches in improving student learning. 11. Be willing and capable to continue learning in order to better fulfill their mission as teachers.
  38. 38. The Curriculum of the BEEd and the BSEd The curriculum design feature include various components that correspond to the basic and specialized knowledge and skills that will be needed by a practicing professional teachers: foundational general education knowledge and skills, theoretical knowledge about teaching learning, methodological skills, experimental knowledge and skills and professional ethical values and subject matter knowledge appropriate to the level of teaching of pre- school, elementary and secondary levels.
  39. 39. The curriculum recognizes the need to equip teachers with wide range of theoretical and methodological skills. These allow the teachers to have more options and greater flexibility in designing and implementing learning environments which will maximize students’ learning. The curriculum is also designed do that the components are integrated. It emphasizes the interweaving of foundational, theoretical, methodological and experimental knowledge in the various learning experiences in the curriculum.
  40. 40. The new teacher education curriculum is made up of three components. For both the BEEd and the BSEd, a sixty- three (63) unit general education is required. Professional education courses for BEEd is fifty four (54) units while the BSEd requires fifty one (51) units. The specialization or content of courses required for the elementary teachers is fifty seven (57) units and those who will be teaching in the high school are required sixty (60) units of content. Both degree courses require one hundred seventy four (174) units. The general Education Courses continue to follow the existing general education courses for other than teacher education. This is mandated in CHED Memo no. 59. s. 1996.
  41. 41. The professional Education Courses are clustered into three which are theory and concept courses, methods and strategy courses and field study courses. Some of the peculiar features of the Professional Education Courses are as follows: 1. All the subjects will be taught in an integrated manner. 2. Discussion of theory and concepts should always be linked to the development of methods and strategies and to experiential learning during the field study.
  42. 42. 3. All courses should be taught using a wide range of teaching learning approaches and assessment procedure, including the use of technology. 4. All courses must have a research requirement which may take the form of a term paper, case study, action research or other forms of research as maybe appropriate. 5. The theory and concept courses provide the broad framework within which students can understand, rationalize, and reflect on the various methods and strategies related on teaching.
  43. 43. 6. The methods and strategy courses in the program aim to develop a wide range of skills to facilitate and evaluate learning in diverse types of students in a variety of learning environments. 7. The field study courses are intended to provide students with practical learning experiences in which they can observe, verify, reflect on, and actually experience different components of the teaching- learning processes in actual school setting. 8. There will be special topic courses in seminar for which will be there one-unit courses. Special topics are based on the perceived needs of the students and the expertise of the faculty.
  44. 44. The content courses for BEED is sum up to fifty seven (57) units. These correspond to the various learning areas in the elementary education curriculum. These General Education Courses which include Science, Mathematics, English, Filipino, Social studies, Music, Arts and Physical Education, Home Economics and Livelihood Education and Values Education. The BEED students may also take fifty seven (57) units in Special Education or Pre-school Education. The Specialization courses for the BSEd degree will be sixty (60) units for Mathematics, Physical Sciences, Natural Sciences, English, Filipino, Social Studies, Values Education, Technology Education, Music, Arts, Physical and Health Education and Islamic Studies.
  45. 45. The Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education prepares teachers in technical-vocational education (TVET) and higher education institutions who are equipped not only with strong theoretical understanding of teaching and technology but also with exposure to industry. The curricular program of BTTE shall impart knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experience that will provide prospective teachers with the necessary competencies essential in effective teaching.
  46. 46. The specific body of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experiences include general education component, specialization component and instructional technology component. a. General Education component is consistent of the CHED Memo 59 composed of sixty (60) units of courses in humanities, languages, natural and behavioral sciences, computer proficiency, mathematics, logic and ethics which are all aimed to make a person broadly educated, creative, cultured, morally upright and productive.
  47. 47. b. Professional Studies component includes philosophy and aims technology education, curriculum development and teaching-learning processes. It also include clinical experiences in teaching and the mastery of the Philippine Trainers Qualification Framework (PTTQF). c. Specialization component that includes the in depth knowledge of content and specified skills in the major fields including industry exposure. d. Instructional technology component that include competencies in the use of technology in teaching and training.
  48. 48. Curricular Model A of BTTE Model A is offered for high school graduates who could meet the admission requirements of the College. The characteristics of the model are as follows: a. The program of study for the general and professional education subjects is based on CHED Memo 30, s, 2004. b. The technology major subjects are based on the competency standards indicated in the Training Regulations of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).
  49. 49. c. The interfacing of CHED and TESDA provides the students to exit after one, two or three years with specific job opportunities and/ or allows them to continue their studies for the four years of BTTE giving full credits to all subjects taken in the previous years. d. If the students prefer to work after one year of study, he could exit the ladderized program with certificate of achievement. He/she is also qualified to take the assessment for national certificate (NC) administered by TESDA.
  50. 50. e. Students who choose to finish the four year BTTE degree should meet the criteria for admission to the degree. After finishing the four years BTTE program, he/she can be issued their Diploma which qualifies them to take the Licensure Examination for Teachers.
  51. 51. Model B of the BTTE Model B is offered to the graduates of the Two-Year Trace Technical Curriculum and the Three year Diploma of Technology Program in different area of specialization. The characteristics of the model are as follows: a. Students will have at least one year industry experience aside from the industry immersion or the on the job training (OJT).
  52. 52. b. On The Job Training (OJT) or industry experience is requirement leading to a four year Baccalaureate degree (Ladderized Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education). c. Students in this model intend to become prospective teachers in their respective aea of specialization.
  53. 53. ICeXCELS (Instructional and Curricular Excellence in School Leadership for South East Asia) is a short course package of SEAMEO INNOTECH for elementary and secondary administrators on developing instructional and development leadership. It addresses the need to develop and strengthen the school head’s role as an instructional leader in promoting or improving the quality of teaching and learning in his/her school.
  54. 54. The course was based on a Competency Framework for Southeast Asian School Heads which SEAMEO INNOTECH developed and validated with the Ministries of Education from ten SEAMEO member states. The framework consists of general and enabling sub-competencies that describe what school heads are expected to do and improve on to make them more successful on performing their work.
  55. 55. Special Features of the Innovation 1. Delivery of Instruction- Teaching in the eXCELS is primarily delivered through print self-instructional modules augmented by the use of interactive tools such as chat, discussion forums and mail, among other learning support system. To facilitate the use of the chat, discussion forums and other communication features, learners should have valid email address. The learning modules are instructionally designed to be interactive and to incorporate the four A’s of adult learning (Activity, Analysis, Abstraction and Application).
  56. 56. Each module is made up of the components:  Pre-organizers and advanced organizers,  Module pre-test,  Module post-test,  Pre/postself-rating competency checklist,  Interactive learning methodologies such as activities, insight forming questions, lecturettes and readings, discussion topics, summaries and other linked resources.  Lesson review tests  Practical exercises and feedback on the tests  A module assignment  Glossary of terms  List of references and suggested additional reading and links
  57. 57. 2. Learning Modality- After the students get their learning package, they can immediately study at their own pace and time. Learners should be able to manage their time such that they will finish one module in two weeks and two modules in four weeks. During the period, the students should study the printed modules and check on the Discussion Forum on-line in the iFLEX. Learners and tutors should interact among themselves. Aside from the class interaction during discussions, each student is required to submit assignments, reflection paper and action plan either in hard or soft copies to the tutor for evaluation. The three requirements make the learning portfolio which the tutor will evaluate, give feedback on they become the basis for the learners’ rating.
  58. 58. 3. Evaluation System- Each learner will be given feedback in the form of qualitative narratives by the tutors for their outputs. They will also receive a rating for each major requirement and for their participation in the discussion group. The ratings will be issued by the tutor which has an equivalent as follows: A= 3 Excellent B = 2 Pass C = 1 Deficient Learners who successfully complete the course will be awarded a Certificate of Completion by SEAMEO INNOTECH and academic credits from partner training institutions.
  59. 59. 4. Time Table- The duration of time expected of all learners to finish the course is 50 hours which is equivalent to a 3 unit course. The time spent includes self-study of the module, participation in the on-line discussion, preparation and submission of the module activities which are the contents of learning portfolio. A maximum of 2 weeks is given to accomplish each module. For the current course, there are 2 modules; hence a maximum of four weeks is expected. Approximately rating will be released.
  60. 60. iFLEX DepEd eXCELS is an example of distance education and e-learning. The use technology alone or in combination of other delivery system has been the “in” thing in educational innovation. This development has made education very accessible to all. It has also conquered the barriers of distance, space and time in education. The UP Open University also embarked in various distance education programs as well. It is popularly known as the UPOU Curricular Programs.
  61. 61. Reporter: AUSTRIA, Jon Michael L. BSED III-C (Soc. Sci.)
  62. 62. 1. Project CHILD Project Child (Computer Helping Instruction and Learning Development) is a research based instructional delivery system that enables one to intensify the curriculum with technology on hands of learning. Originally developed at Florida State University by Dr. Sally Butzin, CHILD bridges today’s school with the school of the future.
  63. 63. The lives of the children today are shaped by the demands of the Information age in which technology plays a central role. The future workplace requires the abilities to think critically, solve problems, use technology to access and organize information, and possesses the interpersonal skills to work effectively and cooperatively with others.
  64. 64. CHILD goals are to:  Modify the school structure and create classroom conditions conducive to learning with technology.  Create a cohesive unit of work that foster strategies for thinking.  Reign curriculum for reading, language arts and mathematics so as to cover legally mandated content and integrating fully the use of computer in the curriculum. It aims to increase academic performance, develop reasoning abilities, problem solving, decision making and knowledge application, communicating effectively and emphasizes the development of mathematics in early years.
  65. 65. Structure and Procedure of CHILD CHILD focuses on K-5 self-contained teaching using a triangulated approach. Cluster of three experts work across three grade levels to teach three basic formats in technology, hands-on and paper and pencil. The primary level cluster is made up of K to grade 2 and the intermediate cluster is grade 3-5. One classroom is set up for reading, one for writing and one for mathematics. Each of the three teachers in each cluster becomes content specialist for one of the three Project CHILD subject areas. He/she is also responsible for one grade level classroom.
  66. 66. Learners from each grade level in the cluster move among the classrooms to spend one hour per day working in each of the three majors areas. Thus the teachers will work in their specialized field with the same learners for three years.
  67. 67. six “stations” or learning centers in a Project CHILD classroom.  Computer station for the technology-based learning  Textbook station for written work  Challenge station for activities in game formats  The imagination station for creative expression  Exploration station for hands-on activities  Teacher station for additional instructional support Learners follow a precise management plan for moving from one station to the another. Goals are set and activities are recorded in a book called “passport”. Required curriculum content is covered in six-week thematic units.
  68. 68. Project CHILD Materials  Station Planning Guidelines- The planning guidelines are organized in six weeks topical units. The contents include suggested software which are referenced to state standards, teaching tips, skills checklists for each grade level, list of materials and resources, and station activity pages.  Station activities/ Task cards. A companion of station planning guidelines, provide ideas for hands on station activities. It directs the learners to work, since specific objectives and directions are given for them to work independently and constructively.
  69. 69.  Passport- This is the management tool to help students become organized and focused on their work. It is also used to set and assess the goals of the learners. The passport is brought home after the end of the six week unit for the parents to look into. In this way the parents become an integral part of the learning team. Both the parents and the learners will understand the academic significance of the station activities.
  70. 70.  Teacher’ Manual- A complete guide to assist teachers in implementing the child instructional program. The manual include the Overview of CHILD, Getting started, Planning Station Activities, Assessment, Managing the Classroom, Roles and Responsibilities, and Essential Components. It has also a portion for record keeping, student’s certificates and other classroom management tools.  Leadership Guide- It is composing of materials in making presentations to community groups and strategies to involve the school adopting the effective practices in Project CHILD.
  71. 71.  Special Needs Inclusion Guide- A timely resource for both regular and exceptional teachers to support the inclusion of special needs in classroom.  Training Facilitator Guide- It includes comprehensive trainings, overviews, transparencies and handouts for workshop participations.
  72. 72. All of the above materials are needed for the successful implementation of the curriculum. The teacher receives special year long training in their content especially in classroom management techniques and computer integration skills. Teachers continue their professional development through on0going self- study, in-service, action research and by becoming mentors for new CHILD teachers. CHILD provides a risk-free learning climate. High expectations of the parents are met with their cooperation as part of the team to prepare the learners in the 21st century.
  73. 73. 2. Brain-Based Learning For two thousand years there have been primitive models of how the brain works. Up to the middle of 1990’s, the brain was compared to a central switchboard. In 1970, the brain theory focused on the right and left brain. Paul McClean later used the concept of triune brain to refer to the evolution of the human three part brain. According to triune theory, survival leaving is in the lower brain, emotions were in the mid-brain, and higher order thinking took place in the upper brain. However, the current brain theory embraces the whole systems, complex brain model.
  74. 74. In the last two decades, neuroscientist have been doing research related to the improved teaching practices. Based on the findings and conclusions from these researches, information was taken and incorporated into books and resource references about learning. Classroom practices were modified using new theories of teaching and learning based on these findings. Some noted authors included Marian Diamond of the University of California; Howard Gardner, Harvard University, Thomas Armstrong, among others.
  75. 75. Brain-based learning is an approach to teaching based on research in neuroscience. It suggests that our brain learns naturally. This theory is based on what is currently known about the structure and function of the brain at the varying stages of development. This provides a biologically driven framework for teaching and learning, and helps the recurring learning behaviors. Brain-based theory includes an eclectic mix of techniques. Currently these techniques stress allowing teachers to connect learning to students’ learning real life experiences. This form of learning also encompasses education concepts like mastery learning, problem based-learning, cooperative education, multiple intelligence, learning styles, experiential learning, among others.
  76. 76. Core Principles Guiding Brain- Based Education  The brain perceives whole and parts simultaneously.  The brain is a parallel processor which can perform activities at once.  Information is stored in multiple areas of the brain and is retrieved through multiple memory and neutral path ways.  Learning engages the whole body. All learning is mind- body: movement, food, attention cycles, chemicals modulate learning.  Humans’ search for meaning is innate.  Search for meaning comes from patterning.
  77. 77.  Emotions are critical to patterning and drive our attention, meaning and memory.  Meaning is more important than information.  Learning involves focused attention and peripheral perception.  We have two types of memory: spatial and rote.  The brain is social. It develops better in concert with other brains.  Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by stress.  Every brain is uniquely organized.  Learning is developmental.
  78. 78. From the principles regarding the brain-based theory several interactive teaching elements emerged. Orchestrated immersion - Learning environments are created to provide authentic learning experiences. For example in the elementary level, teachers can use the school’s mini forest to identify trees, animals and other plants and find out how they live together. High school students can go on field trip to a nearby forest or mangrove to observe and identify symbiotic relationships, communities and ecological systems.
  79. 79. Relaxed alertness - In brain-based learning, efforts are made to eliminate fear while maintaining a highly challenging environment. Teachers may play classical music when appropriate to set a relaxed tone in the classroom. Bright lights are dimmed. scented candles are lighted to calm the senses or stimulate the senses. All learners are accepted with their various learning styles, capabilities and disabilities. These will all provide a relaxed accepting environment. Children are motivated to bring in the best of themselves and bring out their potentials.
  80. 80. Active processing - the learners consolidate and internalize information by actually processing these information. Prior learning has been given recognition as having connections to current information. Preparatory activity is made before a unit of study is begun. The teacher prepares the stage to attach new information learners’ to prior knowledge.
  81. 81. Twelve principles  Need of rich stimulating environments which utilized student created materials and products. These are displayed on bulletin boards and display areas.  Tables and desks are grouped together to develop social interactions, cooperation and develop social skills. Learners must provide comfortable chairs and furniture for casual and informal discussion areas. Large pillows and carpeted floors will be most useful.  Indoor and outdoor spaces should be linked so that students can move about freely.
  82. 82.  Learners should be provided safe places so that threat will be reduced, especially in city places.  There must be variety of learning centers or nooks with varied lightings. Some children prefer to work together in different nooks or corners by themselves.  Displays in the classrooms should be change regularly to stimulate the brain development. Provide student stage sets where they can act out scenes from their readings or demonstrate science principles or act out a dialogue between historical figures.
  83. 83.  Provide multiple resource. Provide educational, physical, and variety of setting with in the classrooms so that learning activities can be integrated easily. Computers areas, wet areas, experimental sciences should be in close proximity to each other. The goal of the facility is multiple function.  Flexibility is a principle that has been recognized long before. The “teachable moment” must be recognized and capitalized on.
  84. 84.  Active and passive places should be provided for students to develop their interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences.  A personal space of learners like locker, desk or a home base is provided each child to allow him/her to express his/her unique identity.  The community is utilized as a primary learning environment. Technology, local knowledge, business partnerships, democratic practices should be utilized for educational practices.
  85. 85.  The brain can grow connections at any age. Challenging experiences with appropriate feedback are always develop with motor skills.  Optimizing learning through different media. Music is used to reduce stress, boost learning. Calm down or energize, and as primer to energize the brain. The same is true with art, its provide avenues for self expression.
  86. 86. Reporters: AUSTRIA, Jon Michael L. CALAYLAY, Eddelyn Jessica S. TALABIS, Sunshine V. BSED III-C (Soc. Sci.)