Rodrigo B. Javier Ph.D. and Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D.
CALAYLAY, Eddelyn Jessica S.
BSED III-C (Soc.Sci.)
The Vision, Mission and Rationale of the Curriculum
The Department of Education, envisions every learner to
be functionally literate, equipped with life skills,
appreciative of arts and sports and imbued with the
desirable values of a person who is makabayan,
makatao, makakalikasan at maka-Diyos.
This vision is in line with DepEd’s mission to provide
quality basic education that is equitably accessible to
all and lays the foundation for lifelong learning and
service for the common good.
The BEC developed through a dynamic process . It
started with the review of existing basic education
curriculum in 1997 which took into consideration
world wide trends and Philippines realities.
Parameters of the Basic Education
The demands of the learning environment, the society
and the Filipino learner defined the parameters that
govern the elements of the curriculum. These
elements include objectives, content, materials,
teaching-learning process, and evaluation.
The objectives are expressed in terms of competencies
in knowledge, skills and attitudes. These determine
the content which focuses on the processes and skills
of learning how to learn rather than on the content
coverage of facts and information.
The content is delivered using a variety of media and
resources. From the traditional textbook resources,
teachers are encouraged to use ICT and community
resources. Content is contextualized so that the curriculum
is adjusted to the situation and local culture.
The use of multi-sensory materials is encouraged in
teaching. Real objects, tri0dimentional models, audio-
visuals and real life situations are effective tools in delivery
of the teaching-learning process. The use of local or
community resources as well as technology-driven support
materials are utilized in the learning environment.
Leaning is assessed using a variety of measures. The use
of both the traditional and the authentic assessment is
mandated for purposes of gathering information about
the learners in a holistic manner. Authentic
assessment when appropriate should be encouraged in
order for the students to apply knowledge and skills
learned in the same way they are used in the real
Schools are encouraged to conduct their own evaluation.
This will allow schools to take adjustments with regard
to objectives, content, materials, teaching-learning
process in order to achieve desired learning outcomes.
The teaching-learning process considers the learners
as active partners rather than objects of teaching. The
learners are constructors of meaning, while the
teachers act as facilitators, enablers and managers of
Studies of the past curriculum indicate that there is over
crowdedness which was a hindrance to lifelong learners. So
to decongest the curriculum, BEC restructured it into only
five learning areas, namely: English, Mathematics, Science,
Filipino and Makabayan. Filipino, English, Science are the
tool subjects. English, Mathematics and Science are
subjects to develop internationalism, while
Makabayantogether with Filipino is a learning area which
will enhance nationalism. Makabayan is the “laboratory of
life” to develop a healthy personal and national identity.
Makabayanas a learning area requires an adequate
understanding of Philippines history, our politico-
economic system, local cultures, crafts, arts, music and
games. It stresses on the development of social awareness,
empathy, and firm commitment to the common good.
In the elementary, Makabayan includes Social Studies,
Sibika at Kulturafor Grades 1-3, Kasaysayan at
Sibika(HKS) for Grades 4-6, EdukasyongPantahanan at
Pangkabuhayan(EPP) for Grades 4-6, Musika, Sining at
EdukasyongPangkatawan(MSEP) for Grades 4-6 while
in Grades 1-3, MSEP is integrated with Sibika at
Kultura. Good Manners and Right Conduct (GMRC) is
integrated in all subjects.
For high school, the components of the Makabayan are
AralingPanlipunan (AP) or Social Studies. This Learning
area has a focus for each curriculum year. For the first year,
Philippine History and Governance, second year, Asian
Studies, third year, World history and fourth year,
Economics. Other subjects include Technology and Home
Economics (THE), Physical Education, Health, Music and
Arts (PEHMA) and EdukasyongPagpapahalaga(EP) or
Values Education (VE).
For all subject areas in the curriculum, Communication and
Information Technology is utilized.
Integrative Teaching as Mode of
Integrative teaching works best in the BEC. It is so
because the curriculum is treated in a holistic manner.
The process is interactive, collaborative and
innovative. Four examples are given to describe
integrative teaching. These are thematic teaching,
content based instruction, focusing inquiry and
generic competency model.
Thematic teaching requires organization of themes
around the ideas. The theme provides focus and helps
learners see the meaningful connections across subject
areas. It links ideas to action and learning to life. For
example, the theme chosen is Philippine Festivals. You
must know that our country celebrates various festivals
in its different provinces, towns or cities. The different
subject areas (English, Science, Math, Filipino and
Makabayan) in this particular case use the different
features of a particular festival as the subject matter.
Here are the simple steps in using
the Integrated Unit Design
1. Decide on a unit theme that will allow all subject areas
to join. Example: Philippine Festivals.
2. Identify the major concepts to serve as a “common
thread’ for all the subject areas. Example: Historical
Background or Origin, Purposes of the Celebration,
Dance steps, Costumes, Music, others.
3. Brainstorm and list generalizations that will be
derived from the study of the theme.
4. Write questions that would facilitate the
understanding and mastery of the generalization.
5. For each subject area, write instructional objectives to
6. Identify instructional activities which will accomplish
7. Based on the objectives, perform the activities.
8. Conduct culminating activity where all subject areas
learning will be applied.
9. Design a scoring guide or rubric to assess the
performance of the task in the culminating activity.
Content-Based Instruction (CBI)
is the integration of content learning with language
teaching. The language curriculum is centered on the
academic needs and interests of the learners, thus CBI
crosses the barriers between language and subject
matter content. This approach aims at developing the
learner’s academic language skills.
is an interdisciplinary approach that uses questions to
organize learning. Learners become creators rather than
recipients of knowledge. Contents and concepts are given
less importance than the process of conducting an
investigation and communicating what was learned to
others. Instructional process is built around inquiry, where
teachers guide the students to discover answers to
Using what learners already know as a starting point, they
generate questions about things they do not know yet.
They design a method of investigation and gather
information on their own.
Focusing Inquiry Cycle
1. Frame focusing questions. (Asking about prior
2. Present field of facts. (Who? What? When? How?)
3. Help learners connect or relate facts. (interpret, infer,
4. Help learners generate explanatory ideas.
5. Help learners find answers.
Generic Competency Model
In Generic Competency Model learners are enrolled in
three to four linked or related courses or subject areas.
In Makabayan for instance, competencies can be
clustered into personal development, social
competencies and work and special skills.
The subject specialist teaches his/her subject and
activities will draw on processes and skills important
to each discipline.
Steps to be followed:
1. Decide on the generic competency (social, personal,
productivity) that will allow related competencies
from the many subjects. (Musika at Sining,
Edukasyong Pangkatawan at Pangkalusugan,
Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga, Teknolohiya,
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan at
Araling Panlipunan) to enter the integration process.
2. Identify the culminating performance. (what, why
3. Brainstorm the specific skills derived from the project
that would be expected of the learners. Find out if
these skills will lead to the culminating performance.
4. Design the scoring guide criteria and standard to
assess the performance tasks preferably performance
tests and portfolio.
This was flagship project of the Department of
Education in response to the Social Reform Agenda
initiatives of the government. The project was focused
only on the elementary level and the goals were
improved learning achievement, improve completion
rates, access to quality elementary education. Further
TEEP aimed to build institutional capacity of the
Department of Education to manage change and
actively involve parents, teachers, community leaders
as stakeholders for quality education.
Funded by World Bank (WB) and Japan Bank for
International Cooperation (JBIC), TEEP began in 1996
and concluded in 2005. Evaluation of the different
components were held and hopefully, the results
would be coming out soon. Initial findings reveal that
ther are indicators of improved learning achievement
and rise in completion rates of the students. Access to
quality elementary education had also been achieved.
As planned, the best practices of the curricular
innovations of the pilot divisions would be
implemented by other divisions all throughout the
The major educational components of the TEEP are
Advocacy, In-service training for Teachers (INSET),
School Improvement and Innovation Facility (SIIF),
Student Assessment (SA), Educational Management
Information System (E-MIS) Procurement, and
Monitoring and Evaluation. It also advocated principal
empowerment in all the educational component.
SEDIP is a curricular innovation which dovetailed the Third
Elementary Education Project or TEEP.
Its purpose was to improve equitable access to secondary
education in poverty affected areas. More specifically, the
To improve the quality and relevance of secondary
education in project provinces;
To increase the rates of participation in and completion of
secondary education in the undeserved areas;
To support the decentralization process towards the
transfer of greater management responsibilities and
decision-making authority to the schools and offices at the
Curricular reform is SEDIP revolved around (a)
Improving Teaching and Learning (b) Improving
Access to Secondary Education and (c) Facilitating
Decentralized Secondary Education Management.
These three important components are within the
parameters of curriculum development.
In improving teaching and learning,
curriculum innovations centered
The development of skills and competencies of school
heads in school planning and management and
instructional support for teachers.
Improving teachers’ subject knowledge and teaching
Improving the availability of learning materials by
providing textbooks, teaching manuals and other
Improving learning environment through the
construction and/or rehabilitation of school facilities
and procurement of furniture and equipment for
classrooms, laboratories and other school facilities.
The two other components of the SEDIP are support
components to curriculum innovations such as improving
access to secondary education and facilitating
decentralized secondary school management.
Access to education to provided schooling alternatives to
students who are unable to attend school regularly and
opened new school with the assistance and collaboration of
local government units with the provision of facilities,
equipment, training of teachers and school heads.
Decentralizing secondary education management is an
innovation which strengthened the planning and
management capacity; supported the monitoring and
evaluation capacity, developed policy research
management and analysis capacity, improved the
educational management information system, developed
local and school based in-service training and supported
the new textbook procurement and delivery system.
The SEDIP innovation started in 2000 and ended in 2006.
Initial results showed gains, and best practices have been
replicated in other divisions which were not participants in
TALABIS, Sunshine V.
BSED III-C (Soc.Sci.)
This new Teacher Education Curriculum was
implemented by CMO 30, s, 2004. There are two
teacher education degrees which are offered by the
Teacher Training Institutions. These are the Bachelor
of Elementary Education (BEEd) and the Bachelor of
Secondary Education (BSEd). The BEEd is structured
to meet the needs of professional teachers for
elementary schools and special education programs
and the BSEd for the needs of professional teachers in
the high schools in the Philippines.
The BEEd aims to develop elementary schools teachers
who are either generalist who can teach across the
different areas in grade school, special education
teachers and pre-school teachers while the BSEd aims
to develop high school teachers who can teach in one
of the different learning areas in high school like
Mathematics, Physical Science, Biological Sciences,
English, Filipino among others.
The competency standards to developed by prospective
teachers for both elementary and secondary levels are
found in the list below. These are also aligned to the
National Competency-Based Teacher Standards
(NCBTS) formulated for all teachers in the Philippines.
Graduates of BEEd and BSEd must:
1. Have the basic and higher level literacy.
Communication, numeracy, critical thinking,
learning skills needed for higher learning.
2. Have a deep and principled understanding of the
learning processes and the role of the teacher in
facilitating these processes in their students.
3. Have a deep and principled understanding of how
educational processes relate to the larger historical,
social, cultural and political processes.
4. Have a meaningful and comprehensive knowledge of
the subject matter they will teach.
5. Apply a wide range of teaching process skills
(including curriculum development, lesson planning,
material development, educational assessment, and
6. Have direct experience in the field/ classroom (as
classroom observations, teaching assistance and
7. Demonstrate and practice the professional and ethical
requirements of the teaching profession.
8. Facilitate the learning of diverse types of learners, in
diverse type of learning environments using a wide range
of teaching knowledge and skills.
9. Reflect on the relationships among the teaching process
skills and learning in the students, the nature of the
content and the broader social forces encumbering the
schools and educational processes in order to improve
their teaching knowledge, skills and practices.
10. Be creative and innovative in thinking of alternative
teaching approaches, take informed risks in trying out
these innovative approaches and evaluate the
effectiveness of such approaches in improving student
11. Be willing and capable to continue learning in order to
better fulfill their mission as teachers.
The Curriculum of the BEEd and
The curriculum design feature include various
components that correspond to the basic and
specialized knowledge and skills that will be needed
by a practicing professional teachers: foundational
general education knowledge and skills, theoretical
knowledge about teaching learning, methodological
skills, experimental knowledge and skills and
professional ethical values and subject matter
knowledge appropriate to the level of teaching of pre-
school, elementary and secondary levels.
The curriculum recognizes the need to equip teachers with
wide range of theoretical and methodological skills.
These allow the teachers to have more options and
greater flexibility in designing and implementing
learning environments which will maximize students’
The curriculum is also designed do that the components
are integrated. It emphasizes the interweaving of
foundational, theoretical, methodological and
experimental knowledge in the various learning
experiences in the curriculum.
The new teacher education curriculum is made up of three
components. For both the BEEd and the BSEd, a sixty-
three (63) unit general education is required.
Professional education courses for BEEd is fifty four (54)
units while the BSEd requires fifty one (51) units. The
specialization or content of courses required for the
elementary teachers is fifty seven (57) units and those
who will be teaching in the high school are required sixty
(60) units of content. Both degree courses require one
hundred seventy four (174) units.
The general Education Courses continue to follow the
existing general education courses for other than teacher
education. This is mandated in CHED Memo no. 59. s.
The professional Education Courses are clustered into
three which are theory and concept courses, methods
and strategy courses and field study courses. Some of
the peculiar features of the Professional Education
Courses are as follows:
1. All the subjects will be taught in an integrated manner.
2. Discussion of theory and concepts should always be
linked to the development of methods and strategies
and to experiential learning during the field study.
3. All courses should be taught using a wide range of
teaching learning approaches and assessment
procedure, including the use of technology.
4. All courses must have a research requirement which
may take the form of a term paper, case study, action
research or other forms of research as maybe
5. The theory and concept courses provide the broad
framework within which students can understand,
rationalize, and reflect on the various methods and
strategies related on teaching.
6. The methods and strategy courses in the program aim to
develop a wide range of skills to facilitate and evaluate
learning in diverse types of students in a variety of
7. The field study courses are intended to provide students
with practical learning experiences in which they can
observe, verify, reflect on, and actually experience
different components of the teaching- learning processes
in actual school setting.
8. There will be special topic courses in seminar for which
will be there one-unit courses. Special topics are based
on the perceived needs of the students and the expertise
of the faculty.
The content courses for BEED is sum up to fifty seven (57)
units. These correspond to the various learning areas in the
elementary education curriculum. These General
Education Courses which include Science, Mathematics,
English, Filipino, Social studies, Music, Arts and Physical
Education, Home Economics and Livelihood Education
and Values Education. The BEED students may also take
fifty seven (57) units in Special Education or Pre-school
Education. The Specialization courses for the BSEd degree
will be sixty (60) units for Mathematics, Physical Sciences,
Natural Sciences, English, Filipino, Social Studies, Values
Education, Technology Education, Music, Arts, Physical
and Health Education and Islamic Studies.
The Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education prepares
teachers in technical-vocational education (TVET)
and higher education institutions who are equipped
not only with strong theoretical understanding of
teaching and technology but also with exposure to
industry. The curricular program of BTTE shall impart
knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experience that
will provide prospective teachers with the necessary
competencies essential in effective teaching.
The specific body of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values
and experiences include general education
component, specialization component and
instructional technology component.
a. General Education component is consistent of the
CHED Memo 59 composed of sixty (60) units of
courses in humanities, languages, natural and
behavioral sciences, computer proficiency,
mathematics, logic and ethics which are all aimed to
make a person broadly educated, creative, cultured,
morally upright and productive.
b. Professional Studies component includes philosophy
and aims technology education, curriculum
development and teaching-learning processes. It also
include clinical experiences in teaching and the mastery
of the Philippine Trainers Qualification Framework
c. Specialization component that includes the in depth
knowledge of content and specified skills in the major
fields including industry exposure.
d. Instructional technology component that include
competencies in the use of technology in teaching and
Curricular Model A of BTTE
Model A is offered for high school graduates who could
meet the admission requirements of the College. The
characteristics of the model are as follows:
a. The program of study for the general and professional
education subjects is based on CHED Memo 30, s,
b. The technology major subjects are based on the
competency standards indicated in the Training
Regulations of the Technical Education and Skills
Development Authority (TESDA).
c. The interfacing of CHED and TESDA provides the
students to exit after one, two or three years with
specific job opportunities and/ or allows them to
continue their studies for the four years of BTTE giving
full credits to all subjects taken in the previous years.
d. If the students prefer to work after one year of study,
he could exit the ladderized program with certificate
of achievement. He/she is also qualified to take the
assessment for national certificate (NC) administered
e. Students who choose to finish the four year BTTE
degree should meet the criteria for admission to the
degree. After finishing the four years BTTE program,
he/she can be issued their Diploma which qualifies
them to take the Licensure Examination for Teachers.
Model B of the BTTE
Model B is offered to the graduates of the Two-Year Trace
Technical Curriculum and the Three year Diploma of
Technology Program in different area of specialization.
The characteristics of the model are as follows:
a. Students will have at least one year industry
experience aside from the industry immersion or the
on the job training (OJT).
b. On The Job Training (OJT) or industry experience is
requirement leading to a four year Baccalaureate
degree (Ladderized Bachelor of Technical Teacher
c. Students in this model intend to become prospective
teachers in their respective aea of specialization.
ICeXCELS (Instructional and Curricular Excellence in
School Leadership for South East Asia) is a short
course package of SEAMEO INNOTECH for
elementary and secondary administrators on
developing instructional and development leadership.
It addresses the need to develop and strengthen the
school head’s role as an instructional leader in
promoting or improving the quality of teaching and
learning in his/her school.
The course was based on a Competency Framework for
Southeast Asian School Heads which SEAMEO
INNOTECH developed and validated with the
Ministries of Education from ten SEAMEO member
states. The framework consists of general and enabling
sub-competencies that describe what school heads are
expected to do and improve on to make them more
successful on performing their work.
Special Features of the Innovation
1. Delivery of Instruction- Teaching in the eXCELS is
primarily delivered through print self-instructional
modules augmented by the use of interactive tools
such as chat, discussion forums and mail, among other
learning support system. To facilitate the use of the
chat, discussion forums and other communication
features, learners should have valid email address. The
learning modules are instructionally designed to be
interactive and to incorporate the four A’s of adult
learning (Activity, Analysis, Abstraction and
Each module is made up of the
Pre-organizers and advanced organizers,
Pre/postself-rating competency checklist,
Interactive learning methodologies such as activities, insight
forming questions, lecturettes and readings, discussion
topics, summaries and other linked resources.
Lesson review tests
Practical exercises and feedback on the tests
A module assignment
Glossary of terms
List of references and suggested additional reading and links
2. Learning Modality- After the students get their
learning package, they can immediately study at their
own pace and time. Learners should be able to manage
their time such that they will finish one module in two
weeks and two modules in four weeks. During the
period, the students should study the printed modules
and check on the Discussion Forum on-line in the
iFLEX. Learners and tutors should interact among
themselves. Aside from the class interaction during
discussions, each student is required to submit
assignments, reflection paper and action plan either in
hard or soft copies to the tutor for evaluation. The
three requirements make the learning portfolio which
the tutor will evaluate, give feedback on they become
the basis for the learners’ rating.
3. Evaluation System- Each learner will be given feedback
in the form of qualitative narratives by the tutors for
their outputs. They will also receive a rating for each
major requirement and for their participation in the
discussion group. The ratings will be issued by the tutor
which has an equivalent as follows:
A= 3 Excellent
B = 2 Pass
C = 1 Deficient
Learners who successfully complete the course will be
awarded a Certificate of Completion by SEAMEO
INNOTECH and academic credits from partner training
4. Time Table- The duration of time expected of all
learners to finish the course is 50 hours which is
equivalent to a 3 unit course. The time spent includes
self-study of the module, participation in the on-line
discussion, preparation and submission of the module
activities which are the contents of learning portfolio.
A maximum of 2 weeks is given to accomplish each
module. For the current course, there are 2 modules;
hence a maximum of four weeks is expected.
Approximately rating will be released.
iFLEX DepEd eXCELS is an example of distance
education and e-learning. The use technology alone or
in combination of other delivery system has been the
“in” thing in educational innovation. This
development has made education very accessible to all.
It has also conquered the barriers of distance, space
and time in education.
The UP Open University also embarked in various
distance education programs as well. It is popularly
known as the UPOU Curricular Programs.
AUSTRIA, Jon Michael L.
BSED III-C (Soc. Sci.)
1. Project CHILD
Project Child (Computer Helping Instruction and
Learning Development) is a research based
instructional delivery system that enables one to
intensify the curriculum with technology on hands of
learning. Originally developed at Florida State
University by Dr. Sally Butzin, CHILD bridges today’s
school with the school of the future.
The lives of the children today are shaped by the
demands of the Information age in which technology
plays a central role. The future workplace requires the
abilities to think critically, solve problems, use
technology to access and organize information, and
possesses the interpersonal skills to work effectively
and cooperatively with others.
CHILD goals are to:
Modify the school structure and create classroom
conditions conducive to learning with technology.
Create a cohesive unit of work that foster strategies for
Reign curriculum for reading, language arts and
mathematics so as to cover legally mandated content and
integrating fully the use of computer in the curriculum.
It aims to increase academic performance, develop
reasoning abilities, problem solving, decision making
and knowledge application, communicating effectively
and emphasizes the development of mathematics in
Structure and Procedure of CHILD
CHILD focuses on K-5 self-contained teaching using a
triangulated approach. Cluster of three experts work across
three grade levels to teach three basic formats in
technology, hands-on and paper and pencil. The primary
level cluster is made up of K to grade 2 and the
intermediate cluster is grade 3-5.
One classroom is set up for reading, one for writing and one
for mathematics. Each of the three teachers in each cluster
becomes content specialist for one of the three Project
CHILD subject areas. He/she is also responsible for one
grade level classroom.
Learners from each grade level in the cluster move
among the classrooms to spend one hour per day
working in each of the three majors areas. Thus the
teachers will work in their specialized field with the
same learners for three years.
six “stations” or learning centers in
a Project CHILD classroom.
Computer station for the technology-based learning
Textbook station for written work
Challenge station for activities in game formats
The imagination station for creative expression
Exploration station for hands-on activities
Teacher station for additional instructional support
Learners follow a precise management plan for moving
from one station to the another. Goals are set and
activities are recorded in a book called “passport”.
Required curriculum content is covered in six-week
Project CHILD Materials
Station Planning Guidelines- The planning guidelines
are organized in six weeks topical units. The contents
include suggested software which are referenced to
state standards, teaching tips, skills checklists for each
grade level, list of materials and resources, and station
Station activities/ Task cards. A companion of station
planning guidelines, provide ideas for hands on station
activities. It directs the learners to work, since specific
objectives and directions are given for them to work
independently and constructively.
Passport- This is the management tool to help
students become organized and focused on their work.
It is also used to set and assess the goals of the
learners. The passport is brought home after the end
of the six week unit for the parents to look into. In this
way the parents become an integral part of the
learning team. Both the parents and the learners will
understand the academic significance of the station
Teacher’ Manual- A complete guide to assist teachers in
implementing the child instructional program. The
manual include the Overview of CHILD, Getting started,
Planning Station Activities, Assessment, Managing the
Classroom, Roles and Responsibilities, and Essential
Components. It has also a portion for record keeping,
student’s certificates and other classroom management
Leadership Guide- It is composing of materials in making
presentations to community groups and strategies to
involve the school adopting the effective practices in
Special Needs Inclusion Guide- A timely resource for
both regular and exceptional teachers to support the
inclusion of special needs in classroom.
Training Facilitator Guide- It includes comprehensive
trainings, overviews, transparencies and handouts for
All of the above materials are needed for the successful
implementation of the curriculum. The teacher
receives special year long training in their content
especially in classroom management techniques and
computer integration skills. Teachers continue their
professional development through on0going self-
study, in-service, action research and by becoming
mentors for new CHILD teachers. CHILD provides a
risk-free learning climate. High expectations of the
parents are met with their cooperation as part of the
team to prepare the learners in the 21st century.
2. Brain-Based Learning
For two thousand years there have been primitive
models of how the brain works. Up to the middle of
1990’s, the brain was compared to a central
switchboard. In 1970, the brain theory focused on the
right and left brain. Paul McClean later used the
concept of triune brain to refer to the evolution of the
human three part brain. According to triune theory,
survival leaving is in the lower brain, emotions were in
the mid-brain, and higher order thinking took place in
the upper brain. However, the current brain theory
embraces the whole systems, complex brain model.
In the last two decades, neuroscientist have been doing
research related to the improved teaching practices.
Based on the findings and conclusions from these
researches, information was taken and incorporated
into books and resource references about learning.
Classroom practices were modified using new theories
of teaching and learning based on these findings.
Some noted authors included Marian Diamond of the
University of California; Howard Gardner, Harvard
University, Thomas Armstrong, among others.
Brain-based learning is an approach to teaching based on
research in neuroscience. It suggests that our brain learns
naturally. This theory is based on what is currently known
about the structure and function of the brain at the varying
stages of development. This provides a biologically driven
framework for teaching and learning, and helps the
recurring learning behaviors. Brain-based theory includes
an eclectic mix of techniques. Currently these techniques
stress allowing teachers to connect learning to students’
learning real life experiences. This form of learning also
encompasses education concepts like mastery learning,
problem based-learning, cooperative education, multiple
intelligence, learning styles, experiential learning, among
Core Principles Guiding Brain-
The brain perceives whole and parts simultaneously.
The brain is a parallel processor which can perform
activities at once.
Information is stored in multiple areas of the brain and is
retrieved through multiple memory and neutral path ways.
Learning engages the whole body. All learning is mind-
body: movement, food, attention cycles, chemicals
Humans’ search for meaning is innate.
Search for meaning comes from patterning.
Emotions are critical to patterning and drive our attention,
meaning and memory.
Meaning is more important than information.
Learning involves focused attention and peripheral
We have two types of memory: spatial and rote.
The brain is social. It develops better in concert with other
Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited
Every brain is uniquely organized.
Learning is developmental.
From the principles regarding the brain-based theory
several interactive teaching elements emerged.
Orchestrated immersion - Learning environments are
created to provide authentic learning experiences. For
example in the elementary level, teachers can use the
school’s mini forest to identify trees, animals and other
plants and find out how they live together. High school
students can go on field trip to a nearby forest or
mangrove to observe and identify symbiotic
relationships, communities and ecological systems.
Relaxed alertness - In brain-based learning, efforts are
made to eliminate fear while maintaining a highly
challenging environment. Teachers may play classical
music when appropriate to set a relaxed tone in the
classroom. Bright lights are dimmed. scented candles
are lighted to calm the senses or stimulate the senses.
All learners are accepted with their various learning
styles, capabilities and disabilities. These will all
provide a relaxed accepting environment. Children are
motivated to bring in the best of themselves and bring
out their potentials.
Active processing - the learners consolidate and
internalize information by actually processing these
information. Prior learning has been given recognition
as having connections to current information.
Preparatory activity is made before a unit of study is
begun. The teacher prepares the stage to attach new
information learners’ to prior knowledge.
Need of rich stimulating environments which utilized
student created materials and products. These are
displayed on bulletin boards and display areas.
Tables and desks are grouped together to develop
social interactions, cooperation and develop social
skills. Learners must provide comfortable chairs and
furniture for casual and informal discussion areas.
Large pillows and carpeted floors will be most useful.
Indoor and outdoor spaces should be linked so that
students can move about freely.
Learners should be provided safe places so that threat
will be reduced, especially in city places.
There must be variety of learning centers or nooks
with varied lightings. Some children prefer to work
together in different nooks or corners by themselves.
Displays in the classrooms should be change regularly
to stimulate the brain development. Provide student
stage sets where they can act out scenes from their
readings or demonstrate science principles or act out a
dialogue between historical figures.
Provide multiple resource. Provide educational,
physical, and variety of setting with in the classrooms
so that learning activities can be integrated easily.
Computers areas, wet areas, experimental sciences
should be in close proximity to each other. The goal of
the facility is multiple function.
Flexibility is a principle that has been recognized long
before. The “teachable moment” must be recognized
and capitalized on.
Active and passive places should be provided for
students to develop their interpersonal and
A personal space of learners like locker, desk or a home
base is provided each child to allow him/her to express
his/her unique identity.
The community is utilized as a primary learning
environment. Technology, local knowledge, business
partnerships, democratic practices should be utilized
for educational practices.
The brain can grow connections at any age.
Challenging experiences with appropriate feedback are
always develop with motor skills.
Optimizing learning through different media. Music is
used to reduce stress, boost learning. Calm down or
energize, and as primer to energize the brain. The
same is true with art, its provide avenues for self
AUSTRIA, Jon Michael L.
CALAYLAY, Eddelyn Jessica S.
TALABIS, Sunshine V.
BSED III-C (Soc. Sci.)