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Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal
forests in Cambodia

Kao Dana
2010
Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal
forests in Cambodia

Dissertation
in partial fulfillment of the requir...
Table of Contents
Chapters
1. General Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
1.1. Backgro...
5.3. Results and discussion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5.3.1. Stand structure…………………………………………………...
This thesis was compiled as partial accomplishment for Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
under the coordination and supervision...
Declaration
I would like to sincerely declare that this thesis topic: “Evaluating productive capacity of
tropical seasonal...
Abstract
Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in Cambodia
Dana KAO
Laboratory of Forest Management,...
Third, stand dynamics of seasonal evergreen forest in central Cambodia were estimated
from 20 plots measured in 1998 and 2...
Chapter 1: General Introduction
1.1. Background
The biodiversity and complexities of natural tropical forests are known as...
uses of forest products should then be carefully considered. Strategic management planning
according to available natural ...
community forestry level). By identifying the main elements of sustainable forest
management, this study provides a means ...
management. The Sustainable Forest Criteria for managing natural forests; however, there
have no enough strategic implemen...
and workers‘ rights, benefit from the forests, environmental impact, management plan,
monitoring and assessment, maintenan...
Fig. 1.2 presented the seven sustainable criteria: enabling conditions for sustainable forest
management, forest resource ...
Cardamom Mountains, sustain forests that are adapted to cool temperature from December
to February at <16.5°C (Fig. 1.9).
...
This study focuses largely on commercial forest resource evaluation of sustainable
productive capacity of natural tropical...
regulations and guidelines to control and safeguard forest management practice with funds
and technical support from the F...
Note: Tav is the average temperature, Tmin is the minimum temperature and Tmax is the maximum
temperature

In the first su...
production forest management and investment is cutting intensity or allowable cut. The
methodologies for estimating annual...
government organizations and forest conservationists, who participate in sustainable forest
management as obvious methodol...
Chapter 2: Assessment of Cambodian forest concession management planning based
on criteria and indicators of Montréal Proc...
maintenance of soil and water resources, (5) Maintenance of forest contribution to global
carbon cycles, (6) Maintenance a...
(SFMPs) clear objectives for sustainable forest management over the concession area for the
duration of the license throug...
At the present, Cambodia has 26 forest concessions, who manage the natural forest. By
early 2003, 2 companies had been can...
indicators 10 to 14), which addresses the ―maintenance of the productive capacity of forest
ecosystems‖. Data of 25-year s...
assessed the grade of each sub-indicator at four different ranks ―A‖ is high, ―B‖ is medium,
―C‖ is low and ―D‖ is poor in...
For the forest area estimation activity, we graded this sub-indicator by ―A‖ if there
was information or ―D‖ if there was ...
provide them. The comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s sub-indicators showed that
CFC‘s company fulfilled the total gro...
Indicator 12: Area and Growing Stock of Plantations of Native and Exotic Species.
This indicator is a measure of the degre...
species group class and current removal by forest types were studied with the clear
objectives (Table 2.7). Sub-indicators...
which scales need to be considered other than general direction to deal with national,
regional, and local concerns. No gu...
are not provided. Many of the current analytical approaches are designed to reflect, forest
area and annual allowable cut ...
logging and reduce impact logging should be mentioned in the standard criteria and
indicator in order for the manager to c...
Chapter 3: Stand structure of an ecosystem in Northern Cambodia: a case at
concession management level in Preah Vihear For...
on the Conservation, 1997; Liaison Unit Vienna, 2000). In the 1970s, when the fulfillment
of the basic needs of the rural ...
sustainable forest planning. Stand structure is important for forest zonation, which leads to
guide the forest manager to ...
With financial support of a timber company, an executive agency of World Bank and
a counterpart of the Forest Administrati...
plots with the different size were set 20 x 60m, 20 x 20m, 10 x 10m and 5 x 5m as shown in
Table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Tree meas...
within the range of >1,500 mm to <2,000 mm, around the province of Preah Vihear. In
summary, yearly maximum temperature is...
to point H (UTM: 498057.29, 1545002.04) at Khnat village and continue along this route
No. 6931 to meet the starting point...
gunmen had illegally logged hundred thousands cubic meter of timber in the area and sent to
Thailand between that period (...
is decomposed rock and acidic (pH 4.5 – 6.5). The project area covers a very small area of
Alluvial soil type, less than 2...
220
200
180
2

Basal area (m /ha)

160

Volume (m3/ha)
140

Stem (Trees/ha)

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
I

II

III

LUX

OTHER
...
of the forest floor effectively occupied by this study is considerably larger than the basal
area calculated from their db...
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The biodiversity and complexities of natural tropical forests are known as the lives that depend on each other within ecosystems, species and genetics. Thus, the tropical forests provide variety of products and services for human over century and play disproportionally important role in the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. However, forest fragmentation results because the spatial scales of resource extraction do not match the scales of natural disturbance that shaped the evolution of the landscape. This is because until the 1990s many tropical countries had no recent published, or stated, sustainable forest management; and also a stated yield or stock may not correspond to a government’s actual forest management plan, i.e. its true attitude and intentions. Assessment of sustainability however, is often lacking or incomplete at the time a system is adopted.
To manage forests to achieve sustainable productive capacity for future generation have not also enough but Southeast Asian countries cut forests illegally. Therefore, strategic implementation on the uses of forest products should then be carefully considered. Strategic management planning according to available natural potential capacities should also evaluate with caution because natural stand structure will change after disturbances resulting in extend the rotation lengths. Maintenance of productive capacity is one of the most important criteria for sustainable forest management, but very little is known about productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in mainland Southeast Asia, such as those in Cambodia, but there have been lack of scientific evaluations of them.
This dissertation would be an important report for production forest management of ECE/FAO, which it is not available yet in this country and especially in the tropics of Main Land of Southeast Asia. The results of this study would be successful experimental indicators before they will be approved to go in to effect for harvesting.

In order to ensure sustainable uses of forests for long-term uses as mentioned in the ECE/FAO, there are urgent needs to know the potential capacity and its dynamics of natural tropical forests, which are very important information for managers to make plan and to decide rotation lengths for next harvestings. The below objectives would serve a framework within criteria 2 and indicators of Montréal Process in 2007 presented in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. This dissertation aims at (1) assessing stand dynamics and structure of natural seasonal tropical forests (2) planning procedures and (3) selecting appropriate methods for estimating annual allowable cut at a suitable rotation length.

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  1. 1. Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in Cambodia Kao Dana 2010
  2. 2. Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in Cambodia Dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Kao Dana 2010 Kyushu University, Japan
  3. 3. Table of Contents Chapters 1. General Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.1. Background……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.2. Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………. 1.3. Past studies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………. 1.4. Study site………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………. 1.5. Methods of this thesis…………………………………………………………………………………………………...………………………………………. 2. Assessment of Cambodian forest concession management planning based on criteria and indicators of Montréal Process: a case study of CFC Company ………………. 2.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.2. Material and Methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………. 2.2.1. Data sources…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………………. 2.2.2. Data analysis……………………………………………………………………...………………………………………………………………..………………. 2.3. Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………...…………. 2. 4. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………. 3. Stand structure of an ecosystem in Northern Cambodia: a case at concession management level in Preah Vihear Forests…………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 3.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.2. Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 3.2.1. Forest Inventory………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………. 3.2.2. Data Processing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…………………………. 3.2.3. Overview of study area………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………..……. 3.3. Results and discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.3.1 Density and dispersion of trees……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.3.2. Stratification………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………….……. 3.3.3. Species density……………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………. 3.4. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………. 4. Structural characteristics of logged evergreen forests in Preah Vihear, Cambodia, three years after logging at coupe level ………..……………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 4.1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………. 4.2. Methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………. 4.2.1. Overview of study site……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 4.2.2. Forest Inventory……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………. 4.2.3. Data processing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…………. 4.3. Results………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...………. 4.3.1. Tree family stand structure …………………………………………………………………………………………………...………………. 4.3.2. LGFE tree species structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………. 4.3.3. UNFE tree species structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 4.3.4. Tree harvested……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4.3.5. Tree damaged…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………. 4.4. Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 4.5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…………. 5. Stand dynamics of tropical seasonal evergreen forest in, Central Cambodia…………….. 5.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5.2. Methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………. 5.2.1. Study site and Data collection…………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………. 5.2.2. Data analysis………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………. Page 1 1 2 3 6 9 13 13 16 17 17 19 23 26 26 28 28 30 30 34 34 36 36 39 42 42 44 44 47 49 50 50 52 53 54 55 56 58 59 59 60 60 60
  4. 4. 5.3. Results and discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5.3.1. Stand structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………. 5.3.2. Diameter increment………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5.3.3. Recruitment, Mortality and Illegal Cut…….…………………………………………………………………………………. 5.3.4. Volume increment………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………. 5.4. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…………………………………………………. 6. Potential woodfuel supply and demand of two community forestry in Kampong Chhnang, central Cambodia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6.2. Methodologies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………. 6.2.1. Study site and history…………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………. 6.2.2. Data collection……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………. 6.2.3. Data processing and analysis…………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………. 6.3. Result………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…. 6.3.1. Species and stand structure……………………………………………..………………………...…………...………………………………. 6.3.2. Supply and demand increments…………………………………..………………………………………...…………...………………. 6.3.3. The comparison between supply and demand………………………………………………...……………………. 6.4. Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 6.4.1. Species and stand structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6.4.2. Biomass supply increment………………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………. 6.4.3 Biomass demand increment……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6.4.4. Woodfuel supply and demand………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………. 6.5. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………. 7. Chapter 7: Evaluating of the Cambodian yield regulation for tropical natural forest management…..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……. 7.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7.2. Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...……………...…………………………………………………. 7.2.1 Study site………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 7.2.2 Data processing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………. 7.3. Results and Discussion…………………...……………………………………………………………………………………………...……………………. 8. General discussion and conclusion………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………. 8.1. Usefulness and limitation…………………………………………………………………………………...………………..……………………………. 8.2. Recommendation and conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…. Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…. List of references………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. List of tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……. List of figures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………. List of acronyms…………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………….……………. 61 61 63 64 65 66 67 67 68 68 70 72 74 74 75 77 77 77 78 78 79 81 83 83 84 84 87 90 92 92 93 96 99 100 113 114 115
  5. 5. This thesis was compiled as partial accomplishment for Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) under the coordination and supervision committee composed of Professor, Associate Professor of the Laboratory of Forest Management Professor Dr. Shigejiro YOSHIDA Laboratory of Forest Management Faculty of Agriculture …………………………………….……….……… (Professor/Coordinator) Kyushu University Professor Dr. Nobuya MIZOUE Laboratory of Forest Management Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University …………………………………….……….……… (Academic Supervisor)
  6. 6. Declaration I would like to sincerely declare that this thesis topic: “Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in Cambodia” is my original work. It is the results of my own research and efforts except for the reference cited with the exception of my all academic professors, tutors and special acknowledgements. This is the first one of its type and has not been submitted in any other Institution or Publisher. Fukuoka, 29 July 2010 ………………………………………………….. Dana KAO
  7. 7. Abstract Evaluating productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in Cambodia Dana KAO Laboratory of Forest Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Japan There have been increasing concerns on sustainable forest management (SFM) in tropical natural forests, being disproportionately important in the global carbon budget and biodiversity conservation. Maintenance of productive capacity (Fig. 1) is one of the most important criteria for SFM, but very little is known about productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in mainland Southeast Asia, such as those in Cambodia. About of 34% of Cambodia is classified into production forests, and a broad set of regulations and guidelines of forest management practices has been developed, but there have been lack of scientific evaluations of them. This study aims at Fig. 1 Research Framework evaluating indicators of productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in Cambodia, mainly focusing on stand structure, dynamics and sustained yield of unlogged and logged evergreen forests (Fig. 1). First, the 25-year strategic forest concession management plan for a company was evaluated based on criteria and indicators of Montréal Process, focusing the criteria 2; “maintenance of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems”. There were 33 sub-indicators of Criterion 2 of the Montréal, and only 52% (17 sub-indicators) were fulfilled in the concession management plan. This suggests that indicators related to growing stock for each of forest types and species group, plantations of native and exotic species and non-timber forest products should be included in forest concession management planning. Second, stand structure of natural evergreen forests in Preah Vihear, Northern Cambodia was evaluated using data from a total of 120 plots, obtained from large-scale inventory by a concession. The density, volume and basal area (BA) of trees ≥10cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were 220.3 trees/ha, 151.9 m3/ha and 11.0 m2/ha, respectively, in logged evergreen forest (LGFE) and 241.9 trees/ha, 185.8 m3/ha and 13.5 m2/ha, respectively, in unlogged evergreen forest. The density, volume and BA of harvested trees at DBH≥50cm in LGFE were 3.0 trees (22.4% of total), 22.2 m3 (29.5%), and 1.6 m2 per hectare (27.1%), respectively. The density, volume and BA of damaged trees at 10-49 cm DBH in LGFE were 12.6%, 25.3% and 40.4%, respectively.
  8. 8. Third, stand dynamics of seasonal evergreen forest in central Cambodia were estimated from 20 plots measured in 1998 and 2003. Data for all trees with DBH≥ 10 cm and for commercial species DBH≥ 10 cm or DBH≥ minimum diameter cutting limit (MDCL) were evaluated. The mean DBH increment was 0.33 cm and 0.32 cm; mean mortality rates were 2.4% and 0.5%; mean recruitment rates were 2.5% and 1.4%; and volume increments were 1.09 and 0.86 m3/ha for all and commercial species, respectively. These values are similar to those reported from tropical rain forests in Amazon and Southeast Asia. Estimated volume increment 0.86 m3/ha/year for commercial trees with DBH≥MDCL was significantly larger than the figure 0.33 m3/ha/year previously used in Cambodian management systems. Finally, the Cambodian new guideline for estimating annual allowable cut (AAC) was evaluated using inventory data from a concession company in Northern Cambodia. Under this guideline, harvesting is allowed only for commercial species that fulfill recovery levels (RLs) of number of harvestable trees with size more than MDCL in 25 years after logging; 60% and 90% of RLs are currently adopted for unlogged and logged forests, respectively. Two scenarios (S1 and S2) were evaluated under different RLs from 60 to 100%. S1 is based on the guideline’s assumption; damaged rate 10.0%, DBH increment 5.0 mm and mortality 1.0%, and S2 is based on my new findings as in the previous chapters such as damaged rate 12.6%, DBH increment 3.2 mm and mortality 2.4%. The AACs tended to decrease with increasing RLs, and the values from the current guideline (S1) were always larger than those from S2. AACs Fig. 2 Annual allowable cut (AAC) under different recovery estimated from S1 were 35.5 levels (RLs). “None” indicates the results without accounting m3/ha/year (at RL 60%) and 39.1 RL. m3/ha/year (at RL 90%) for logged and unlogged forests, being much higher than growth potential (21.5 m3/ha/25years = 0.86 m3/ha/year×25 years) (Fig. 2).The results seek for updating information on stand dynamics used in the current guideline and reconsidering RLs to be fulfilled. In the case of this study sites, adapting more than 70% of RL is acceptable under the updated data in terms of growth potential. However, around 10 m3/ha of AAC is highly recommended to achieve the ideal RL of 100% that ensures sustainability of species diversity as well as growing stock. Interestingly, this 10 m3/ha of AAC is the same to one proposed by van Gardingen et. al (2006) for primary tropical rain forest in the Amazon, based on the modeling approach under the cutting cycle of 30 years. In conclusion, differences in some indicators of productive capacity, such as tree and stand growth, existed between the previous assumed values and ones found newly in this study, calling for revision of the Cambodian management planning guidelines. Especially, it should be noted that the current Cambodia’s allowable cut level is larger than growth potentials. Future evaluations on long-term dynamics of logged and unlogged sites may be critical for more accurate evaluation of sustainable productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests.
  9. 9. Chapter 1: General Introduction 1.1. Background The biodiversity and complexities of natural tropical forests are known as the lives that depend on each other within ecosystems, species and genetics. Thus, the tropical forests provide variety of products and services for human over century (FAO, 2001) and play disproportionally important role in the global carbon cycle (Malhi and Grace, 2000; Clark et al., 2001) and biodiversity conservation (e.g. Myers et al., 2000). In developing countries, natural tropical forests provide a lot of benefits for indigenous people to use timber and nontimber products. Natural tropical forests also provide energy, food, medicine, shelter and livelihood (Menzies, 2002; Carter, 2005; FAO, 1986). Tropical forests are invaluable to protect fertile soil, to contribute general socio-economic development, to produce rain in the tropics and to increase overall productions (FAO, 1997). However, forest fragmentation results because the spatial scales of resource extraction do not match the scales of natural disturbance that shaped the evolution of the landscape (Hobbs, 2003). Tropical deforestation was still proceeding at 14.2 million hectares per annum in the 1990s, and only 5.5% of all forest in developing countries was under formal management plans in the year 2000 (FAO, 2001). This is because until the 1990s many tropical countries had no recent published, or stated, sustainable forest management (Poore, 1989; Poore and Thang, 2000); and also a stated yield or stock may not correspond to a government‘s actual forest management plan, i.e. its true attitude and intentions (Jianbang et al, 2001). Assessment of sustainability however, is often lacking or incomplete at the time a system is adopted (Dawkins and Philip, 1998; Southgate, 1998). Natural tropical forests can provide a wide range of essential economic, social and environmental goods and services for the benefit of current and future generations (Montréal Process, 2007). However, some developing countries are challenging to manage their forests at international standard. Criteria and indicators gained increasing international attention as a tool to monitor, assess and report on forest trends at national and global levels (Rio Earth Summit). Today, 150 countries are engaged in one or more regional and international criteria and indicators processes but most of developing countries do not have ability to implement to gain fully sound sustainable forest management. Especially, to manage forests to achieve sustainable productive capacity for future generation has not also enough but Southeast Asian countries cut forests illegally. Therefore, strategic implementation on the -1-
  10. 10. uses of forest products should then be carefully considered. Strategic management planning according to available natural potential capacities should also evaluate with caution because natural stand structure will change after disturbances resulting in extend the rotation lengths. Maintenance of productive capacity is one of the most important criteria for sustainable forest management, but very little is known about productive capacity of tropical seasonal forests in mainland Southeast Asia, such as those in Cambodia. All Cambodia forest was 59% of the total land and has a change rate of 0.6% per year (Table 1.1; FA, 2004; FA, 2007). About of 34% of Cambodia is classified into production forests, and a broad set of regulations and guidelines of forest management practices has been developed, but there have been lack of scientific evaluations of them. Fig. 1.1. Framework of this study 1.2. Objectives In respond to, tropical forests have been cut illegally without certification at a sustainable standard. In respond to emergent needs to improve production forest capacity of tropical forest ecosystems, the purpose of this study is to support criteria 2 of The Montréal Process (Fig. 1.1 and Fig. 1.2) and also to provide the strategic implementation of production forests in a large scale (forest concession level) and small scale (coupe level and -2-
  11. 11. community forestry level). By identifying the main elements of sustainable forest management, this study provides a means of assessing the available resource at disturbed and undisturbed natural tropical forests in Northern Part and Central Part of Cambodia. This thesis enhances strategy to implement on the method uses to gain sustainable productive capacity of ecosystem of 7 criteria (Fig. 1.2). In order to ensure sustainable uses of forests for long-term uses, there are urgent needs to know the potential capacity and its dynamics of natural tropical forests, which are very important information for managers make plan and to decide rotation length for next harvestings. The below objectives would serve a framework within criteria 2 and indicators of Montréal Process, (2007) presented in Fig. 1.1 and Fig. 1.2. This dissertation aims at (1) assessing stand dynamics and structure of natural seasonal tropical forests (2) planning procedures and (3) selecting appropriate methods for estimating annual allowable cut at a suitable rotation length. This dissertation would be an important report for production forest management, which it is not available yet in this country and especially in the tropics of Main Land of Southeast Asia. The results of this study would be successful experimental indicators before they will be approved to go in to effect for harvesting. 1: Conservation and biological diversity 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources 2a: MAINTENANCE OF PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT (SFM) 6: Maintenance and enhancement of longterm multiple socio-economic benefits to meet the needs of societies 3: Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and Vitality 5: Maintenance of forest contribution to global carbon cycles 7: Legal, policy and institutional framework Fig. 1.2. Seven criteria of sustainable forest management a The criteria that this dissertation was mainly focus on Source: Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and SFM (Montréal Process, 2007) 1.3. Past studies In respond to the needs of products from natural tropical forests, Cambodia and the Southeast Asia should have forest certification for their sustainable production forest -3-
  12. 12. management. The Sustainable Forest Criteria for managing natural forests; however, there have no enough strategic implementation. Some of examples on the needs of forest product are found as below. Markets and demand for Cambodian forest products are timber, fuelwood as nontimber forest products (NTFP) and other NTFPs. Wood is principle source of fuel of the Cambodian population and fuelwood is the largest use of wood harvested in Cambodia. Fuelwood extracted per person from the forests was estimated 0.6 m3/year (The WB, UNDP and FAO, 1996). Above ground biomass supply per person 0.142 Mg/year was estimated based on Top et al (2006). Cambodia people prefer wood fuel because of cheap price. In Cambodia, Abe et al. (2007) found that although biomass gasification provided cheaper power than diesel generators, consistent supply and barriers to growing wood were key constraints. Cambodia exported industrial round-wood reached 499 thousand m3 in 1992 declining to only 301 thousand m3 for 1994 (FAO, 1997). Fig. 1.3: General study sites There are good guidelines for sustainable forest managements such as Forest Stewardship Council, ITTO Policy Development Series No 15 (ITTO, 2005) and Criteria for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests (Montréal Process, 2007). In order to fulfill the Forest Stewardship Council performances, the dissertation aims, generally, to support some parts of the 10 principles: compliance with law, tenure and use rights and responsibilities, indigenous peoples‘ rights, community relations -4-
  13. 13. and workers‘ rights, benefit from the forests, environmental impact, management plan, monitoring and assessment, maintenance of high conservation value forests and plantations. Fig. 1.4. Influence of water and temperature regimes on vegetation Source: FA, DANIDA, German Development Service, (2003) Fig. 1.5. Distribution of meteorological station in relation to elevation of Cambodia Source: Forestry Administration, Danida and German Development Service, (2003) -5-
  14. 14. Fig. 1.2 presented the seven sustainable criteria: enabling conditions for sustainable forest management, forest resource security, forest ecosystem health and condition, flow of forest produce, biological diversity, soil and water, and economic, social and culture aspects. Another reason is that the forest resource is becoming scare since the population growth is increasing to be faster than natural growth. The most important relative objectives of this thesis are to support the indicators in criteria of Sustainable Productive Capacity, which proposed by a professional organization namely as the International Tropical Timber Organization and Montréal Process Working Group. 1.4. Study site Forests have always been a defining element of the economy, culture and environment of Cambodia. Until the middle of the century, forests totaled over 13 million ha, or over 73% of the country‘s land area in 1973 (The WB UNDP and FAO, 1996). The best data available indicate that 1.4 million ha of forests were converted and much of the remaining area has been negative affected from 1973 – 1993 (Fig. 1.10). As accessible forests have disappeared, the composition of demand for timber and nontimber forest products has also shifted. The more heavily populated areas of Cambodia, indications of possible fuelwood shortages are worsening and foreign demand for Cambodia logs and processed wood exported has grown faster than the regulatory capacity of the Cambodian government. The dissertation consists of 3 study sites (Fig. 1.3) locate in Cambodia, main land of Southeast Asia. Cambodia has the total area 181,035 km2 consisting of 24 provinces and cities, 185 districts, 1,621 communes, and 14,073 villages (The WB, UNDP and FAO, 1996; FA 2007; NIS, 2003). Total population was 13,388,910 (General Population Census of Cambodia 2008) with the population density 75 per km2. The annual population growth rate was 1.54% (NIS, 2003). Cambodia locates in tropical seasonal rain areas (Fig. 1.4). The minimum rainfall was 800 mm to maximum >3800 mm in coastal western part (Fig. 1.6) with the average annual rainfall is 1,604 mm. Humidity is often high through the year with a mean of 80.3% (FA, DANIDA, German Development Service, 2003). The elevation was zero to 10 m above sea level in central and southern parts (Fig. 1.5). The length of dry season was longer than 4 months in northern parts (Fig. 1.7) with temperature 34°C in April, 21°C in January and the annual average of 28°C (Fig. 1.8). Hence the highlands of the -6-
  15. 15. Cardamom Mountains, sustain forests that are adapted to cool temperature from December to February at <16.5°C (Fig. 1.9). Fig. 1.6. Distribution of rainfall regimes in Cambodia in mm Source: Forestry Administration, Danida and German Development Service, (2003) Fig. 1.7. Length of dry season in Cambodia Source: Forestry Administration, Danida and German Development Service, (2003) -7-
  16. 16. This study focuses largely on commercial forest resource evaluation of sustainable productive capacity of natural tropical forest ecosystems in three different provinces of Preah Vihear (northern part), Kampong Thom (central part) and Kampong Chhnang (central part) (Fig. 1.3). Fig. 1.3 shows the location and Table 1.1 present the canopy by year. The study site in northern part is in Preah Vihear Province, which has the highest forest cover of up to 94% of the total forest cover. The study sites in central part are in Kampong Thom and in Kampong Chhnang Province, which have a forest cover of 51% and 40% of the total forest cover, respectively (Table 1.1). The dominant forest type was evergreen forests in Kampong Thom, deciduous forest in Kampong Chhnang and Preah Vihear (Table 1.1). Table 1.1: Forest cover and other land use of Cambodia and province‘s study sites based on LandSat image shot in the year 2002 and 2006 in hectare Forest types Evergreen forest Semi-FEb Deciduous forest Wood SLDc Wood SFEd Bamboo Other forests Total forests Non forest Grand total Whole Cambodia Ya-2002 Y-2006 3,720,504 3,668,902 1,455,091 1,362,638 4,833,138 4,692,098 138,939 37,028 150,017 96,387 28,952 35,802 1,065,706 971,341 11,392,347 10,864,186 6,768,323 7,296,456 18,160,670 18,160,674 Kampong Thom Y-2002 Y-2006 348,971 374,233 26,025 20,120 85,119 78,649 7,396 0 8,483 25,738 16 16 180,047 145,677 656,057 644,432 588,706 600,331 1,244,764 1,244,763 Kampong Chhnang Y-2002 Y-2006 16,097 16,156 6,219 6,136 150,484 147,175 1,405 845 44 44 0 0 39,675 38,423 213,924 208,779 315,538 320,682 529,462 529,461 Preah Vihear Y-2002 Y-2006 222,425 254,451 156,800 143,431 927,343 901,295 11,436 914 1,157 556 0 408 17,907 9,626 1,337,068 1,310,680 66,023 92,407 1,403,091 1,403,087 Note: Cambodia forest cover was 12,711,100 ha in 1973 decreased to 11,284,200 ha in 1993 with annual changes – 0.6% of the total country area 18,153,500 ha (The WB, UNDP and FAO, 1996) Source: Forest cover in the year 2002 (FA, 2005) and forest cover in the year 2006 (FA, 2007) a Year b Semi-evergreen forest c Wood shrub land dry d Wood shrub evergreen forest In 1993, the total Cambodian forest area of 11.3 million ha is divided among 4.8 million ha of evergreen forest, 4.3 million ha of deciduous forest, 1 million ha of mixed forest, 0.5 million ha of secondary forest and 0.7 million ha of edaphic forest – refers to flooded, flooded secondary and mangrove forests (The WB UNDP and FAO, 1996). In 1973, the total forest area of 12.7 million ha is divided among 6.9 million ha of evergreen forest, 4.8 million ha of deciduous forest and 1.0 million ha of edaphic forest (Table 1.1). The 20year periodic annual change of land resource dynamics was - 0.6% (Table 1.1). In 2002/2003, the total forest area was 11.4 million ha (FA, 2005) but in 2006, the total forest was 10.9 million ha (FA, 2007; Table 1.1). Therefore, in response to the changed forest canopy, the Cambodian Government and its predecessors developed a broad set of -8-
  17. 17. regulations and guidelines to control and safeguard forest management practice with funds and technical support from the FAO, ADB, World Bank and several bilateral donors since 1996 (RGC, 1996; 1999; 2000; 2002; 2003; DFW, 1998; 1999; 2000a;b; 2001a,b). Additionally, five handbooks, prepared by the technical assistance team of the World Bank supported Forest Concession Management and control pilot project, were issued (WB, 2004a;b;c;d;e). By using these publications, objectives for strategic sustainable forest management were set. 1.5. Methods of this thesis In order to fulfill this thesis‘s objectives, the forest inventory over large area – concession level (Kao et al., 2010b), permanent sample plots and small area (community forestry level) were conducted in 3 different provinces. Data from these measurements were sorted and processed for tabulations to reach the objectives of each study section. This thesis included 6 different technical studies out of general introduction and conclusion, representing Chapter 2 to 7. Each Chapter presented limitation of key concerns, objectives, methodologies, results and discussions of joint other scientific articles, which had recommendation to forest sector locally and internationally. In order to gain sustainable production forests, this study set 2 sub-frameworks one as structure and another as dynamics by following the sustainable criteria and indicator of capacity of ecosystem (Fig. 1.1). This classification was because the evaluation of productive capacity would realize on these subframeworks. Variability for evaluations was set together with case studies for sample as strategic implementation. Fig. 1.8. Monthly mean temperature in Cambodia in °C Source: Forestry Administration, Danida and German Development Service, (2003) -9-
  18. 18. Note: Tav is the average temperature, Tmin is the minimum temperature and Tmax is the maximum temperature In the first sub-framework named as ―Structure‖, evaluation of forest resource mobilization was presented in Chapter 3, 4 and 6 by forest type over unlogged, logged and degraded forests, respectively. In the second sub-framework named as ―Dynamics‖, evaluation of forest resource was done at production forests in order to understand the mortality, recruitment, illegal-cut and increments (Chapter 5). Chapter 7 scaled sustainable yield by comparing between natural capacity and growth capacity for evaluating the best method for harvesting implanting in this country. This Chapter 7 reported about whether growth could reach expected harvesting intensity or not. Chapter 2 assessed 25-year strategic plan as a case study to be a sample for decision makers to select the best plan based on sustainable management criteria. Key recommendation of each findings are also summarized in each discussion and conclusion of each Chapter 2 – 7 for a policy matrix and for strategic implementing to gain sound sustainable standard at production forests that are organized around the strategic issue raise in the dissertation framework (Fig. 1.1). Fig. 1.9. Distribution of low-temperature regions of Cambodia in °C Source: Forestry Administration, Danida and German Development Service, (2003) To explore the challenge of commercial quality of forest structure changes and SFM implication, this dissertation summarize what can now be discerned on key criteria and indicators of productive capacity. Domestic energy and timber are the largest source of demand for wood in Cambodia; commercial logging has a considerably greater economic significance (The WB UNDP and FAO, 1996). One of the most crucial considerations for - 10 -
  19. 19. production forest management and investment is cutting intensity or allowable cut. The methodologies for estimating annual allowable cut was shown in FA, (2001) and updated for new annual allowable cut equation in FA, (2004), by level of management system – long-term plan, medium term plan and annual operational plan. This dissertation also practice and evaluated the method of annual allowable cut estimation as well. Cambodian forest harvesting intensity is expressed in terms of the volume of commercial timber to be removed during each entry to the harvested area or in term of the percentage of the standing commercial volume to be removed (FA, 2001). Parts of this thesis have been published in various journals, i.e., Chapter 4 informed concerning the structural characteristics of forests after impact logging (Kao and Iida, 2006), Chapter 2 assessed on management plan of a forest concession (Kao et al., 2005a) and Chapter 5 estimated the stand dynamic at evergreen forest (Kao et al., 2010a). Some parts have also been published as proceeding in the international and Japanese national conferences and workshops, i.e., Chapter 7 evaluated the annual allowable cut methods vs. forest increments in evergreen forest (Kao et al., 2004; Kao et al., 2008a), Chapter 6 assessed the supply and demand of fuelwood at 2 selected community forestry (Kao et al., 2008b). Additionally, some parts were also published in the book chapters, i.e., Chapter 3 presented a case at concession management level (Kao et al., 2005b). Fig. 1.10. Generalized distribution of vegetation in Cambodia Source: Forestry Administration, Danida and German Development Service, (2003) This study expected to reach Cambodian important stakeholders such as forest concessionaires, land concessionaires, community forestry, local people, government, non- - 11 -
  20. 20. government organizations and forest conservationists, who participate in sustainable forest management as obvious methodologies in solving mutual conflicts of interests. These results also expected to reach the end users in some parts of Southeast Asia that have not yet been evaluated the supply and demands from natural tropical forests. Future important silviculture treatment of sub-criterion 3 should then be studied (Fig. 1.1). Extrapolations of these methods to an anticipated acceptable cutting cycle must be interpreted with caution by forest types. Ongoing restudy of this and other criteria for receiving forest certification are necessary to provide a strong basis for how to manage the production of the natural tropical forests (Fig. 1.2). - 12 -
  21. 21. Chapter 2: Assessment of Cambodian forest concession management planning based on criteria and indicators of Montréal Process: a case study of CFC Company Keywords: Cambodia, Sustainable forest management, Criteria and indicators, Scaling, Forest concession, Strategic management 2.1. Introduction Forest fragmentation results because the spatial scales of resource extraction do not match the scales of natural disturbance that shaped the evolution of the landscape (Hobbs, 2003). Tropical deforestation was still proceeding at 14.2 million hectares per annum in the 1990s, and only 5.5% of all forests in developing countries was under formal management plans in the year 2000 (FAO, 2001). Forest is the essential component for human life in term of economics and environment. There is a need to extend the findings from visual images and content analyses to a wider context and different types of media in order to further examine the role of forestry industry and organizations in the public sphere (Kohsaka and Flitner, 2004). As signatory nations negotiate the implementation of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNCED, 1992), the role of forestry-based options for mitigating carbon dioxide emissions continues to be debated (e.g. Kyoto Protocol). Globally agreed-upon elements of criteria for sustainable forest management are extent of forest resources, biological diversity, forest health and vitality, productive functions of forests, protective functions of forests, socio-economic benefits and needs, legal and policy and institutional framework. Considerable international efforts also have focused in recent years on criteria for assessing forest issues. The United States signed the Santiago Agreement (Anonymous 1995) defining criteria and indicators for conserving and sustainably managing. Other efforts in Europe (Helsinki Process), tropical countries (Tarapoto Proposal), and Africa (Dry Zone Africa Initiative) are helping to develop a worldwide consensus on these topics. These criteria are now being used to develop the Global Forest Resource Assessment 2000 by the United Nations, and they served as the program theme for the 1997 World Forestry Congress in Antalya, Turkey. The Santiago Agreement identifies seven criteria for assessing sustainable forest management: (1) Conservation of biological diversity, (2) Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems, (3) Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality, (4) Conservation and - 13 -
  22. 22. maintenance of soil and water resources, (5) Maintenance of forest contribution to global carbon cycles, (6) Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple, socioeconomic benefits to meet the needs of societies; and (7) Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management. A fundamental sustainable forest management increasingly debated in the past two decades has been the need for human actions that lead to sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their needs (WCED, 1987). This debate has broadened to include notions of sustainability as a normative concept reflecting the persistence over an indefinite future of certain necessary and desirable characteristics of both ecological and human parts of an ecosystem (modified from Hodge 1997). Forest sustainability is a goal of many forestry organizations throughout the world. Managing forests sustainably involves recognizing interconnections among ecological, social, and economic systems to preserve options for future generations while meeting the needs of the present. Sustainability, like many concepts, is difficult to define in concrete terms. Many organizations are turning to criteria and indicators approach to help describe forest sustainability. Under this approach, criteria define broad categories of sustainability and indicators are specific measurements of each category (USDA, 2002). There are a host of efforts underway using criteria and indicators to describe forest sustainability. Notable among these is an effort commonly called the Montréal Process. This work is an outgrowth of the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In 1995, the United States joined 11 other countries in signing a document establishing a set of 7 criteria and 67 indicators to track forest sustainability. Definition of the sustainable forest management criteria is a category of conditions or processes by which sustainable forest management may be assessed. Each criterion is characterized by a set of 9 to 20 indicators. An indicator is a qualitative or quantitative measure of an aspect of the criterion that can be observed periodically (Montréal Process Working Group, 1998). In fiscal year 2003, the forest reformed program supported the Cambodia missions in conducting analyses and specific targeted interventions to mitigate conflicts over forest resources. These conflicts contribute to political destabilization and economic decline as well as environmental destruction (USAID, 2004). The Forest Administration (FA, 2000) requires concession companies to set out in their sustainable forest management planning - 14 -
  23. 23. (SFMPs) clear objectives for sustainable forest management over the concession area for the duration of the license through policy statement to which management and employees are committed. The FA can be congratulated for the thorough consideration of this topic in the planning process. The Planning Manual gives examples for the policy statement and several management objectives, which serve as guidance to the concessionaires. The Cambodian forest of 2.1 million hectares (11%) was degraded from 1973 to 1997 (Fig. 2.1). Cambodian tropical forests include the only partly continuous tropical forest in the world. However, it has annually suffered serious deforestation at 0.6% because of road building, mining and agricultural improvement expansion (Kim Phat et al, 2002, Kao, 2004). A large deforestation area has affected the climate change, biological diversity, hydrological cycle, soil erosion and degradation (CTIA and Kao, 2004, Kim Phat et al, 2004, Top et al, 2004). In the past, logging was an integral part of the ecosystem in Cambodia, affecting wildlife habitats, forest stand dynamics, soil properties, and watershed hydrology. Therefore, assessment on the how concessions manage the forest needs to be studied for government and other concerned organizations to constrain forest harvesting and management. How do successional pathways differ throughout the region by site landform, and with susceptibility to disturbance? Fig. 2.1. Cambodian Land use Map Source: Cambodian forest statistics to 2002 - 15 -
  24. 24. At the present, Cambodia has 26 forest concessions, who manage the natural forest. By early 2003, 2 companies had been cancelled, 1 dropped out and 2 missed the deadline; of the remaining 9 concessions. Twelve forest concessions were required to revise and resubmit their plans, for further review (Table 2.1). As a result, 6 concessions have been provisionally approved for advancement to the compartment level (5-year) planning stage: Cambodia Cherndar Plywood Manufacturing Co Ltd, Everbright CIG Wood Co. Ltd, Colexim Enterprise, TPP Cambodia Timber Product Pte. Ltd., Timas Resources Ltd. and Samrong Wood Industry Pte Ltd. The focus on problem of concession management is the subject of this paper. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accomplishment of CFC forest Concession Company to assess sustainable timber production and adaptability in the context of the Montréal Process of Criterion 2 and Indicators number 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 for sustainable forest management (Montréal Process Working Group 1998). Table 2.1: Valid forest concession area in Cambodia No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name Cambodia Cherndar Plywood Mfg.Co., Ltd. Casotim Enterprise Colexim Enterprise Everbright CIG Wood Co., Ltd. King Wood Industry Pte. Co., Ltd. Mieng Ly Heng Investment Co., Ltd. Pheapimex Fuchang Cambodia Co., Ltd.(1) Pheapimex Fuchang Cambodia Co., Ltd.(2) Pheapimex Fuchang Cambodia Co., Ltd.(3) Samrong Wood Industry Pte., Ltd. Silveroad Wood Products Ltd.(1) Silveroad Wood Products Ltd.(2) Timas Resources Ltd. TPP Cambodia Timber Product Pte., Ltd. Yourysaco Company Approved Date Area (ha) Preah Vihear Kratie Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear Kratie, Stung Treng Krotie, Stung Treng, Modul Kiri Kampong Thom, Kampong Cham, Preah Vihear 3/2/1996 9/4/1996 12/2/1996 8/8/1996 15/1/1998 103,300 131,380 147,187 136,376 301,200 27/2/1996 198,500 Krotie, Kampong Thom 15/03/1996 137,475 Stung Treng 15/03/1996 221,250 Stung Treng, Ratanak Kiri Siem Reap, Otdor Meang Chey Koh Kong, Pursat Koh Kong Kampong Cham, Kratie, Preah Vihear Siem Reap, Preah Vihear, Pursat, Koh Kong Pursat, Battambang 8/4/1998 22/08/1996 8/3/1998 8/4/1998 350,000 200,050 215,460 100,000 14/4/1996 161,450 3/4/1998 2/3/1998 395,900 214,000 3,874,028 Provinces/Municipality 12 Total Source: Cambodian forest statistics to 2002 (FA, 2003) 2.2. Materials and Methods There are 5 indicators of criterion 2, which deals with maintenance of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems. The focus is on a single Criterion (commonly referred to as - 16 -
  25. 25. indicators 10 to 14), which addresses the ―maintenance of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems‖. Data of 25-year strategic sustainable forest concession management level of CFC Company were selected for tabulation. For a more accurate evaluation of the CFC Company, the sections, which related to criterion 2, were sorted. 2.2.1 Data sources Most of the data in CFC Company and in the Montréal process were collected based on the question ―what is each indicator and why it is important?‖ and ―What does the indicator show?‖ Standard protocols for each indicator of Criterion 2 are available at www.fs.fed.us/research. Each of the selected indicators was assessed based on the results of the publication from the United States department of agriculture, European forest certification, ITTO report and FAO report and the result of acceptable indicator of Criterion 2 of the Montréal, existing records in the World Wide Web. In Cambodia, data were collected through a combination of individual and key informant interviews from the forest concessionaire in Cambodia, focus group (professor, FA officers, forest manager and the executive staff of CFC company), direct observation, and measurement of sheet 25-year strategic sustainable forest management plan of CFC Company, analysis of methodology work, result analyses and literature reviews. There are 8 criteria in 25-year sustainable forest management plan of CFC Company. In criteria number 4, 5 and 6 of the CFC Company was collected because of this relevance to Criterion 2 of Montréal process 1998 (Table 2.2). 2.2.2 Data analysis To evaluate the different indicators between CFC Company and Montréal, we first answered the question ―What does the indicator show?‖ and summarized them, and interpreted the indicators of Montréal. Then, we matched the each indicator of CFC Company and Montréal indicators. Indicators with negative or fluctuating trends were scored "0", while indicators with positive trends were rated "1". To evaluate the value of sustainable forest management of CFC Company, we finally graded each indicator of CFC based on the data collection, methodology and its objective. The analysis of indicators data goes beyond the direct measurement of grade by scaling the sub-indicators in each indicator as mentioned in Table 2.3. In this study, we - 17 -
  26. 26. assessed the grade of each sub-indicator at four different ranks ―A‖ is high, ―B‖ is medium, ―C‖ is low and ―D‖ is poor in each sub-indicator or indicator, respectively. To examine the effect of CFC‘s sub-indicators, we sorted the sub-indicator descriptions of the data collection, the data analysis and the SFM objectives in each indicator for tabulation. The sub-indicator, which did not fulfill one of the three activities of accomplishment, was graded as ―C‖. The sub-indicator, which fulfilled the three activities of the data collection, the data analysis and the SFM objective, was graded as ―A‖. The sub-indicator, which fulfilled two of the three activities i.e., fulfilling of the data collection and the data analysis but without the SFM objective, was graded as ―B‖. Table 2.2: Summary of criteria and indicators of CFC Company Criteria 4. Environmental and social 4.2. Evaluation of impacts and mitigation measures 4.3. Special management areas 4.4. Environmental monitoring 5. Forest function zonation Indicators Conclusion of the ESIA document Table of the principal investigation and mitigation measures appropriate to forest concessions Guidelines for special management areas Monitoring measures tables Zoning according to the manual : - Production areas - Protection areas (>5%) - Local traditional use areas (>5%) Tables with non operable area and net operable working forest by major type Forest function zonation: production areas, sacred forests, protection, special management areas. 6. Resource and Yield calculation 6.1. Area information Forest types area tables Operable forest types Maps (1:100 000) Document verification undertaken – sources 6.2. Concession level inventory Description of the methodology of the inventory Tables, data available and correct with precision <20m3/ha Data verified on the field by the DFWb 6.3. Growth and yield information 6.4. Estimated Available Annual Yield 6.5. Plans Compartment level Guidelines will be developed by the DFW in the next months Calculation available and based on the main group of species (Group I, II and III) by forest types updated after Cambodia Maps (1:50 000) showing compartment layout based on a EAAYc production for a five years period 5 to 6 compartments according to contract between concessionaires and DFW Tables showing areas by forest types and estimated volumes in each compartment updated after Cambodia Arterial road network Proposal of an arterial road network Maps (1:50 000) Schedule of road construction per year Source: 25-year strategic sustainable forest management plan (CFC, 2003) Environmental and social impact assessment b Department of Forestry and Wildlife c Estimate of annual allowable yield - 18 -
  27. 27. For the forest area estimation activity, we graded this sub-indicator by ―A‖ if there was information or ―D‖ if there was no information in the CFC‘s sustainable forest management plan. The CFC‘s area estimation source generally used Geographic Information System version 3.1 from the Forest Administration Office in Cambodia based on the imagery in the year 2000. Therefore, it was accurate enough for planning the sustainable forest management. Table 2.3: Summary of sustainable forest management sub-indicator data and rating CFC‘s sub-indicators Grade Ranking 1 Available a ―C‖ Low 2 Available ―B‖ Medium 3 Available ―A‖ High Area estimation by GIS ―A‖ High No information on area estimation ―D‖ Poor a Assessment on the available data from CFC Company on sub-indicator (1) Data collection, (2) Data analysis or (3) Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) objective 2.3. Results and Discussion Indicator 10: Area of Forest Land and Net Area of Forest Land Available for Timber Production. This indicator provides information fundamental to calculating the timber productive capacity of existing forests and shows how much forest is potentially available for timber production, compared with total forest area. Knowledge of the availability and capability of forest land to provide desired goods and services is a critical indicator of the balance of forest ecosystems relative to potential end uses. The comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s sub-indicators showed that CFC‘s company fulfilled the forest land available for timber production in indicator 10 about 11 of 13 sub-indicators (Table 2.4). The community and conservation area estimation were not fulfill. Whereas, the other 11 sub-indicators were realized with the grade A because the area estimation used Geographic Information System (GIS) in the year 2000, which may provide the accurate area identification. Therefore, average of annual allowable cut and stock forests would be accurate because this plan has enough information for forest operation (Table 2.4). Indicator 11: Total Growing Stock of both Merchantable and Non-merchantable Tree Species on Forest Land Available for Timber Production. Growing stock is a fundamental element in determining the productive capacity of the area identified as forest available for timber production. Knowledge of growing stock of the various species that make up the forest and how growing stock changes over time is central to considerations of a sustainable supply of wood for products and the sustainability of the ecosystems that - 19 -
  28. 28. provide them. The comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s sub-indicators showed that CFC‘s company fulfilled the total growing stock of both merchantable and nonmerchantable tree species in indicator 11 about 2 of 7 sub-indicators (Table 2.5). Of the 2 sub-indicators, sub-indicator 11.1 was graded as A and sub-indicator 11.2 was graded as B because only data collection and data analysis were fulfilled and the objective of SFM is not mentioned. However, the other 5 sub-indicators were realized with the grade D because in the CFC‘s master plan, there was no information mentioned (Table 2.5). Table 2.4: Area of forest land and net area of forest land available for timber production Subindicators In.10.1d Subin.10.1.1e Subin.10.1.2 Subin.10.1.3 Subin.10.1.4 Subin.10.1.5 Subin.10.1.6 Subin.10.1.7 Subin.10.1.8 Subin.10.1.9 In.10.2 Subin.10.2.1 Subin.10.2.2 Title of sub-Indicator 10 Montréal's ref.a Area of forest land and its changed by forest, class and year type Unlogged evergreen forest Unlogged mix evergreen forest Unlogged deciduous forest Logged over evergreen forest Logged over mix evergreen forest Logged over deciduous forest Biodiversity forest Community forest Conservation forest Timber land area, by management class and region Gross area by forest type and management level (Strategic, compartment and annual) Net operable area by forest types and management level Total Source: Indicator number 10 of Montréal Process Working Group 1998 Montréal's reference b CFC's reference c This assessment was graded based on area estimation by GIS d Indicator number 10.1 e Sub-indicator number 10.1.1 CFC's ref.b Quality Grade c 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 A A A A A A A A D D A 1 1 A 1 13 1 11 A 11A, 2D Table 2.5: Total growing stock of both merchantable and non-merchantable tree species on forest land available for timber production Sub indicators Subin.11.1 Subin.11.2 Subin.11.3 Subin.11.4 Subin.11.5 Subin.11.6 Subin.11.7 Title of sub-Indicator 11 Merchantable volume by forest type and year Non merchantable volume by forest types and year Percentage for comparison by forest types and year Compare the evolution for decision making Trend of growing stock by year by region Growing stock volume on timber land by region and species group Growing stock volume per hectare on timber land by region Montréal's ref. 1 1 1 1 1 CFC's ref. 1 1 0 0 0 Quality Gradea A B D D D 1 0 D 1 0 D Total 7 2 1A,1B, 5D Source: Indicator number 11 of Montréal Process Working Group 1998 a This assessment was graded based on the three activities of (1) Data collection, (2) Data analysis or (3) Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) objective - 20 -
  29. 29. Indicator 12: Area and Growing Stock of Plantations of Native and Exotic Species. This indicator is a measure of the degree to which forest plantations are being established in response to increasing demand for forest products and competing non-timber uses for forest land. The provision of forest products from intensively managed plantations can enhance the potential range and quantity of goods and services available from the remaining forest. The comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s sub-indicators showed that CFC‘s company did not fulfill the area and growing stock of plantations of native and exotic species in indicator 11 (Table 2.5). Therefore, the whole indicator in this area should be restudied by CFC Company (Table 2.6). Table 2.6: The area and growing stock of plantations of native and exotic species Subindicators Subin.12.1 Subin.12.2 Subin.12.3 Subin.12.4 Title of sub-Indicator 12 Area of forest planting by forest type and species Area of tree planting by major geographic region (Specific period) Area of timber land plantations Area of timber planting by major geographic region (Specific period) Total Source: Indicator number 12 of Montréal Process Working Group 1998 a This assessment was graded based on area estimation by GIS Montréal's ref. 1 CFC's ref. 0 Quality Gradea D 1 1 0 0 D D 1 4 0 0 D 4D Indicator 13: Annual Removal of Wood Products Compared to the Volume Determined To Be Sustainable. This indicator compares the net growth of growing stock with wood harvest (removals) of products on timber land. This method is frequently used to assess whether wood harvesting is reducing the total volume of trees on forest available for timber production. Growth is the net annual increase in the volume of growing stock between inventories after accounting for effects of mortality and before accounting for the effects of harvest. Removals measure the average annual volume of living trees harvested between inventories. Timber land is the subset of forest land on which some level of harvesting is potentially allowed. The volume of trees on timber land is considered sustainable as long as growth (net of mortality) exceeds removals. The comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s sub-indicators showed that CFC‘s company fulfilled the annual removal of wood products compared to the volume determined to be sustainable in the indicator number 13 approximately 4 of 5 sub-indicators (Table 2.7). For the sub-indicator number 13.4 the grade D (Table 2.7) was evaluated based on data rating in Table 2.3. There were two A graded in the sub-indicator number 13.1 and 13.5 because the growing stock by - 21 -
  30. 30. species group class and current removal by forest types were studied with the clear objectives (Table 2.7). Sub-indicators number 13.2 and 13.3 was graded as B because there are only two activities were studied (Table 2.7). Indicator 14: Annual Removal of Non-timber Forest Products Compared to the level determined to be sustainable. This indicator shows the removal of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). As demand for these products grows, it becomes more important to monitor the products‘ flow and the effect of their removal on the viability of current and future forest ecosystems. Information is not currently available to compare the growth and removals of NTFPs to evaluate sustainable levels. The comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s sub-indicators showed that CFC‘s company did not fulfilled the annual removal of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in indicator 14 (Table 2.8). Therefore, the whole indicator in this area should be restudied by CFC Company (Table 2.8). Table 2.7: Annual removal of wood products compared to the volume determined to be sustainable Subindicators Subin.13.1 Title of sub-Indicator 13 Montréal's ref. CFC's ref. Quality Gradea Historic growth and removals of growing stock by group class, dbh and species Net growth and removals of each forest type by year Potential Growth by forest type Current growth by forest type Current removals by forest type 1 1 A Subin.13.2 1 1 B Subin.13.3 1 1 B Subin.13.4 1 0 D Subin.13.5 1 1 A Total 5 4 2A, 2B, 1D Source: Indicator number 13 of Montréal Process Working Group 1998 a This assessment was graded based on the three activities of (1) Data collection, (2) Data analysis or (3) Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) objective Table 2.9 summaries the comparison between Montréal‘s and CFC‘s 5 indicators in the whole Criterion 2. We found that CFC‘s plan accomplished only 3 indicators 85%, 29% and 80% in Table 2.4, Table 2.5 and Table 2.6, respectively. Indicator 12 and 13 were remaining blank (Table 2.9). There were 14 sub-indicator graded as A, 3 sub-indicator were graded as B and 16 sub-indicators were graded as D (Table 2.9). There were 33 subindicators of Criterion 2 in Montréal and only 52% equivalents amount of 17 sub-indicators were fulfilled (Table 2.9). The Montréal Process provides little guidance for defining annul allowable cut although the information that is available largely addresses sustainable forest management. The various technical notes on the subject refer to biodiversity generically. They stress the need to assess using quantitative and qualitative information of the trends on the status of maintenance of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems. Little guidance is available for - 22 -
  31. 31. which scales need to be considered other than general direction to deal with national, regional, and local concerns. No guidance is provided for how to scale annual allowable cut information upward to broader spatial scales. Table 2.8: Annual removal of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) Subindicators Subin.14.1 Subin.14.2 Subin.14.3 Title of sub-Indicator 14 Montréal's ref. Popular use of medicinal plants, food and forage species Floral and horticultural species, resins and oils, Materials used for arts and crafts, and game animals and fur bearers. Annual periodic harvest of NTFPs CFC's ref. Quality Gradea 1 1 0 0 D D 1 0 D Subin.14.4 1 0 D Total 4 0 4D Source: Indicator number 14 of Montréal Process Working Group 1998 a This assessment was graded based on the three activities of (1) Data collection, (2) Data analysis or (3) Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) objective Table 2.9: Summary of Criterion 2 of maintenance of the productive capacity of forest ecosystems Indicator number 10 11 12 13 Montréal‘s CFC's CFC‘s (%) Quality Grade 13 11 85 11 A, 2D 7 2 29 1A,1B, 5D 4 0 0 4D 5 4 80 2A, 2B, 1D 4 33 0 17 0 52 4D 14A, 3B, 16D Title of indicators Area of forest land and net area of forest land available for timber production Total growing stock of both merchantable and nonmerchantable tree species on forest land available for timber production The area and growing stock of plantations of native and exotic species Annual removal of wood products compared to the volume determined to be sustainable Annual Removal of Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs) 14 Total Fulfillments Source: Criterion number 2 of Montréal Process Working Group 1998 However, this study found that only 52% of Criterion number 2 was accomplished. We found that 48% of management indicators were not in the plan yet. Whenever the CFC‘s master plan will be approved, this estimation forecasted that indicator number 11, 12 and 14 will be endangered to the forest area of CFC Company. We suggested that growing stock of plantation and NTFPs have made the forest management into terrible condition because the forest area in CFC Company was mainly studied on the timber production. 2.4. Conclusion The analysis of trade data goes beyond direct measurement of Montréal Criterion number 2 and each sub-indicator of indicator number 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. It is difficult to assess whether a 25-year sustainable forest management plan will fully support sustainable forest management if measures such as the conserved forest, annual growth rate and NTFPs - 23 -
  32. 32. are not provided. Many of the current analytical approaches are designed to reflect, forest area and annual allowable cut on aggregate levels. 5 Indicators attempt to address the links among land management, the flow of growing stock, and plantation. In that sense it reflects the current scientific thinking of forest growth and harvesting rate. This study recommends to not approving this company to proceed to cut forest because the growth rate of this area is not studied yet. Sustainability is a human value, not a fixed, independent state of social, economic, and ecological affairs. As such it is not an ‗absolute‘ because it is dependent on social values and involves multiple dimensions and scales, including those of time and space. At the concession scale, a concession‘s concept of sustainability may be influenced by broad scale perspectives such as general trends in concessionaire‘s environmental conditions, concession social or institutional issues or the balance with other national priorities. At the concession scale, the criteria and indicators will focus on eco-regional conditions, provincial economies and program effectiveness. At the concession scale, conceptions of sustainability will vary from stakeholder to stakeholder and will vary with unique forest conditions, the importance of forest in the traditions and economies of the area, and the nature and type of land ownership. While at each scale and for each property owner or manager the land management objectives may vary, collectively their individual actions contribute to sustainability. For instance, the indicator number 14, which is mainly about the NTFPs, concessionaires may not need to use this information in their plan because of economic conditions. Regardless of the scale at which they are applied, however, Montréal criteria and indicator frameworks must be flexible and adaptable over time. As society‘s values around sustainability change over time, criteria and indicators frameworks will need periodic revision to ensure that they continue to accurately and efficiently report on progress towards concession sustainable forest management for timber production. For the indicator number 12, which is mainly about the growing stock of plantation of native and exotic species, concessionaires may need this in the plan when the commercial forest area is not enough for the current production. Montréal criteria and indicators programs represent complementary tools that can be used to show progress towards sustainability and there is no information regard to monitoring. Each tool helps answer a set of questions unique to that scale and provides feedback for different kinds of purposes and decisions at other scales. Monitoring on illegal - 24 -
  33. 33. logging and reduce impact logging should be mentioned in the standard criteria and indicator in order for the manager to conduct and follow. Managing for sustainability requires thinking across all indicators of criterion 2, but monitoring and assessing sustainability must be based on the recognition that different questions and different methods are appropriate for different indicator. There is clear philosophical overlap and interdependence between the concession and Montréal indicators sustainability monitoring initiatives although the purposes, tools, and approaches are by intent different and therefore not easily translated one to the other. The CFC Company is not alone in facing the challenge of sustainable renewable resource management. Problems such as illegal logging by arm group, population growth, conflicting resource uses and subdivision of open spaces confront most of the other concessions that are employing criteria and indicators. Using criteria and indicators to assess and monitor forest conditions can aid in addressing these problems, but further action is necessary to effectively influence policies and decisions to achieve sustainable management of renewable resources. Cambodia must also integrate the information derived from the use of criteria and indicators into the development and implementation of the national forest programs. The policy statement should include an overall company goal and the willingness to: maintain long term productivity, maintain environmental and social-economic quality, sustain economic returns, work in compliance with laws and internationally recognized criteria for sustainable forest management, conduct regular monitoring, match downstream processing and forest production and formulate detailed management objectives derived from the policy statement. Defining management objectives is a key element of strategic planning. The results of this study on assessment of forest concession in Cambodia are applicable for tropical forest management. The assessment was more accurate using a forest concession planning and the Montréal. Because the sustainable forest management remedies are based on the specific knowledge of criteria and indicators, our results may be useful for the future establishment and management of sustainable yields in tropical forests. - 25 -
  34. 34. Chapter 3: Stand structure of an ecosystem in Northern Cambodia: a case at concession management level in Preah Vihear Forests (25-year management level) Keywords: Stand structure, disturbance, stratification, evergreen forest 3.1. Introduction Forest fragmentation results because the spatial scales of resource extraction do not match the scales of natural disturbance that shaped the evolution of the landscape (Hobbs, 2003). Tropical deforestation was still proceeding at 14.2 million hectares per annum in the 1990s, and only 5.5% of all forest in developing countries was under formal management plans in the year 2000 (FAO, 2001). This is because until the 1990s many tropical countries had no recent published, or stated, sustainable forest management (Poore, 1989; Poore and Thang, 2000); and also a stated yield or stock may not correspond to a government‘s actual forest management plan, i.e. its true attitude and intentions (Jianbang et al, 2001). Assessment of sustainability however, is often lacking or incomplete at the time a system is adopted (Dawkins and Philip, 1998; Southgate, 1998). A government may also be unhappy if its original stated forest management was drastically modified during passage into legislation (Kim Phat et al, 2000). Forest is the essential component for human life in term of economics and environment. There is a need to extend the findings from visual images and content analyses to a wider context and different types of media in order to further examine the role of forestry industry and organizations in the public sphere (Kohsaka and Flitner, 2004). As signatory nations negotiate the implementation of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNCED, 1992), the role of forestry-based options for mitigating carbon dioxide emissions continues to be debated (e.g. Kyoto Protocol). In Europe for example, the role of forests should be no longer be only to sustain high wood production, but also to maintain the vitality and health of forests, biodiversity and protective functions of ecosystems, as well as to produce non-wood resources and to support socioeconomic development at multiple scales (Liaison Unit in Lisbon, 1998). Being a concern on the international market place, biodiversity maintenance has become an issue, especially in countries and regions, which are dependent on exporting wood products (Elliott and Schlaepfer, 2001). This development has been preceded by a long list of policy documents (United Nations, 1992; Work Program - 26 -
  35. 35. on the Conservation, 1997; Liaison Unit Vienna, 2000). In the 1970s, when the fulfillment of the basic needs of the rural poor became an ingredient of rural development, the critical role of forests in the life of forest-dependent rural communities, which had been excluded from forest use, was reestablished (Barraclough and Ghimire, 1995; Poffenberger and McGean, 1996). The United Nations Conference on Human Environment (1972) brought environmental issues to the forefront, and since this time environmental movements have been strengthening in the developed as well as the developing world. Cambodian forest 2.1 million hectares 11% was degraded within the period 19731997 (Kao et al, 2004). The Cambodian Tropical Forests contain the partly continuous tropical forest in the world; however, it has annually suffered serious deforestation 0.6% because of road-building, mining and agricultural and illegal logging-raising expansion (Kao, 2004; KimPhat, 2000 and 2002). The large area deforestation has resulted in effects on climate change, biological diversity, hydrological cycle, soil erosion and degradation (Kim Phat, 2004; Top et al, 2004; CTIA and Kao, 2004). After deforestation, regeneration of vegetation is common and the resulting landscape often consists of patches of successional forests and agricultural lands. Stand structure is an important variable affecting habitat of wildlife and plays a key role for forest zonation. For tree species, recruitment of new individuals and death of old ones may be less important to the population dynamics than are the architectural consequences of sprouting on the persistence of already established individuals (Midglei, 1996). Moreover, an understanding of stand structure at the landscape level should take into account variability in sprouting patterns that may affect medium- and long-term forest structure (Rabinovitch-Vin, 1983; Pigott and Pigott, 1993; Gracia and Retana, 1996). In Mediterranean conditions, stand patterns are usually related to the variability in site quality conditions (Espelta et al., 1999). A plant community is not understood if it is known merely under what condition it is found. It is more important first to discover how it is built up, what is its structure. The science of vegetation is the study of the morphology of plant communities (Richards et al, 1996). Forest act in UK coined the definition stand structure: the distribution of trees in a stand, which can be described by species, vertical or horizontal spatial patterns, size of trees or tree parts, age, or a combination of these. The behavior of stand structure during and after disturbance is the basic information for preparing the forest planning and help to efficient - 27 -
  36. 36. sustainable forest planning. Stand structure is important for forest zonation, which leads to guide the forest manager to scale the forest compartment of operation. Without stand structure, the forest owner may be useless expense from main road construction after year‘s indecision (Kao, 2003). Predicting stand dynamics and future yields in mixed-species complex structured stands cannot be easily accomplished with traditional field experiments (Coates et al, 2003). An indispensable way to explore relationships between management and future stand structure and function will be the use of stand structure information. This study could provide more reliable basic results on long-term monitoring stand structure of Cambodian forests in order for the government to make decision on forest concession agreement. This study aims to explore the stand structure of evergreen forests of Preah Vihear after disturbance. 3.2. Methods 3.2.1. Forest Inventory Fig. 3.1. Primary Sampling Unite allocation Note: This map is edited by FA-GIS office 2000 - 28 -
  37. 37. With financial support of a timber company, an executive agency of World Bank and a counterpart of the Forest Administration of Cambodia, a two-year forest inventory project was initiated in 2000 and implemented enumeration from April 2001 to September 2001. This inventory project covered 96,714 ha of forests in Cambodia‘s three largest districts; Tbaeng Mean Cheay, Chhaep and Choam Khsant, Preah Vihear Province (Fig. 3.1). The inventory map was interpreted using satellite maps of 1996/97 and 2000 from GIS office, Forest Administration (FA) (Fig. 3.1 and Fig. 3.2). Forest types within the forest were divided into four forest types; Evergreen Forest (FE), Mixed Forest (FM), and Deciduous Forests (FD) Conserved Evergreen Forest (CSFE). Fig. 3.2. Preah Vihear Forest land cover map Under this inventory project, the procedure of the Forest Management Planning Manual was adapted. In each forest type, 100 Primary Sampling Unites (PSU) were set on the map with the detail UTM grid coordinates. PSU in FE had the average area of 301ha was measured (Table 3.4). Twenty PSUs were randomly selected from the 100 PSUs on the map (Fig. 3.1). Sample plots of 20m x 60m were set in the PSUs. Therefore, 160 sample plots of this forest type in total were selected from 20 PSUs. In each sample plot, four sub - 29 -
  38. 38. plots with the different size were set 20 x 60m, 20 x 20m, 10 x 10m and 5 x 5m as shown in Table 3.1. Table 3.1: Tree measuring procedure in each plot Diameter Classes Plot dimensions (m) Above 30 cm. DBH 60 x 20 Above 10-30 cm. DBH 20 x 20 5 to 10 cm. (count only) 10 x 10 Below 5 cm. (count only) 5 x 5 Note: DBH is the diameter at 1.3 m Plot Size (ha) 0.12 0.04 0.01 0.0025 At the forest, the location of the PSU was found by means of GPS. Then, we moved to the sub plot and evaluated the trees in the plot; species stem form (good, medium and bad), diameter of breast height (dbh) and height. The criterion of dbh to be measured was different in each sub plot as shown in Table 3.1. All condition of forest type survey and inventory data together with general comments were recorded by the team leaders (Fig. 3.1). 3.2.2. Data Processing To calculate the stand structure; we first calculated the stand volume using formula available in Forest Administration (2001). The dipterocarp species in evergreen forest is V = 0.121+5.422*(DBH) ^2*H/100,000, Non-dipterocarp species in evergreen forest is V = 0.226+4.750*(DBH) ^2*H/100,000. We then sorted the average volume in the dbh class above dbh 10 cm by royalty class I, II, III, LUX and OTHER. n VN  {[0.121  5.422 * (DBHi ) ^2 * H i /100,000] /P ft /PSU ft } i 1 m VD  {[0.226  4.750 * (DBH j ) ^2 * H j /100,000] /P ft /PSU ft } j 1 where: VN is volume of nondipterocarp species, VD is volume of dipterocarp species, Pft is subplot area by forest type and PSUft is primary sampling unite area by forest type 3.2.3. Overview of study area Preah Vihear Province is situated in the northern part of Cambodia, and has a total area of 14,013.61 km2 including land areas of 13,788 km2. This province has 7 districts, Choam Khsant, Chhaeb, Chey Saen, Rovieng, Sankom Thmei, Kulean and Tbaeng Mean Chey. According to the meteorology data, the average of rainfall within the area mostly falls - 30 -
  39. 39. within the range of >1,500 mm to <2,000 mm, around the province of Preah Vihear. In summary, yearly maximum temperature is 32.11ºC, yearly average temperature is 28.15ºC and yearly minimum temperature is 24.20ºC. This province has a 1998 population of 119,261 people of whom 59,333 were males. Nearly 80% of the populations were engaged in farming and forestry for their livelihood. There were 21,007 households of whom 18.7% are females headed household. The population density is 8.6 people per km2 and total urban area is 18.6% (NIS, 1998). The study side forest areas (both in the core and buffer zones) have 2,635 families under the administrative control of Choam Khsant, Chhaeb and Tbaeng Mean Chey Districts. These 2,635 households come from 16 villages within 06 communes. The mean annual temperature in the area is 24.7C, lower than the national mean annual temperature of 26.7C. The highest temperature was 41C while the lowest was 19.4C. Humidity varies from 72.3% in January to 86.9% in October, with an annual average of 80.3%. The study site is situated within the province of Preah Vihear, covering an area of approximately 103,058 hectares (Table 3.3) of different forest formations (FA/GIS office, 2000). Geographically, it is located within latitude 104º 58‘ E to 105º 2‘E and longitude 13º 48‘ N to 14º 9‘ N. The area is presently accessible from Phnom Penh using National Route No. 6 thence following National Road No. 127 and 128 to reach the Preah Vihear area. It is about 5 hours ride by car to reach Preah Vihear Forest. The boundary is defined mostly by using natural features like roads, bridges, rivers, streams, or villages… etc. Northern boundary: Starting from point A (UTM: 500000.08, 1566224.68), at the junction of route No 69 and 6931 near Chaep village, along route No. 69 to Chuon village continuing to point B (UTM: 528584.51, 1549094.81) on route No. 69. Eastern boundary: From point B (UTM: 528584.51, 1549094.81 along route No. 69 to point C (UTM: 528367.79, 1546586.9), to point D (UTM: 540109.76, 1537536.97) where is the connection of route No. 69 and route No. 695, and then continue from route 695 to point E (UTM: 530340.97, 1526447.14) at the connection of route No. 6931 and route No. 695 near Molu Prey village. Southern boundary: from point E (UTM: 530340.97, 1526447.14) near Molu Prey village, along route No 6931 to point F (UTM: 519063.03, 1527527.73) and continue through Bos Thom village to point G (UTM: 502559.43, 1532069.96) near Pou village, Prame commune. Western boundary: from point G (UTM: 502559.43, 1532069.96) near Pou village along route No 6931 passing through O Kak village and Sre Phong village - 31 -
  40. 40. to point H (UTM: 498057.29, 1545002.04) at Khnat village and continue along this route No. 6931 to meet the starting point of point A (UTM: 500000.08, 1566224.68) where is the junction of route No 69 and 6931 near Chaeh village (Kao, 1999). During field inventory work in the projected area, an ancient temple known as ―Daun Chrom‖ with the size of 100m x 100m has been discovered in the upper northern part of the concession at UTM: 505054, 1559394. Savannah-type brush land with scattered trees occurs mainly in the intermediate regions in the northern parts of the studied site. Along the Stoeng Sen boundary of the studied site are scattered pockets of bamboo and cultivated crops. Cultivated crops are also extensive in the vicinities around Choam Khsan district and Pau Commune. The forest vegetation over the area is composed of three major forest types. These are the evergreen forests, mixed evergreen forests and dry deciduous forests. These are further stratified into 4 sub-types (FE, FM, FD and CSFE) as interpreted by the GIS Unit of FA based on 1996/97 satellite imageries, and is further updated based on 1999/2000 satellite imageries, field assessment and forest inventory during the current analysis processes. After comparing the ground assessment with the satellite imageries 2000, forest typing and forest zonation, the identified forest area is 96,714 hectares (Table 3.2 and Fig. 3.2). Based on the 1999/2000 satellite imageries interpreted by FA, and actual ground survey and field verification, the vegetation cover in the concession is classified to include the above mentioned forest typing according to sub types as shown in Table 3.3. Table 3.2: Change of forest types in Preah Vihear Forest 1996-2000 Forest type 1996 area 2000 area Difference Change Annual Change (ha) (ha) (ha) (%) (%) Evergreen forest 34,250 30,128 -4,122 -12.0 -3.0 Mixed forests 32,795 19,968 -12,827 -39.0 -9.8 Deciduous forest 25,617 41,083 15,466 60.0 15.1 Conserved forest 6,517 5,535 -982 -15.0 -3.8 Total 99,179 96,714 -2,465 -2.0 -0.6 Percentage 96.24% 93.84% Note: This data is based on Landsat TM imagery 2000 interpreted by Forestry Administration-GIS Between the period 1995 and early 1998, extensive depletion of merchantable timber in the Preah Vihear Forest area occurred. Portion of the original operable areas has been illegally logged by armed group and village-based illegal logging activities. It is widely known that the Thai-owned company conspired by former Khmer Rouge returnees and local - 32 -
  41. 41. gunmen had illegally logged hundred thousands cubic meter of timber in the area and sent to Thailand between that period (Kao, 2003). Table 3.3: Forest land use classification in Preah Vihear Forest Studied site area in hectares Total Forest types Map code Total area Conserved Unlogged (%) Evergreen forest Evergreen dense A 0 0 0 0 Evergreen disturbed B 30749 4481 26707 30 Evergreen mosaic C 5062 1054 3421 5 Sub-total 35811 5535 30128 35 Mixed evergreen forest 0 0 0 0 Mixed evergreen dense D 846 0 846 1 Mixed evergreen disturbed E 18059 0 18102 18 Mixed evergreen mosaic F 1146 126 1020 1 Sub-total 20051 126 19968 19 Deciduous forest Deciduous G 40850 710 41083 40 Sub-total 40850 710 41083 40 Total production area 96712 6371 91179 94 Non production forest Sub-total 3039 11 3028 3 Non forest or other land uses Sub-total 3307 336 2971 3 Total non-production area 6346 347 5999 6 Grand total of study side 103058 6718 97178 100 Note: This data is based on Landsat TM imagery 2000 interpreted by FA-GIS office 2000 As shown in the originally approved "Master Plan" and the "Annual Logging operational Plan, the first compartment has seven coupes that is coupe: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 (CCP, 1996). The concessionaire, at the time of making the previous approved plan, supposed to operate this first compartment's coupes sequentially by numbered. Not so long before and after the Master Plan was approved, this forest area was conquered and illegally logged by the Thai owned timber company. These illegal logs were sent to Thailand. Thai company built a direct road from within the Preah Vihear Forest to Thai border. The terrain consists of mostly flat alluvial plain from the Tonle Sap basin in the south gently rising to moderately rolling terrain to the north. The three major forest types (evergreen, mixed and deciduous) occur on five major soil types. The evergreen forests show a distinctive preference for Acid Lithosols and Red-Yellow Podsols. The mixed forests prefer Acid Lithosols and Plinthite Podzols while the deciduous forests are found almost equally in Acid Lithosols, Plinthite Podsols and Grey hydromorphics. Acid Lithosols type – most of the project area is covered by this soil family particularly in the northwestern part of the area. It covers about 45,611 hectares equal to 44.3%. The parent material at depth - 33 -
  42. 42. is decomposed rock and acidic (pH 4.5 – 6.5). The project area covers a very small area of Alluvial soil type, less than 200 hectares (0.2%.) at the southern tip of the studied site near the main road entering the studied site. Grey Hydromorphic soil over the area covers about 12,856 hectares equal to 12.5% of the total project area. The Plinthite Podzols soil covers about 28,989 hectares equal to 28%. Red-Yellow Podzols soil covers about 15,406 hectares equal to 15% (Kao, 2003). Table 3.4: Sampling parameters for evergreen forest of dbh above 10 cm Forest types/ Sampling parameters FE Total area (ha) 30,128 Total number of PSU: 20 Total area of PSU (ha) 6,026 Average area of PSU (ha) 301 Total number of sampling units: 160 Dimension for dbh 10-30 cm (m) 20x20 Dimension for dbh above 30 cm (m) 20x60 Sub plot area (ha) 0.12 Plot area per PSU (ha) 0.96 Total sampled area (ha) 19.20 Number of plots per sampled PSU: 8 (+ or -)10% sampling error @ 95% confident level: 1.96 3.3. Results and discussion 3.3.1 Density and dispersion of trees Data used in this study were taken from 160 sample plots in evergreen forest. The density of the trees in evergreen forests varies within wide limits and depends on many factors. For all trees with dbh greater than 10 cm, the average density of tree, volume and basal area was 364.3 trees/ha, 286.1m3/ha and 21.4m2/ha (Table 3.5) within the area of 30,128 ha, respectively (Table 3.4). In mature forest with few gaps on more or less level, free-draining low land sites (center of the studied site in Fig. 3.3) the density of trees, volume and basal area per hectare with a dbh greater than or equal to 10-59 cm is 344 trees/ha, 172.8m3/ha and 12.6m2/ha (10 cm is an arbitrary limit roughly corresponding to trees about 15-30 m high) (Table 3.8 and inventory plots observation). - 34 -
  43. 43. 220 200 180 2 Basal area (m /ha) 160 Volume (m3/ha) 140 Stem (Trees/ha) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 I II III LUX OTHER Royalty class Fig. 3.3. Density of stem, volume and basal area of dbh above 10 cm by royalty class The factors controlling tree density in rain forests are complex and not well understood. A part from the effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, they certainly include drainage, illegal logging and other soil conditions, as is well shown in the over view of the studied site section 3.2. In the studied site area, the density of trees is often strikingly greater on the flat area 200- 800 m above sea level (GIS/FA office, 2000 and field observation using GPS, 2001). In hilly country the density of trees is often markedly greater on ridge tops than on the slops, as (Wyatt-smith, 1960) found in Malaya and (Ashton, 1964) in Brunei. Like density, the diameter-class distribution of the trees is very variable, some mature trees having relatively large number of 10-29 cm dbh or more and other comparatively few; however, volume and basal area density of dbh above 30 cm are higher and other comparatively few (Table 3.8). In tropical rain forest country, some mature trees of dbh 40-60 cm is very variable and other comparatively few (Richards et al, 1996). It also shows that there is little correlation between the numbers of trees or very large dbh and the total number above some fairly small arbitrary lower dbh limit such as above 10 cm (Richards et al, 1996). Since many large evergreen forest trees (over about 30 cm dbh), are buttressed and most of the smaller trees unbuttressed (forest inventory observation), the area - 35 -
  44. 44. of the forest floor effectively occupied by this study is considerably larger than the basal area calculated from their dbh (Table 3.8). Table 3.5: Density of stem, volume and basal area in dbh class above 10 cm Class Stem Volume Basal area Stem Volume Basal area (Trees/ha) (m3/ha) (m2/ha) (%) (%) (%) I 79.7 90.3 7.1 22 32 33 II 103.2 95.4 7.0 28 33 33 III 51.2 28.7 2.1 14 10 10 LUX 8.2 6.3 0.5 2 2 2 OTHER 121.9 65.4 4.7 33 23 22 Total 364.3 286.1 21.4 100 100 100 Note: LUX is luxury tree class and OTHER is tree without scientific name 3.3.2. Stratification Some writer gives the impressions that the strata of the evergreen forest are as well defined and as easy to recognize as ―coppice-with-standard‖, (Richards et al, 1996) but the presence of the three story of difference trees is not evident on casual observation, for the composition of all stories is very complex and few of the trees present any stinking peculiarities, while smaller tree of a higher story always occur in a lower story and between the different sorties (Brown and Whitmore, 1992). In Table 3.6, the first or dominant story forms a complete canopy of dbh above 60 cm (13.2 trees/ha) with the average of 30-40 m of high; under this there is another story of large trees, which also form a complete canopy of dbh 30-59 cm (52.1 trees/ha) with the average of 15-30 m of high (Table 3.8). Still lower there is a story of small scattered trees of dbh 10-29 cm (299.3 trees/ha) with average of 515 m of high (Table 3.5 and Table 3.6). In this study, the result of our analysis is similar to Brown (1992). 3.3.3. Species density It consists of three stories of trees at the studied site at 30 m and upwards, 15-30 m and 3-15 m, respectively (Inventory observation). So that it is somewhat lower and less luxuriant (Table 3.5, Table 3.7, Table 3.8 and Fig. 3.6) than the best developed ―true‖ evergreen forest. Apart from the lower height of all the stories, the highest tree is even more discontinuous (Richards et al, 1996). Structurally the original evergreen forest have a dense closed canopy with the emergent layer attaining a height up to 40 meters and the trees reaching a diameter of 200 cm In Fig. 3.4 and Table 3.6, many of these emergent trees are buttressed (Inventory data). In Table 3.7, dipterocarps species are commonly encountered - 36 -

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