ACCESS Mars project final presentation


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This is the presentation given at the end of the Space studies program at NASA Ames, August 2009. The ACCESS Mars project stands for Assessing Cave Capabilities and Evaluating Specific Solutions (ACCESS) Mars explores the future of robotic and human exploration missions to Mars via subsurface habitation.
Mission statement: " develop a mission architecture for an initial settlement on Mars by assessing the feasibility of cave habitation as an alternative to proposed surface-based solutions".

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  • Phil & Ganesh
  • Danielle & Jeffrey
  • For you guys that are not familar with the work performed 30 years ago, here you can see an overview of what was covered during the study and which will be discussed during todays ACCESS Mars News special!
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  • Danielle & Jeffrey
  • Question asked by anchorman & women Background Astronaut from video doing nothing waiting for question
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  • Phil & Ganesh
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  • Mar, Campell, Katherine, Antoni
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  • ACCESS Mars project final presentation

    1. 1. ACCESS Mars: A Vision of Exploration
    2. 2. ACCESS MARS Space Studies Program 2009 Team Project Final Presentation August 27 th , 2009 NASA Ames Research Center NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESDM) International Space University
    3. 3. Video introduction
    4. 4. Music by Megatrax with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    5. 5. Coming Up: <ul><li>Cave Rationales </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Human Mission Elements Alternative Mission Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion & Recommendations </li></ul>August 27 th , 2039
    6. 6. Caves as Habitats. Why Caves? <ul><li>Surface hazard mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed temperature value </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for finding life </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Dust storms </li></ul><ul><li>Small meteorites </li></ul><ul><li>Cave stability </li></ul><ul><li>EVA </li></ul><ul><li>? Electrical </li></ul>Credit: NASA
    7. 7. Lava Tubes Images: Credit NASA
    8. 8. Subsurface Options Advantages Disadvantages Lava Tube: Pressurized habitat within a lava tube <ul><li>Natural shielding </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific merit </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable </li></ul><ul><li>Location specific </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation for landing site, mobility, access </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed entry </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor missions </li></ul>Artificial cave: Pressurized habitat within an excavated cavity. <ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable </li></ul><ul><li>Instability risk </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in excavation </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy drilling equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous </li></ul>Rigid surface habitat: Preassembled habitat covered with regolith <ul><li>Flexibility of location </li></ul><ul><li>Easily expandable </li></ul><ul><li>Modular sections </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy structure </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Regolith assumptions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Desired Cave Characteristics <ul><li>Roof thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Width </li></ul><ul><li>ISRU potential </li></ul><ul><li>Cave network </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific merit </li></ul><ul><li>Local environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul>Credit ACCESS Mars Credit P. Boston
    10. 10. In-Situ Resource Utilization Credit: Credit: <ul><li>Oxygen and water for life support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Methane for fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal energy for electricity </li></ul>Caves expected to increase access to some resources
    11. 11. Lava Tubes Scientific Merit ISRU (Ice)
    12. 12. Scientific Merit <ul><li>Increase in capabilities: surface and subsurface </li></ul><ul><li>Inside: astrobiology, subsurface transport, geology </li></ul><ul><li>Surface: extended EVA, geology, atmosphere </li></ul>Calculated Radiation Path Time and Total Absorbed Cumulative Radiation Scenario Path Time Total Cumulative Radiation Dose (mSv) Surface 24 h/day 14.795 Cave Habitat 24 h/day 0.012 Minimum EVA on Foot 6 h/wk 2.653 Maximum EVA on Foot 18 h/wk 7.936 Minimum EVA in Rover 240 h/mth 4.939 Maximum EVA in Rover 720 h/mth 14.795
    13. 13. Video introduction
    14. 14. Music by Megatrax with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    15. 15. EXCLUSIVE: Communication with Mars crew EXCLUSIVE !
    16. 16. Music by Megatrax with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    17. 17. Mission Architecture <ul><li>NASA & ESA Design Reference Missions studied </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>540 day surface stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 crewmembers </li></ul></ul>Remote Sensing Observation Precursor Mars Cargo Human
    18. 18. Mission Architecture T-14 months T+6 months T+10 months T+26 months T+32 months
    19. 19. Mission Architecture <ul><li>ACCESS Mars DRM requires : </li></ul><ul><li>Main Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo Rover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports Main Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary Surface Habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same as Agency Habitat </li></ul></ul>Three more cargo launches required Manifested Item Quantity NASA DRM Quantity ACCESS Mars DRM Crew Consumables 1500 1500 Unpressurized Rover 2 500 2 500 Pressurized Rover 2 8000 2 8000 Cargo Rover 1 12000 Main Habitat 1 29500 1 20000 Temporary Habitat 1 29500 Stationary Power System 1 7300 1 7300 Descent Stage (wet) 23300 23300 Aeroshell 43700 43700 Total IMLEO Mass (tons) 113800 145800
    20. 20. Robotics Precursor Missions <ul><li>Rovers similar to the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission </li></ul><ul><li>Where teleoperated for high level decision making and navigated autonomously for low level decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Rover in cooperation with a small autonomous reconnaissance vehicle (ARV) for exploration of cave </li></ul>Operation scenario Configuration Mass Range Complexity Ground Small sized wheeled/walking robots 10-40 kg 0.1 km ** Large sized wheeled/walking robots 180 kg 1.0 km ** Tethered robots 10 kg 0.035 km * Hopping Microbots 0.15 kg - * Aerial Rotorcrafts 1000-2750kg 110km *** Flyers 0.65-25kg 10-1000km ***
    21. 21. Robotic Transportation and Exploration <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Main habitat will be transported via a rover, based on current experience on Mars rover missions </li></ul><ul><li>The cargo surface transportation system (CSTS) is capable of robotic, manual and remote teleoperation, especially during the construction phase of the cave habitat </li></ul><ul><li>CSTS rovers can be further used as a general purpose unpressurized vehicle for EVAs </li></ul><ul><li>Subsurface </li></ul><ul><li>Unpressurized and pressurized rovers are utilized </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous robots (microbots, flyers, rotorcrafts) were used for sensing, telemetry, and reconnaissance missions </li></ul><ul><li>For longer excursions, a pressurized rover is used as a better approach given the greater autonomy </li></ul>
    22. 22. Artist’s Conception of the AM DRM Habitat Design (Reggie MacIntosh) Artist’s Conception of Interior Habitat Design (Reggie MacIntosh) Cave Habitat Structure <ul><li>Temporary surface habitat and crew arrived on Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Cave habitat construction phase just completed </li></ul><ul><li>Cave habitat consists of an inflatable structure </li></ul>Credit: NASA
    23. 23. Artist’s Conception of the Habitat Design (Tomás Saraceno) Cave Habitat Structure Advantages Disadvantages Lava Tube: Pressurized pneumatic habitat within a natural lava tube. - Readily available radiation shielding - No excavation required - Lightweight construction - Structural stability - Scientific merit - Expandable within cave network - Potential access to underground resources - Deeper drilling capability - Natural stable temperature environment - Location specific - Limitation for landing site - Limitation for mobility and access to surface resources - Fixed entry way - Precursor mission needed
    24. 24. Power Systems A: Surface rovers D: Human transport vehicles -: Not suggested B: Microbots E: Habitat R: Suggested redundancy C: Cargo delivery rovers F: Future concept for settlement S: Suggested solution Power Source Advantages Disadvantages A B C D E Primary Batteries -Cheap, reliable, full-time operation -No energy capture required -Very short lifetime -Low power output - - - - - Solar power and Secondary Batteries -High reliability -Mature technology -Renewable energy -Low efficiency and large area -Degradation and damage -Intermittent power generation -Need to transport solar arrays R S - - - Solar power and RFCs -Renewable fuel -Lower array area required -Degradation and damage -Intermittent power generation -Need to transport solar arrays S - R R R Wind Energy -Renewable energy -Low atmospheric density - -Large structures required - - - - - Geothermal -High efficiency -High reliability -No proof of concept (Arizona State University, 2009a; Arizona State University, 2009b) - - - - - Nuclear Fission and Nuclear RTG -Optimal for large-scale, high-power missions -Full-time operation and long lifetime -Compliments nuclear propulsion -High reliability -Ethical and safety concerns -Radiation shielding -Low specific power - - S S S, R ISRU -Sustainable energy source -Long lifetime -Abundance of fuel -Insufficient knowledge and access to resources -New technology - - F F F
    25. 25. Power Systems Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (credit: US Department of Energy) Fission Surface Power System (credit: US Department of Energy) <ul><li>Two nuclear fission reactors provide power for habitats 2x160kw. </li></ul><ul><li>High Power Input </li></ul><ul><li>High Power Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Surface rovers use photovoltaic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Microrobots  primary batteries or solar cells. </li></ul><ul><li>FUTURE: ISRU Technologies </li></ul>
    26. 26. Music by Megatrax with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    27. 27. Calculated Frequency and Duration of EVA In Each Scenario Space Medicine Scenario Duration Frequency Critical Path (Time) Min. Path (Time) Rover inside other caves 10-15 days, with maximum 8 hours inside other cave 1-2/month 720h/month 240h/month Rover inside main habitat cave 1-5 days 4-5/month 600h/month 96h/month Foot inside cave 2-8 hours 3/week 24h/week 6h/week Rover outside cave 10-15 days 1-2/month 720/month 240h/month On foot outside cave 2- 6 hours 3/week 18h/week 6h/week
    28. 28. Space Medicine <ul><li>Advantages of Caves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation shielding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars weather and dust protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges of Caves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly increased risk of bone fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal affective disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages far outweigh challenges, caves recommended as initial habitat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microgravity or reduced gravity-induced disorders still apply in Caves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous medical basic operation in site. No real-time guidance possible on Mars. Telementoring needed. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Space Medicine Health risks Bone loss Muscle loss Cardiovascular deconditioning Orthostatic intolerance. Health Risk Probabilities, calculated after (HUMEX study, ESA, 2003) More research needed Long-term analogs Countermeasures Estimated Probabilities of Health Issue Outcomes (%) Scenario Scenario Condition DRM EDRM Condition DRM EDRM Acute respiratory infections 54.95 85.99 Urinary calculus 0.03 0.04 Pneumonia and influenza 0.14 0.22 Disease of male genital organs 0.03 0.04 Neoplasms (pre & post flight control) 0.01 0.02 Disease of breast or female organs 0.71 1.11 Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, immunity 0.04 0.07 Heat and light effects 0.10 0.15 Blood diseases and blood forming organisms 0.03 0.04 Open wounds / bleeding 0.14 0.22 Cardiovascular disease 0.14 0.22 Ischemic heart disease 0.06 0.09 Hypertensive disease 0.01 0.22 Disease of liver or gall bladder 0.07 0.11
    30. 30. <ul><li>Closed-loop life support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Waste management: sterilization and packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Bioregenerative approaches incorporated once greenhouse is built </li></ul>Life Support Systems
    31. 31. Crew Selection and Training <ul><li>Variety and redundancy in crew </li></ul><ul><li>Skills in medicine, engineering, geosciences and life sciences – search for Life </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarization with cave habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Use of analog environments for training </li></ul>
    32. 32. Mars weather forecast
    33. 33. with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    34. 34. Video introduction
    35. 35. Music by Megatrax with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    36. 36. Communications and Navigation <ul><li>Satellites orbiting Mars for communication link with Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Additional relay satellites as the mission progresses </li></ul><ul><li>Ad hoc connectivity between surface systems </li></ul><ul><li>Spin-in/spin-off from the mining industry for underground communications and navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Ground-based navigation system (pseudo satellites) </li></ul><ul><li>Future orbital GNSS </li></ul>Far-term communications architecture (Credit: Bashin, NASA) Credit: NASA
    37. 37. EXCLUSIVE: communication with Mars crew [Insert video response from the crew here]
    38. 38. <ul><li>Planetary Protection : </li></ul><ul><li>Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) Planetary Protection Policy (2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to jeopardize scientific investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Earth from potential extraterrestrial hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrumental sterilization and anti-contamination procedures for precursors </li></ul>Scientific Concerns Credit: Mars Daily
    39. 39. Legal implications <ul><li>Relevant Space Treaties : </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Space Treaty (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue Agreement (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Liability Convention (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Registration Convention (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Important Legal Concepts : </li></ul><ul><li>No national appropriation of Martian territory </li></ul><ul><li>Equal right of States to use Martian resources </li></ul><ul><li>States must authorize & supervise private entities </li></ul><ul><li>States are internationally responsible and potentially liable for all national space activities </li></ul>Credit: NASA
    40. 40. Space and Society Stakeholder Matrix Stakeholders Interest Governments Social Impact, Political, Economical, Policy NGO’s Social Impact, Political Space Agencies Science, Technology, Political Large Aerospace Companies Technology, Financial, Economical Small Aerospace Companies Technology, Financial, Economical Private Enterpreneurs Financial, Technology Eng. TaxPayers Social Impact Space Lobbyist organizations Political, Regulatory/Policy Academia Science, Technology, Education Cultural Institution Social impact, Cultural Mass and Social Media Social Impact
    41. 41. Music by Megatrax with Danielle Cormier and Jeffrey Apeldoorn August 27 th , 2039
    42. 42. T-14 months T+6 months T+10 months T+32 months T+36 months T+50 months Alternate Mission Architecture
    43. 43. Alternate Mission Architecture
    44. 44. Conclusions <ul><li>ACCESS Mars assessed the role of caves in an initial Martian settlement and found lava tubes to be feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the benefits from cave utilization, a mission architecture was developed that involved an extended duration and permanent presence. </li></ul>Rationale: Hazard mitigation (radiation, dust storms, meteorites) Thermal stability Lightweight habitat construction Increased scientific output – increased EVA frequency ISRU potential – Access to subsurface resources Presence of lava tubes on Earth and Moon – analogue research
    45. 45. Conclusions CHALLENGES MITIGATION In-Situ Resource Utilization Methods T echnological development (Earth, Moon) Detecting and assessing caves P recursor Mars robotic and orbital missions Unknowns related to caves Study of analogue sites in lava tubes Cave stability P roper roof thickness and lack of surface impacts Psychological effects of cave environment Crew training through analogue missions Mobility in caves Rover and aerial vehicle development Communication and navigation in caves Relay network system Planetary protection and legal considerations International cooperation and discussions
    46. 46. Recommendations <ul><ul><li>Improvements on techniques in detecting and selecting Mars caves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined visual and IR thermal imaging proposed for orbital/aerial detection of caves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased understanding of the sub-surface environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrument sterilization and anti-contamination development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planetary protection development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precursor missions for trade off assessment (Moon, Earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Outreach </li></ul></ul>Further consideration of the role of Mars caves for an initial human settlement
    47. 47. Closing Words
    48. 48. Video introduction
    49. 49. We would like to extend special thanks to NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) for all their support and resources throughout this project Video clips courtesy of NASA Video soundtracks: Theme from Armageddon by Trevor Rabin (Sony) Hoppípolla by Sigur Rós (EMI)
    50. 50. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Thanks To: </li></ul><ul><li> TP Chair René Laufer , (Baylor University /Universität Stuttgart), TP Facilitator Alfonso Davila , (SETI Institute) TP Facilitator Jhony Zaveleta , (NASA Ames Research Center) TP Teaching Associate Beatriz Gallardo , (CTAE ). </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to the following advisors and experts: </li></ul><ul><li>Khalid Al-Ali, Carnegie Mellon University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristina Borrera del Pino, CRISA Astrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penny Boston, New Mexico Tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nathan Brumall, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natalie Cabrol, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axelle Cartier, Excalibur Almaz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Chartres, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ed Chester, CTAE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Clifford, Lunar and Planetary Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Cohen, Northrop Grumman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cassie Conley, NASA HQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Conley, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joy Crisp, Jet Propulsion Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pascale Ehrenfreund, GWU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alberto Fairen, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lauren Fletcher, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Steve Frankel, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthur Guest, MIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Felipe A. Hernandez, Universidad Central Santiago de Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donald James, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dave Kendall, CSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark Kliss, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larry Lemke, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gary Martin, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tahir Merali, International Space University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christopher McKay, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Miller, University of Oklahoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John M. Olson, NASA HQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laurie Peterson, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ricardo Amils Pibernat, Centro de Astrobilogia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florian Selch, Carnegie Mellon University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raj Shea, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael Sims, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Spudis, Lunar and Planetary Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carol Stoker, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Thompson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S. Pete Worden, NASA Ames Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hajime Yano, JAXA </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Acknowledgements Abdul Mohsen Al Husseini Q&A, Editor, Life Science Luis Alvarez Sanchez Konstantinos Antonakopoulos Distant supporter Engineering Jeffrey Apeldoorn Anchor Man, Q&A, Engineering Kenneth Ashford Editor, Interdisciplinary Kutay Deniz Atabay Video Team, Life Sciences Ignacio Barrios Video Team, Physical Science Yasemin Baydaroglu Life Sciences Katherine Bennell Expert Physical Science, Physical Science Jie Chen Engineering Xin Chen Life Sciences Danielle Cormier Anchor Woman, Producer, System Architect Patrick Crowley Casting, Life Sciences Guy de Carufel Physical Science Benoit Deper Engineering Line Drube Q&A, Physical Science Paul Duffy Editor, Life Science Phillip Edwards Video Team, Physical Science Esteban Gutierrez Engineering Olivia Haider Design, Astronaut, Interdisciplinary Ganesh Kumar Hair Shankar Lal Das Video Team, Engineering Carsten Henselowsky Physical Science Daichi Hirano Astronaut, Engineering Tomas Hirmer Director, Editor, Life Science Barry Hogan Editor, Astronaut, Life Sciences Andrea Jaime Albalat Video Team, Life Sciences Elizabeth (Beth) Jens Editor, Astronaut, Life Sciences Iulia Jivanescu Physical Science Aliac Jojaghaian Set Decoration, Engineering Mary Kerrigan Video Team, Poem Writer, Physical Science Yukiko Kodachi Interdisciplinary Sara Langston Editor, Video Team , Interdisciplinary Reggie MacIntosh Design, Steward, Life Sciences Xavier Miguelez Video Team, Design, Engineering Natalie Panek Editor, Stewardess, Life Science Campbell Pegg Interdisciplinary Expert, Engineering Regina Peldszus Design, Video Team, Life Sciences Xiaobo Peng Engineering Antoni Perez Poch Expert Life Sciences, Life Sciences Alexandre Perron Content, Engineering Jiawen Qiu Engineering Pascal Renten Video Team, Life Sciences Joao Ricardo Casting, Engineering Tomas Saraceno Design, Video Team, Life Sciences Felipe Sauceda Producer, Astronaut, System Architect Azam Shaghaghi Varzaghani Weather Reporter, Physical Science Rogan Shimmin Life Sciences Ruben Solaz Engineering Alexandre Sole Video Team, Voice, Life Sciences Rahul Suresh Life Sciences Tatiana Mar Vaquero Escribano Engineering expert, Engineering Marta Vargas Munoz Set Decoration, Engineering Pierre-Damien Vaujour Interdisciplinary Dominic Veillette Engineering Yonatan Winetraub Engineering Oliver Zeile Astronaut, Engineering
    53. 53. “ To develop a mission architecture for an initial settlement on Mars by assessing the feasibility of cave habitation as an alternative to proposed surface-based solutions” Questions and Answers