Visual communication Form and balance: The form of a work of art refers to its composition or structure and it denotes the relationship between component parts. The harmonious blending of the formal elements gives the form its balance. A work is symmetrical when there is an exact correspondence of parts on an axis or dividing line. But balance can also be achieved when non-equivalent elements balance each other. This is known as asymmetrical balance.
Lines Lines appear in different sizes ( thick, thin, long, short ) and shapes (straight, broken, curved ): A straight line can be horizontal, vertical and oblique depending on its position on a plane. A horizontal line appears flat, still, cold; a vertical line , instead, is slender and lively ; a diagonal line suggests instability ; the zigzag line produces a dynamic effec t since it is continually changing. Also the curved line conveys a sensation of movemen t rich of tension. Lines can be c onverging, diverging, intersecting, parallel and perpendicular. The maker of the image combines them in his attempt to communicate the effect of movement.
Shapes When lines enclose a space, they create a shape. Shapes can be regular and irregular; the regular ones are geometric , those irregular are called biomorphic . A shape can express ideas and associations with everyday experiance. Squares, for instance, symbolize stability and symmetry ; rectangles may suggesrt dullness or monotony , the circle stands for perfection .
Light Light is the element through which the artist emphasizes shapes, colours and space. It can be cool, warm, harsh, bright, dim, faint, reflected. Even the direction of llight influences our perception of an image. When the light comes from the front, the picture lacks in contrast, it appears clear but flat; light from the side gives idea of tridimensionality making the image more expressive because of the light and shade effects; light from above creates short and violent shades.
Colour 1 Colour defines the shape and outline of objects, it communicates feelings and evokes sensations, emotions and moods. There are primary, secondary and tertiary colours. Primary colours are red yellow and blue Secondary colours are a mixture of primary colours: yellow and blue produce green, red and yellow give orange, blue and red create violet. Tertiary cololours are obtained combining a primary with a secondary colour and their number is unlimited.
Colour can be warm, cool, bright, light, dark, fading; its perception varies depending on the viewer's psychological associations. For example black is generally associated with the idea of death and evil; white with innocence and purity ; red with passion, life and love; blue with infinity and serenity ; green with life and hope; yellow with royalty.
Texture Texture refers to the surface characteristics of an object or material – canvas, marble, paint – which is the artist's medium. These are usually described as rough or polished, hard or soft, firm or fluffy, coarse or finew, cold or warm, shiny or matt. Texture is associated with the sense of touch and indirectly with sight.