Simple machines slide show 2012

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Simple machines slide show 2012

  1. 1. Simple Machines
  2. 2. What are the 6 simple machines? • •Wedge •Screw Inclined plane • Wheel & Axle • •Pulley Lever
  3. 3. MACHINE • Def: A device that allows you to do work in a way that is easier. • Sent.: They have agreed to rely primarily on the use of the six simple machines to accomplish their mission.
  4. 4. MACHINE • • Discuss in your group different Sp: máquina machines.
  5. 5. HOW DOES A MACHINE MAKE WORK EASIER? • Change the amount of force you exert • Change the distance over which you exert your force. • Change the direction in which you exert your force.
  6. 6. INPUT FORCE • Def.: The force exerted on a machine • Sent.: Machines such as the car jack, the ramp, the crow bar, and the claw hammer make work easier by making the output force greater than the input force. • Sp.: fuerza aplicada
  7. 7. OUTPUT FORCE • Def.: The force exerted on an object by a machine. • Sent.: Machines such as the car jack, the ramp, the crow bar, and the claw hammer make work easier by making the output force greater than the input force. • Sp.: fuerza desarrollada
  8. 8. INPUT WORK • Def.: The work done on a machine as the input force acts through the input distance. • Sent.: For such an ideal machine, the input work would equal the output work. • Sp.: trabajo aportado
  9. 9. OUTPUT WORK • Def.: The work done by a machine as the output force acts through the output distance. • Sent.: For such an ideal machine, the input work would equal the output work. • Sp.: trabajo producido
  10. 10. MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE • Def.: Number of times a machine increases a force exerted on it. • Sent.: The mechanical advantage of a machine without friction is called the ideal mechanical advantage, or IMA. • Sp.: ventaja mecánica
  11. 11. Mechanical Advantage = Output force ÷ Input force
  12. 12. If the machine increases force then the mechanical advantage will be greater than 1.
  13. 13. If the machine increases distance then the mechanical advantage will be less than 1.
  14. 14. If the machine changes the direction then the mechanical advantage will be 1.
  15. 15. Simple Machines
  16. 16. Inclined Plane
  17. 17. Inclined Plane • Def.: Flat, sloped surface • Sent.: An inclined plane allows you to exert your input force over a longer distance. • Sp.: plano inclinado • Discuss with your table different types of ramps.
  18. 18. Inclined Plane • How it works: increases the distance the input force has to go. • IMA = length of incline ÷ height of incline
  19. 19. Direct Relationship • Def.: When both variable either increase or decrease • Sent.: Is the relationship direct or indirect? • Sp.: relación directa
  20. 20. Indirect Relationship • Def.: When one variable increases, the other decreases • Sent.: Is the relationship direct or indirect? • Sp.: relación indirecta
  21. 21. Wedge
  22. 22. Taper • Def.: to become smaller or thinner toward one end. . • Sent.: A wedge is a device that is thick on one end and tapers to a thin edge on the other end • Sp.: disminución gradua • What are different things that taper?
  23. 23. Wedge • Def.: a device that is thick on one end and tapers to a thin edge on the other end. • Sent.: That force pushes the wedge down into the wood. • Sp.: cuña • With your table make a list of at least 5 different wedges. Raise your hand when you have your list.
  24. 24. Wedge • Two inclined planes back to back • How it works: The wedge moves exerting an output force at a 90° angle • IMA = length of wedge ÷ width of wedge
  25. 25. Screw
  26. 26. Thread • Def.: a helical groove in a cylindrical hole ( female thread ), formed by a tap or lathe tool, or a helical ridge on a cylindrical bar, rod, shank, etc ( male thread ), formed by a die or lathe tool • Kid def.: A twisting raised area around a cylinder or inside a round hole.
  27. 27. Thread • Sent.: Record the effort force, the distance lifted and the thread density for 5 tests • Sp.: tema • Discussion: Is a screw with threads closer together have a higher or lower thread density?
  28. 28. • Screw Def.: An inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder creating spirals called threads. • Sent.: Like a wedge, a screw is a simple machine that is related to the inclined plane. • Sp.: tornillo • Discussion: Are there different types of screws? If so, what are they?
  29. 29. Screw • How it works: Threads increase the distance over which you exert input force. • The output force pulls the screw into the material. Friction holds it in place. • IMA = length around the threads ÷ length of screw
  30. 30. Levers
  31. 31. Lever • Def: A rigid bar that is free to pivot (rotate.) • Kid Def.: A stiff bar that can rotate freely • Sent.: What are the advantages of using a lever to lift this stone? • Sp.: palanca • Disc.: What levers do you use every day?
  32. 32. Fulcrum • Def.: The fixed point that a lever pivots around. • Sent.: Predict fulcrum placements which will not be successful. • Sp.: fulcro • Disc.: What types of things can be a fulcrum?
  33. 33. 3 Types of Levers
  34. 34. 1st Class Lever • How it works: Changes direction of input force • If fulcrum is closer to output force, also increases force. • If fulcrum is closer to input force, also increases distance. • Calculating IMA:
  35. 35. 1st Class Lever • Ex. paint can opener, scissors
  36. 36. 2nd Class Lever • How it works: Increases force but doesn’t change direction. • Calculating IMA:
  37. 37. 2nd Class Lever • Ex.: Wheel barrow, doors, nutcrackers
  38. 38. 3rd Class Lever • How it works: Increases distance but doesn’t change direction. • Calculating IMA:
  39. 39. 3rd Class Lever • Ex. Hockey stick, shovel, fishing pole
  40. 40. Wheel & Axle
  41. 41. Radius • Def.: a straight line extending from the center of a circle or sphere to the circumference or surface • Sent.: As the radius of the wheel increases, what happens to its circumference? • Sp.: radio
  42. 42. Regulate • Def.:  To control or direct according to rule, principle, or law. • Sent.: The crew's final task at this location is to construct a device to regulate the flow of water through the irrigation canals. • Sp.: ajustar
  43. 43. Wheel & Axle • Def.: Made of 2 circular/cylindrical objects fastened together that rotate around a common axis. • Object with larger radius is wheel, and smaller radius is axle.
  44. 44. Wheel & Axle • How it works: Increases your force by going a longer distance. • Calculating IMA: IMA = radius of wheel ÷ radius of axle • Ex.: door knob, car wheel & axle, steering wheel, windmill, water wheel
  45. 45. Wheel & Axle
  46. 46. Pulleys
  47. 47. Pulleys • Def.: A grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it. • Sent.: As the number of supporting ropes on the pulley increases, what happens to the length of rope that must be pulled to lift the stone into place? • Sp.: polea • Disc.: What pulleys have you seen?
  48. 48. Pulleys • How it works: Pulling on rope (input force )causes an object to move up. • It can decrease the amount of input force needed and it can change direction of input force. • IMA = number of sections of rope that support object
  49. 49. Types of Pulleys • Fixed – • How it works: changes direction of the force • Def.: Pulley is attached to an object • IMA = 1
  50. 50. Types of Pulleys • Movable – • How it works: decreases amount of input force needed, doesn’t change direction • Pulley isn’t attached • IMA = 2
  51. 51. Types of Pulleys • Block and Tackle – • Def.: made of fixed and moveable pulleys • How it works: Decreases amount of input force needed • IMA = 3
  52. 52. Compound Machines • Def.: A machine that utilizes two or more simple machines. • IMA = product of the individual IMA of each simple machine that makes up compound machine.
  53. 53. Simple Machines in the Body • At joints are levers - muscles are input force, and output force does the work • Teeth are wedges

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