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IDoT: How to find a thing - Discovery in IoT

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This IDentities of Things Discussion Group (IDoT DG) presentation discusses the challenges of performing "discover" in the identity management layer of IoT.

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IDoT: How to find a thing - Discovery in IoT

  1. 1. How to find a Thing? Discussion of an Object Name Service within the Identities of Things Discussion Group September, 2014 Ingo Friese; T-Labs DTAG, Matteo Signorini; Excalibur
  2. 2. Exemplary IoT Scenario: Fleet management in farming industry. *by courtesy of Claas
  3. 3. Exemplary IoT Scenario: Support of farming production processes. Harvesting Transport Processing
  4. 4. What’s the problem? ”All participants of the scenario use different ID from different domains and namespaces”. serial no. e.g. #234.36635.234 License plate e.g. “B-BA 1254” CAN-Bus Id ”11011001110”
  5. 5. What’s the problem? ”One machine needs to communicate with a another machine from another company”. serial no. e.g. #234.36635.234 License plate e.g. “B-BA 1254” CAN-Bus Id ”11011001110” Example: The harvester needs to communicate with the truck in order to tell him when and where to take over the crop. The truck might ask asks: „I need a connection with the harvester over there/ on this field/in this campaign“….but I don‘t know its address and I even don‘t know anything about its address scheme“.
  6. 6. What’s the idea? Apart from characteristics and features things have “relationships”. TThhiningg manufactured by owned by sold by used as shipped by located at used by
  7. 7. How to find a Thing? With a sufficient knowledge of the relationship a thing might be identified quite well. manufactured by Claas owned by Farmer Tom sold by „Farm Machines Inc.“ Network connected by IP 121.23.45.55 used in campaign xyz Located at GPS position 34’23‘‘/45’77‘‘ /Toms field driven by Ingo
  8. 8. How to find a Thing? A relationship can be seen as a graph described in detail with attributes. EEnntittiyty rerelalatitoionnsshhipip EEnntittiyty atatrttibriubtuete manufactured manufactured CClalaaass by by sesreiarila nl ono
  9. 9. How to find a Thing? A hierarchy structure can be defined among attributes. MMaannuufafacctuturreedd b byy CClalaaass DDeeuutztz F Faahhrr ...... ...... ...... ...... Relationship / Attribute ID Attribute classes Each attribute can be sub-divided into a multiple levels hierarchy. The more the number of levels the higher the probability to uniquely identify a device.
  10. 10. How to find a Thing? A hierarchy structure can be represented by a graph. Manufactured by Claas Deutz Fahr ... ... ... ... Attribute ID Attribute classes The hierarchycal attribute structure can be depicted as a graph with each node representing an attribute class.
  11. 11. How to find a Thing? Circular hierarchical architecture. MMaannuufafacctuturreedd b byy ... ... OOwwnneedd b byy ... ... LLooccaatetedd a att ... ... UUsseedd a ass ... ...
  12. 12. How to find a Thing? Device identification precision Higher the number and the precision level of each attribute class and higher the probability to uniquely identify a device
  13. 13. How to find a Thing? Graph representation of the database Attributes Attributes Devices Devices
  14. 14. How to find a Thing? Say it in RDF (or other formats) and put it to a graph data base. manufactured by Claas owned by Farmer Tom sold by „Farm Machines Inc.“ used as corn harvester shipped by MAX-Transport Located at GPS position 34’23‘‘/45’77‘‘ /Toms field driven by Ingo harvester --manufactured by-> Claas harvester --driven by-> Ingo harvester --owned by-> Farmer Tom harvester --sold by-> Farm Machines Inc. harvester --network connected by-> IP 121.23.45.55 harvester --located at-> 34’23‘‘/45’77‘‘ /Toms field GGrraapphh d daatata b baassee
  15. 15. How to find a Thing? Ask the database. Now the truck might ask the data base: I’m looking for a “device” manufactured by Claas owned by Farmer Tom sold by „Farm Machines Inc.“ used as corn harvester shipped by MAX-Transport Located at GPS position 34’23‘‘/45’77‘‘ /Toms field driven by Ingo manufactured by -> Claas owned by -> Farmer Tom driven by -> Ingo GGrraapphh d daatata b baassee
  16. 16. How to find a Thing? Graph-based name resolve process. harvester --manufactured by-> Claas harvester --owned by-> Farmer Tom harvester --manufactured by-> Claas harvester --owned by-> Farmer Tom harvester --driven by-> Ingo
  17. 17. The idea of using relationships is not new. See NIST Spec for Asset Identification. Source: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistir/ir7693/NISTIR-7693.pdf
  18. 18. It's a kind of search engine and DNS. What’s the difference to a “Web-style search engine”. Classic “Google approach” Fed through web-crawling Up to many thousand results Owned / controlled by one company Information is not controlled by the owner of a web-site Our approach Automatically fed by the devices themself Quality of the name-resolve query process strictly dependent by the number and precision of attributes used in the query The query process can be additionally refined if necessary Ownership is distributed A „thing owner“ is able to control who is able to find his device
  19. 19. How to find a Thing. Open Issues and next steps:  How to design the distribution of the system?  Global but also local communities, companies might offer this service How can the interact?  Do we need ontologies to describe attribute hierarchies?  What is the organizational framework?  Do we need something like IANA as an steering organization?  How to ensure privacy?  We can restrict requests in several ways. (e.g. if you ask for a certain machine you have to show your identity)  How to ensure non-repudiation of the relationship data?  We store e.g. transactions or events belonging to a certain thing(key word blog-chains etc.)  How to build an business on top of it?  A special indicator might show how „expensive“ the requested data/or computing power is (keyword: smart contracts).
  20. 20. Identities of Things Discussion Group IDoT
  21. 21. Identities of Things Discussion Group Current Members.
  22. 22. Identities of Things Discussion Group Become a member. •No formal burdens in Kantara Initiative •Rather hands on work •No membership fees apply for working in a DG •Just sign GPA: http://signup.kantarainitiative.org/?selectedGroup=34 •Agenda and more: http://kantarainitiative.org/groups/idot/ Let‘s work together on an interesting and most relevant topic. Join IDoT DG in Kantara Initiative!
  23. 23. Questions?

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