Research Article      Perceived Training Needs of Dair y Farmers Regarding       erceived Training                  Farmer...
Training Needs of Dairy Farmersis very prevalent especially goat, sheep and          randomly selected villages. Responden...
B.P.S.Rajput et al.to secondary or metric, 11.25 per cent were              Distribution of the farmers according to their...
Training Needs of Dairy Farmers(75.00%) felt medium level of training needs             Distribution of different categori...
B.P.S.Rajput et al.             Table 3: Distribution of different categories of farmers in major areas of dairy          ...
Training Needs of Dairy FarmersTable 4: Relationship of perceived training needs       of Bundelkhand.         with select...
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  1. 1. Research Article Perceived Training Needs of Dair y Farmers Regarding erceived Training Farmers Regar egarding Farming Practices Relation Improved Dair y Farming Practices and its Relation with Traits Region their Socio -economic Traits in Bundelkhand Region B. P. S. Rajput1, N.C. Sahu2, Kamala Kant 3 and Ram Kumar4 National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana) The study was conducted in Bundelkhand region in 2010. Hamirpur district of Uttar Pradesh and Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh were selected purposively. 160 respondents were included for investigation. The data was collected by personal interview schedule and collected data was scored, tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that marginal farmers shown maximum perceived training needs in fodder production (77.23%) followed by Small farmers reporting to have highest perceived training in management (76.17%), semi- medium farmers in the area of fodder production (73.10%), however Medium farmers had shown maximum perceived training needs in the area of management (71.68%), Large farmers had maximum perceived training needs in the area of health-care (78.33%). In case of all categories, farmers had maximum perceived training needs in healthcare followed by fodder production, management, feeding and breeding, respectively. Correlation test showed that social participation, extension contact, mass media exposure and knowledge of respondent were negatively significant with perceived training needs at 5% level of significance in relation to improved dairy farming practices. The results of the study will help the Extension agencies to develop suitable training programmes and strategies for the dairy farmers, livestock development department in planning the development programmes for livestock keepers in the area of Bundelkhand. Keywords: Dairy farmers, improved dairy farming and perceived training needsINTRODUCTION or wheat in term of values of output, milk is now the single largest agricultural commodityI n the present scenario, characterized by increasing population pressure on land, in India (Bhasin, 2008). Bovine and smallfragmentation of land holding by the application ruminants rearing are an integral part ofof succession laws, and higher degree of risk agrigarian economy of Bundelkhand andand uncertainty in crop production, the role of contribute significantly to the livelihood of farmersanimal husbandry and dairying becomes more especially women headed, landless and smallvital in supplementing the family income and farmers. Crop cultivation and animal rearinggenerating gainful employment to the weaker alone constitutes more than 90% of the overallsection of society, particularly to small, marginal livelihood. Animal Husbandry and dairying playfarmers and landless agriculture labours. By far, a major role in farmer economy here but thethe most significant aspect of this sector is the yielding capacity of animals is very poor due torole played by it in improving the economic lot poor breeding, feeding and management. Theof million of rural families, as it provides total population of livestock and poultry is 5.85insurance against crop failure, besides generating million. Cattle population is double of goat ora regular source of income and employment. buffalo population but cross bred cattle accountAccording to the estimates of the central for only 0.5 per cent against the National averagestatistical organization, the value of output from of about 15 per cent non-descript indigenouslivestock was about Rs. 1, 73,350 crore at current cattle of very low productivity account for majorprices in 2005-2006. Milk accounted for 68 population (Livestock census, 2003). In thispercent of this output. It was higher than paddy region free range grazing system (stray animal) 1. Veterinary Officer, Uttar Pradesh, 2&3. Ph.D. Scholars, Dairy Extension, NDRI, Karnal and 4. Head and Principal Scientist, Dairy Extension Division, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana2012-055 Received:April 2012; Accepted:July 2012 342
  2. 2. Training Needs of Dairy Farmersis very prevalent especially goat, sheep and randomly selected villages. Respondents wereindigenous cattle. Stall feeding is limited only the active member and the decision maker aboutto buffalo, basically in irrigated area. dairy farming in their family. The relevantUndernourishment during recent drought of 4 variables for the present study were selectedyears has made the bovine population relatively on the basis of extensive review of literature,infertile. Dairy animals possess long dry period consultation with scientists and also based onand calving interval. Due to improper or theoretical relationship. The information wasunderfeeding they become infertile leading gleaned through well structured and pre-testedunproductiveness. There may be many reasons interview schedule by interviewing the dairyassociated with each problem but the common farmers. To determine training needs, schedulereasons behind all problems is the lack of was developed. These were determined with thetraining in production (breeding, feeding, help of three points continuum, viz., seriouslyhealthcare and disease management) and needed, needed and not needed at all withprocessing , marketing and finances related to respective scores of 2 , 1 and 0. Perceiveddairy farming. Without the training no one able training needs of individual practices wereto adopt latest technologies for dairy development, determined after taking in to consideration itsonly training can help in the improvement of respective obtained score. On the basis ofdairy farming practices to boost up farmers perceived training need score, all respondentsknowledge, skill, attitude, and value for making were categorized in to three groups, viz., lowa better improvement for better living. It has medium and high by using mean and standardbeen proved that maximum milk production could deviation. To measure the extent of trainingbe achieved if all the recommended dairy practices needs training needs index was calculated bywere adopted. (Raut and Chole, 1991). Training following formula:can play a pivotal role in increasing individuals Total obtained scoreknowledge, skill, attitude and values which in Perceived trainingturn will prompt farmers to adopt latest needs index = ---------------------------------x 100technologies in dairy farming. Keeping this in Maximum obtainable scoremind, therefore, an effort was made throughthis study to find out "Perceived Training Needs The statistical analysis of tabulated data wasof Dairy Farmers Regarding Improved Dairy done to establish the relationship of selectedFarming Practices and its relation with their traits of dairy farmers with perceived trainingSocio-economic Traits". needs.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe study was conducted in two districts of In the present study a perceived training needBundelkhand region, Hamirpur district of UP refers to training need perceived by farmersregion and Chhatarpur district of MP region. themselves in improved dairy farming practices.Both the districts were purposely selected because Selected Socio-economic traits of theof rich in livestock population. Two blocks from respondentseach district viz; Rath and Gohand blocks from An attempt was made to describe briefly theHamirpur district and Chhatarpur and Naugoan different trait of farmers taken as respondentsblocks from Chhatarpur district were selected for this study. Table-1 presented the summaryrandomly. All blocks are having more or less of the profile of the farmers.same demographic features, cultural system, Majority (52.50%) of the dairy farmers belongedand agricultural situation. Two villages from to middle age group ranging from 36 to 50 yearseach block were selected randomly. Twenty of age followed by the category of old (>50 yrs)respondents, on the basis of land holding & who and young (<36 yrs) which accounted for 16.88were having at least one milch animal were per cent and 30.63 per cent respectively. 14.38selected by proportionate stratified random percent of the respondents were illiterate, 13.75sampling. Complete enumeration was done of per cent were functionally literate, 10.00 perrandomly selected villages. Total 160 respondents cent were educated up to primary, 25.00 perwere selected proportionally from the eight cent up to middle level, 14.38 per cent were up 343 Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4), 2012
  3. 3. B.P.S.Rajput et al.to secondary or metric, 11.25 per cent were Distribution of the farmers according to theireducated up to higher secondary level and only perceived training needs in major areas of dairy11.25 per cent were graduate and above. The farmingstudy showed that majority of dairy farmers, i.e., The given Table 2 revealed that in breeding(69.37%) belonged to medium category followed area maximum numbers of farmers, i.e., (81.87%)by large (17.50%) and small (13.12%) respectively. were in medium category of perceived trainingMajority 91.88 per cent of the respondents were needs followed by 10.00 and 8.13 per cent inhaving no membership in any organization high and low categories of perceived trainingfollowed by 5.00 per cent who were members of needs respectively. Although perceived trainingtwo organizations and 2.50 per cent were needs regarding breeding was medium but mostmembers in one organisations & only 0.63 of the respondents reared indigenous breed. Thepercent were members of three organisations. reason behind it may be, semen for A.I. was notThis implied that the social participation of the available required quantity and timely, most ofrespondent was low. More than 50.00 per cent the farmers were dependent on natural service.of member (56.87%) belonged to the medium In case of feeding most of the farmers (83.75%)category of milk production whereas, only 1.87 felt medium level training needs followed by 17.50per cent was in the high category of milk and 11.25 per cent in low and high level of trainingproduction. Most of the dairy farmers (75.00%) needs categories respectively. Most of the farmerswere found selling less than one litre of milk preferred training need in urea treatmentdaily. Majority i.e.70.62 per cent farmers had technology to increase nutritive value of theirlow extension contact whereas 73.12 per cent wheat straw and "preparation of balance ration".farmers had high level of mass media exposure. In the area of management most of the farmers Table 1: Selected socio-economic traits of the respondents (n=160) Characteristics Categories Respondents Frequency Percentage Age (in years) Low(<36) 49 30.63 Medium(36-50) 84 52.50 High(>50) 27 16.88 Education Illiterate 23 14.38 Functionally literate 22 13.75 Primary 16 10.00 Middle 40 25.00 Secondary (up to metric) 23 14.38 Higher secondary (up to 12th ) 18 11.25 Graduate and above 18 11.25 Social participation No membership 147 91.88 Membership of one organisation 4 2.50 Membership of two organisations 8 5.00 Membership of three organisations 1 0.63 Milk production (litres) Low (<2.27) 66 41.25 Medium (2.27-6.34) 91 56.87 High (>6.34) 3 1.87 Milk sale (lit/day) Low (<1) 120 75.00 Medium (1-2) 28 17.50 High (>2) 12 7.50 Extension contact Low (<1.8) 113 70.62 Medium (1.8-3.26) 26 16.25 High (>3.26) 21 13.13 Mass media exposure Low (<5.11) 17 10.62 Medium (5.11-8.61) 26 16.26 High (>8.61) 117 73.12 344
  4. 4. Training Needs of Dairy Farmers(75.00%) felt medium level of training needs Distribution of different categories of farmersfollowed by 17.50 and 7.50 per cent low and high in major areas of dairy farming related withlevel training needs categories respectively. perceived training needsIn case of health care, it is obvious from Table Table 3 revealed that marginal farmers hadthat majority of the farmers (77.50%) felt medium maximum perceived training needs in fodderlevel of training needs followed by 11.25 and production (77.23%) followed by management11.25 percent in low and high level of training (76.56%), feeding (76.34%), health-care (75.63%)need categories respectively. Fodder production and breeding (71.25%), respectively.was the area in which, 75.63 per cent of farmers Small farmers had maximum perceived trainingwere in medium level of perceived training need in management (76.17%) followed by health-carein comparison to other areas. In this area, (76.05%), fodder production (75.00%), feedingfarmers who felt low training needs were 6.88 (72.74%) and in breeding (72.11%), respectively.per cent. Only 17.50 per cent farmers felt high Semi-medium farmers had maximum perceivedlevel of training needs. training need in the area of fodder productionThese findings are in line with those of Asif (73.10%) followed by health-care (72.98%), feeding(2006) and Lal (2004) related to improved dairy (71.58%), management (71.28%) and breedingfarming practices. Asif (2006) revealed that (64.68%) respectively. Medium farmers hadmajority of the respondents (70.31%) fall in maximum perceived training needs in the areamedium training needs category followed by low of management (71.68%) followed by health-caretraining needs (21.88%) and high training needs (71.61%), feeding (71.43%), fodder production(7.81%) respondents whereas Lal (2004) found (70.28%) and breeding (65.48%), respectively.that the majority of the respondents were in Large farmers had maximum perceived trainingmedium and low level of knowledge in breeding, needs in the area of health-care with thefeeding, management and health care. Therefore percentage of (78.33%) followed by managementhe concluded that there was a training need of (73.61%), fodder production (72.62%), feedingthe respondents in all areas i.e. breeding, feeding, (70.83%), and breeding (68.33%) respectively.management and health care. In case of all categories, farmers had maximum Table 2: Distribution of respondents according to Perceived training needs (n=160) Perceived training need Category Respondents Frequency Percentage Breeding Low (<5.50) 13 8.12 Medium (5.50-8.14) 131 81.87 High (>8.14) 16 10.00 Feeding Low (<8.89) 8 5.00 Medium (8,89-11.38) 134 83.75 High (>11.38) 18 11.25 Management Low (<11.44) 28 17.50 Medium (11.44-15.11) 120 75.00 High (>15.11) 12 7.50 Health-care Low (<6.36) 18 11.25 Medium (6.36-8.51) 124 77.50 High (>8.51) 18 11.25 Fodder production Low (<8.98) 11 6.88 Medium (8.98-11.69) 121 75.63 High (>11.69) 28 17.50 POOLED Low (<43.16) 23 14.38 Medium (43.16-52.92) 118 73.75 High (>52.92) 19 11.88 345 Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4), 2012
  5. 5. B.P.S.Rajput et al. Table 3: Distribution of different categories of farmers in major areas of dairy farming related with perceived training needs (n=160) Farmers category Breeding Feeding Management Health Fodder Pooled Marginal 71.25 76.34 76.56 75.63 77.23 75.71 Small 72.11 72.74 76.17 76.05 75.00 74.56 Semi-Medium 64.68 71.58 71.28 72.98 73.10 70.99 Medium 65.48 71.43 71.68 71.61 70.28 70.38 Large 68.33 70.83 73.61 78.33 72.62 72.73 Pooled 68.19 72.72 73.75 74.38 73.79 72.79perceived training needs in health care followed was reported to be highest by the pooled sampleby fodder production, management, feeding and of dairy farmers, followed by knowledge andbreeding, respectively. Whereas, maximum diagnosis of common disease and first aidtraining needs was required by marginal farmers treatment of common ailment respectively. Thefollowed by small, large, semi-medium and similar trend was found in case of marginal,medium dairy farmers, respectively. small, semi-medium, medium and large farmers.In the field of breeding, training needs about However the maximum percentages of trainingknowledge of high yielding breeds and their in all aspects of health- care were perceived inselection was reported to be highest by the pooled large, marginal, and small farmers.sample of dairy farmers, followed by artificial The training regarding fodder production,insemination and identification of heat symptoms preservation of green fodder was reported to bein animals. Almost the same trend was found highest by the pooled sample of dairy farmers,in case of all marginal, small, semi-medium, followed by crop rotation for availability of greenmedium and large categories of dairy farmers. fodder round the year and knowledge about theHowever the maximum percentage of training high yielding fodder crops respectively. The almostneeds in all aspects of breeding practices were same trend was found in marginal, small, semi-perceived by marginal and small farmers. medium and large farmers. However theThe training regarding feeding, feeding of mineral maximum percentages of training in all aspectsmixture and legumes was reported to be highest of fodder production were perceived in large, smallby the pooled sample of dairy farmers, followed and semi-medium farmerby balance feed and its composition and time of Relational analysisfeeding in animals. The same trend was found The results in the Table-4 revealed that educationin case of all marginal, small, semi-medium, is negatively and significantly correlated withmedium and large categories of dairy farmers. perceived training needs at 1% level ofHowever the maximum percentage of training significance, Social participation, extensionneeds in all aspects of feeding practices were contact, mass media exposure, and knowledgeperceived in marginal, large and small farmers. of respondent are negative and significantlyThe training needs regarding management, correlated with perceived training needs atkeeping records of milk production was reported 5%level of significance in relation to improvedto be highest by the pooled sample of dairy farmers, dairy farming practices.followed by dewarming of the animals and care CONCLUSIONSat time of calving respectively. The almost same On the whole it could be concluded that thetrend was found in case of marginal, small, semi- majority of the farmers were under mediummedium, medium and large farmers. However category of perceived training needs regardingthe maximum percentages of training in all improved dairy farming practices. The maximumaspects of management were perceived in large, extent of perceived training needs regardingmedium and marginal farmers. improved dairy farming practices was found inThe training needs regarding health-care, Marginal farmers and was minimum in mediumectoparasite and endoparasite control in animals categories of farmers. Finally, it was extracted 346
  6. 6. Training Needs of Dairy FarmersTable 4: Relationship of perceived training needs of Bundelkhand. with selected traits of farmers (n=160) REFERENCES Anonymous, 2003. "Livestock census". Department of Traits Correlation Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Age of respondent 0.0280 Agriculture, Government of India. Education of respondent -0.1838* Asif, M. 2006. Study of perceived training needs of the Social participation -0.2082** dairy entrepreneurs of Murshidabad district of West Extension Contact -0.3251** Bengal. M.Sc. Thesis, (Unpublished) NDRI, Karnal. Mass Media Exposure -0.2699** Bhasin, N. R. 2008. Presidents desk. Indian Dairyman, Knowledge of respondent -0.4114** 60(11):3-5. **significant at 1% level * significant at 5%level Lal, B. 2004. Impact of K.V.K. training programme on knowledge and attitude of farmers in improved dairy farming practices. M.Sc. Thesis, (Unpublished) NDRI,that to enable the farmers acquiring the Karnal.knowledge on improved dairy farming practices, Raut, V.S. and Chole, R.R. 1991. Training needs ofthere must be emphasis on the Extension scheduled caste farmers. Abstract of a Seminar onagencies to develop suitable training programmes Training for Rural Development: Prospects and Retrospects, Nov.22-23, Organized by MSEE and K.K.and strategies for the dairy farmers, livestock Vidyapeeth, Dapoli: 12.development department in planning the Report, 2008. Inter-Ministerial Central Team ondevelopment programmes for livestock keepers Drought Mitigation for Bundelkhand region of Uttarand perception of training needs of improved Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.dairy farming practices by the farmers in area 347 Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4), 2012

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