Vietnam Prior to U.S. Involvement


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Vietnam Prior to U.S. Involvement

  1. 1. Vietnam Prior to U.S. Involvement
  2. 2. Kansas Standards 1.2 Students will analyze the context under which choices are made and draw conclusions about the motivations and goals of the decision-makers. 3.1 Students will recognize and evaluate significant beliefs, contributions, and ideas of the many diverse peoples and groups and their impact on individuals, communities, states, and nations.
  3. 3. Nine Centuries of Independence 939 Ngo Quyen frees the country by vanquishing Chinese armies after 10 centuries of Chinese rule. 968 Dinh Bo Linh reorganizes the country following the Chinese model. 1010 The Ly dynasty. 1226 Tran dynasty. 1428 The second Ly dynasty. 1524 Beginning of a long period of political instability. While the Ly governs only nominally, a feudal war rages between the Trinh from the North and the Nguyen from the South. 1802 With the help of French mercenaries, the Nguyen dynasty begins. Temple in memory of the first Emperor of the Ly dynasty
  4. 4. 1863 Cambodia becomes a French colony. 1867 The southern part of Vietnam (Cochinchina) becomes a French colony. 1883 The northern part (Tonkin) and the central part (Annam)become French colonies. 1887 Creation of the Indochina Union (Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin, & Cambodia). 1893 Laos becomes a French colony and part of Indochina. French Colonialism Expansion of French colonialism (in blue)
  5. 5. During 6 decades of colonial rule: the French made little effort to develop Indochina. (few roads built, no high schools established) The French generated revenue in four ways: 1. Tax on all males age 18-60 2. Tax sale of opium, alcohol, and salt. 3. Establish a government monopoly on opium. 4. Require each adult male to perform unpaid labor (15-20 days a year-clearing jungles, removing rocks from rivers, etc.). 60 Years of French Rule
  6. 6. 1940 Japan began stationing troops in Indochina, mainly as a staging ground for attacking the Nationalist Chinese regime. 1944 French try to regain Indochina colony. 1945 Japan encouraged each of the SE Asian nations to declare their independence. World War II
  7. 7. 1) Why might Ho Chi Minh have borrowed phrases from the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Rights of Man and the Citizen? 2) According to the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, how were the Vietnamese treated under French Imperial rule? 3) What are some of the Vietnamese grievances against the French? Provide specific examples. 4) Who ruled Vietnam after 1940? Why? 5) How and why did the Vietnamese justify their independence from France? 6) Was Vietnam an independent nation following World War II? Why or why not? Declaration of Independence
  8. 8. • Fought between the French military and the Viet Minh • China and the Soviet Union supplied the Viet Minh: • Food • Money • Arms and ammunitions • Anti-aircraft guns • 2,000 military advisors to train the Viet Minh guerrilla and turn it into a fully organized army • The U.S. supplied the French: • 300,000 small arms • $1 billion toward the military effort – 80% of the French costs First Indochina War 1946-1954 A French Foreign Legion unit patrols in a communist controlled area.
  9. 9. Envoys Probe Indochina Rebellion (1947) Questions to consider: 1)Who is coming to Vietnam? Why is he there? Why is his country concerned with Vietnam? 2)How is the Minister received in the city of Laos? 3)To what do the French compare the Hanoi attack? Why? 4)How does the reporter refer to Vietnam in relation to France? 1947 Universal Newsreel story
  10. 10. Report by the National Security Council on the Position of the U.S. with Respect to Indochina (27 February 1950)  This report by the National Security Council illustrates the U.S. concern about the spread of communism in South East Asia following World War II.  The policy of containment was adopted by the U.S. fairly early on.  “The Problem: To undertake a determination of all practical United States measures to protect its security in Indochina and to prevent the expansion of communist aggression in that area.” Why were the Vietnamese fighting the French? Why did the U.S. get involved?
  11. 11. 1950 • Democratic Republic of Vietnam and China recognized each other diplomatically • The Soviet Union quickly followed • President Harry S Truman countered by recognizing the French puppet government in Vietnam and Taiwan • U.S. feared the Vietnam’s government was a pawn of Communist China and, by extension, Moscow • The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 marked a decisive turning point • U.S. thought that the colonial war in Indochina had transformed into another war for communist expansionism directed by the Soviet Union First Indochina War 1946-1954
  12. 12. War in Indochina Goes On (1953) Questions to consider: 1)Who are the two factions in conflict in this story? 2)What types of weaponry is each side using? 3)The reporter refers to “Indochina’s Hot War.” How is this different from a “Cold War”? 1953 Universal Newsreel story
  13. 13. • 7 May 1954 – French Union garrison surrendered • At the Geneva Conference, the French negotiated a ceasefire agreement with the Viet Minh • Independence was granted to Cambodia, Lao, and Vietnam • Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel pending elections in 1956 • More than 400,000 civilians and soldiers died during the nine years conflict First Indochina War 1946-1954