The left photo shows someLakota boys upon arrival at theCarlisle Indian Industrialschool. The right photo showsthese same boys after spendingsome time at the school.September 14/15 – Quick Write (p. 52)Would these boys have a better future than theirpeers who did not attend the school? What are thepossible costs and the consequences (positive andnegative) of their attending?
The 5 stages of U.S. Indian policy,1789-present• Sovereignty, 1789-1830• Expulsion, 1830-1887• Allotment & Assimilation, 1887-1945• Termination and Relocation, 1945-1961• Self-determination, 1962-present
Sovereignty, 1789-1830• The UnitedStates federalgovernmentmanaged tradeand diplomaticrelations thatinvolved Indiansand their lands.• Natives wererecognized onlyas occupants ofthe land, andnot owners.
The Dawes Act, 1887• Privatization ofreservation land1881 Indians held155,000,000 acres 1890 they held104,000,000 1900 they held77,000,000Allotment & Assimilation, 1887-1945
Education for Extinction:American Indians and theBoarding School Experience,1875-1968
“Kill the Indian and Save the Man”- Captain Richard Henry PrattStated Purpose of BIA Boarding Schools:“Assimilate American Indian children into the American culture byplacing them in institutions where they are forced to reject their ownculture.”
1) Provide Indian children with therudiments of an academic education,including reading, writing, and speakingEnglish.2) Indians needed to be individualized, asreformers felt that tribal life placed moreimportance on the tribal communitythan on the individual.3) “Indian education wasAmericanization.”Intent of Indian Education
Most Native groups often only cuthair in incidents of mourning.The hair cutting at school becamevery symbolicAll but bangs was shaved (including girls). 4-nches of bangs were kept as a “handle” toab when necessary.•Dead as an Indian - reborn as a white man•You are no longer the person you were - you are theperson “we are going to make you.”Haircuts
Do not Contaminate the “Americanization”Change of dress:Usually a uniformChange of language:Indian languages, customs, andreligions were prohibited, and parentalvisits were discouraged.
Boys and girls were subjected to marching drills, to exterminatetheir “innate wildness.”Also subjected to corporal punishment.Students who resisted or refused to conform to school ruleswere kept in the school “jail” or “guardhouse.”Rules & Methods
Children often suffered from eithermalnourishment, which arose fromextreme dietary changes, orundernourishment, due to limitedsupplies of food.Diseases were rampant, because of dietary problems and because ofthe shoddy construction and condition of the school buildings.Consequences
Termination and Relocation, 1945-1961• Less traditional American Indians,congressional leaders, andgovernment administratorsdeveloped a policy that theyhoped would integrate the Indianpopulation with mainstreamAmerica.• They enacted laws to relocateIndians to the nation’s cities.They believed that once Indiansleft the reservation, they wouldhave opportunities for educationand employment—andassimilation.
Self-determination, 1962-present• In 1968, the Indian Civil Right Act was passed. Itrecognized the Indian tribes as sovereign nations withthe federal government.• The Self-Determination andEducational Assistance Act of1975, allowed tribes to have moretribal control over federallysubsidized programs for Indians.• The Indian Child Welfare Act of1978, granted tribal governmentjurisdiction over child custody andadoption on the reservation.