Essential QuestionWhy did the USA and the USSR become Cold Warrivals in the period 1945 to 1949?
• DefinitionCold WarWhat Caused the Cold War?The intense economic, political, andideological rivalry (short of military conflict)after World War II between the Soviet Unionand its satellites and the democraticcountries of the Western world, under theleadership of the United States.
• DefinitionIdeologyThe body of doctrine,myth, belief, etc., thatguides an individual,social movement,institution, class, or largegroup.What Caused the Cold War?
• Origins– The Russian Revolution from1918-1921– The U.S. supported theRoyalists– The Bolsheviks (Communists)never forgotWhat Caused the Cold War?
Prompt: Why did the USA and the USSR becomeCold War rivals in the period 1945 to 1949?• Historians have disagreed over the answer to thisquestion since the Cold War began.• Historians can generally be placed into 4 groups.1. The Traditionalists2. The Revisionists3. The Post Revisionists4. The Post-1991 schoolWhat Caused the Cold War?
1. The Traditionalists• The Soviet Union was toblame for the Cold War• The Cold War was thedirect result of Stalin’saggressive Sovietexpansionism
2. The Revisionists• The U.S. was to blame forthe Cold War• The Cold War was causedby the U.S. trying to keepcountries capitalist fortrade purposes• The U.S. tried to intimidatethe Soviets (the droppingof the Atomic bomb)
• Defined– To stop the spread ofCommunism and theinfluence of the SovietUnion.• Official American policytowards Communism– Allow communism where italready is, but not anyfurther.President Truman2. The Revisionists
• Containment is firstpracticed in 1947 withGreece– Local Communists fightingagainst existing Monarchy– U.S. gives $400 million in aidto help Greece fightCommunistsPresident Truman2. The Revisionists
• Truman Doctrine– “I believe that it must be thepolicy of the United States tosupport free peoples who areresisting attemptedsubjugation by armedminorities or by outsidepressures….We must assistfree peoples to work out theirown destiny in their ownway.” President Truman2. The Revisionists
3. The Post-Revisionists• The Cold War was neither theUSA’s nor the USSR’s fault• The cause was a mutualmisunderstanding of eachother’s motives• The Cold War was an inevitable result of thesituation at the time– 2 superpowers trying to settle “the GermanQuestion”
• “The German Question”How can we prevent Germany from becoming powerful enough toattack its neighbors ever again?– The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin inMay 1945.– They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones ofthe city but were stopped by German democrats.– Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French,and British to their respective zones.3. The Post-Revisionists
Iron CurtainIron Curtain ––A term used byA term used byWinston ChurchillWinston Churchillto describe theto describe theseparating ofseparating ofthe communistthe communistlands of Eastlands of EastEurope from theEurope from thecapitalist West.capitalist West.
4. The Post-1991 school• Inspired by top secret documents uncoveredafter the collapse of communism in Russia• The Cold War was the result of the leaders’personal faults and fanatical beliefs• The Cold War was a clash of ideologies– Primarily a clash between capitalism andcommunism
Competing IdeologiesSoviet &Eastern BlocNations[“IronCurtain”]US & theWesternDemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment”of Communism & theeventual collapse of theCommunist world.[George Kennan]METHODS:1. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]2. Arms Race [nuclear escalation]3. Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of ThirdWorld peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs.Democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”4. Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
GermanyMarshall PlanUnited States sent massive economicaid to European democracies to helprebuildBerlin Crisis & Berlin AirliftRussia blocked land & water supplyroutes into west BerlinFrom June 1948-May 1949, nearly280,000 flights delivered more than 2million tons of goods
GermanyBerlin Wall1961, Berlin, the last place throughwhich Germans could leave EastGermany, was blocked off by the“infamous” Berlin WallThis wall became a symbol of Sovietcontrol
KoreaProxy war, 1950-1953Both North and South Korea wereattempting to re-unify Korea undertheir respective governments.Both sides were supported by externalpowersNorth Korea – Soviet UnionSouth Korea – United States
Iran1951, Dr. Mohammed Mossadeghwas elected prime minister.Mossadegh became enormouslypopular in Iran after he nationalizedIran’s oil reserves.In response, Britain embargoedIranian oil and, amidst Cold Warfears, invited the United States tojoin in a plot to depose Mossadegh.Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh
Iran1953, President Eisenhowerauthorized Operation Ajax.The operation was successful, andMossadegh was arrested on 19 April1953.U.S. replaced Mossadegh withGeneral Mohammad Reza PahlaviRule became increasingly autocratic.With American support, the Shahwas able to rapidly modernizeIranian infrastructure, but hesimultaneously crushed all forms ofpolitical opposition with hisintelligence agency.
Vietnam1954, war to gain independencefrom FranceSplit into North and South bytreatySupposed to hold elections to reunitecountryNorth was Communist, South wasdictatorshipElections didn’t happen and Northattacked southU.S. supported SouthGolf of Tonkin - 1964Anti-War movements in U.S.1975 Vietnam is united underCommunist government
Guatemala1954, a freely electedGuatemalan leader, JacoboArbenz, is overthrown in a couporchestrated by the U.S. CentralIntelligence Agency (CIA).
HungaryFollowing the fall of Nazi Germany,Soviet troops occupied all of the countryand through their influence Hungarygradually became a communist satellitestate of the Soviet Union.The communist rule was nearlyunbearable for Hungary’s war-torncitizens.1956, Hungarian Revolution.The Soviets retaliated massively withmilitary force, sending in over 150,000troops and 2,500 tanks.
CubaFidel Castro leads successful revolution,1959Nationalizes private property (someowned by U.S. citizens andbusinesses)Nationalizes public utilitiesRemoved American citizens from theisland1963, Castro moves toward fully-fledgedCommunist system based on SovietmodelU.S. – diplomatic & commercialembargoCuba forced to trade only with SovietUnion for a time
CubaBay of Pigs InvasionAttempt by U.S. trained force of Cuban exiles to invade south-west Cuba and overthrow the Cuban government of FidelCastro.Planned & funded by U.S. government.The Cuban military defeated the invading force in a matter ofdays and the event accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations.
CubaCuban Missile CrisisU-2 spy plane discovers Sovietmedium-range ballistic missiles inCubaQuarantine of Cuba (stop allshipments)Secret negotiationsU-2 reconnaissance photograph of Sovietnuclear missiles in Cuba. Shown are thetransports and tents for fueling andmaintenance.
Other ThreatsAtomic BombU.S. - 1945Soviet Union - 1949Thought of DeterrenceArms RaceDevelop more Nuclear weaponsthan the other guySpace RaceSoviets first in spaceSputnik I October 4, 1957Americans first on the moonApollo 11 July 21, 1969