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  1. 1. Name ID  Md.Ashaduzzaman 131-15-2392  Md. Ruhul Amin 131-15-2353  Shakir Sourov 131-15-2180  Fdffgfg 131-15-545  Dtfgfg 131-15-njj
  2. 2. An unstable atomic nucleus emits a form of radiation (alpha, beta, or gamma) to become stable. In other words, the nucleus decays into a different atom. 4
  3. 3. Atoms and Radioactivity Isotopes of some elements have unstable nucleus .In order to become stable the make break apart or decay .This decay causes the nucleus to emit ionising radiation, and an atom of a different element is formed . These isotopes are called radioisotopes or radio nuclides Example – using Carbon A normal carbon nucleus looks like this, it has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. This is perfectly stable. Proton Neutron
  4. 4. He4 2  Alpha ( )  helium nucleus paper2+  Beta-minus ( -)  electron e0 -1 1- lead  Gamma ( )  high-energy photon 0 concrete
  5. 5. It is actually the nucleus of a helium atom consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, held tightly together. It comes directly from the nucleus, so only big atoms tend to emit it. It strongly interacts with matter around it, smashing past atoms and ionising them. The alpha radiation, a helium nucleus (2,protons and 2 neutrons). Alpha radiation
  6. 6. Beta Radiation  Is a high speed electron, given off when a neutron turns into a proton  They are many times smaller than alpha radiation  They interact much less strongly with matter Beta radiation, (a high speed electron)
  7. 7. Sometimes a nucleus that is still unstable after a beta or alpha decay is still unstable so may emit gamma radiation to become more stable. This is an electromagnetic wave with a very short wavelength It does not change the number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus Gamma Radiation Gamma Radiation, (a short electromagne tic wave)
  8. 8.  The decay process is random.  No one can predict when 1 nucleus decays.  The emission is spontaneous.  It is possible to make a statistical prediction.
  9. 9. Betas and gammas are the most dangerous  they can penetrate and reach the cells of organs  They are absorbed and ionise the cells  This can cause cancer  Alphas are the least dangerous
  10. 10. The gamma rays they emit can travel long distances without absorption
  11. 11. This has been caused by long exposure to gamma rays
  12. 12.  Alpha radiation is the most dangerous as it is strongly absorbed and ionises cells  Betas and gammas are not strongly absorbed and cause less ionisation damage
  13. 13. Gamma rays are used to kill cancer cells and bacteria
  14. 14. Electricity Generation Sterilization of hospital equipment Checking leaks in pipes Irradiation of food
  15. 15. 19/17 Thank you for your time .