ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS
Kanishk Deep Sharma
Sudden onset of weakness or paralysis over a period of 15 days in a patient aged less than 15 years age
Non enveloped, positive stranded RNA virus
3 antigenically distinct serotypes:-1,2,3
•Entry into mouth.
•Replication in pharynx, GI tract, Local Lymphatic.
•Hematologic spread to lymphatic and central nervous system.
•Viral spread along nerve fibers.
•Destruction of motor neurons
Initially protected by maternal antibodies for first few weeks of life
• Accounts for approximately 95% of cases
• Virus stays in intestinal tract and does not attack the nerves
• Virus is shed in the stool so infected individual is still able to infect others
•Does not lead to paralysis
•Mild symptoms seen such as sore throat, fever, n/v, diarrhea, constipation ( Minor illness)
•Most recover in <1><5><4days />95% immune after 3 doses
Immunity probably lifelong
Inactivated polio vaccine
Humoral immunity and to some extend pharyngeal immunity
Duration of immunity not known with certainty
Strategies for polio eradication
Global Polio Eradication Initiative launched in 1988
Polio cases have decreased by over 99%
1988 - >125 countries
In 2010 - 4 countries
The remaining countries are Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan
High infant immunization coverage with four doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the first year of life
Supplementary doses of OPV to all children under five years of age during national immunization days
AFP surveillance among children under fifteen years of age
Targeted “mop-up” campaigns once wild poliovirus transmission is limited to a specific focal area.
Immunisation in india
Polio Vaccination under UIP
OPV1 6 wks
OPV2 10 wks
OPV3 14 wks
OPV4 16-24 Months
Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI)
The supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in India launched in 1995
Irrespective of the immunisation status
Usually Dec & Jan – Peak transmission
Providing additional OPV doses to every child aged <5><15 years who have had the onset of flaccid paralysis within the preceding 60 days
All cases that are found are investigated immediately, with collection of two stool specimens before administration of OPV.