Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Articles


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Information from the Grammar and Composition Handbook -Grade 10

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Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Articles

  1. 1. Nouns P. 93NOUN= A word that names a person, a place, athing (animals), or an idea. Ex. Bob throws a football with great accuracy at the park.
  2. 2. Practice: Write the following nouns under each category autonomy Mexico rosettes hips responsibilities hope raggedy shoes canteen feet goblet Sally cumulus nuns poverty mango Esperanza sphinx street puberty People Places Things Ideas
  3. 3. Types of Nouns• Singular• Plural• Compound• Concrete• Abstract• Common• Proper• Collective• Possessive
  4. 4. Singular and Plural Nouns P. 93• SINGULAR NOUNS= name one person, place, thing, or idea.• PLURAL NOUNS= name more than one person, place, thing, or idea. – for most nouns add -s – nouns ending in s, ch, sh, x, or z add –es – nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add –es. – for nouns ending with f or fe, change the f to v and add – s or –es. – irregular plurals – nouns that do not change
  5. 5. Practice: Write the plural form of the following words• leaf- leaves • letter ₋ letters• dish- dishes • train ₋ trains• watch- watches • creek ₋ creeks• fly- flies • Glove ₋ Gloves• wolf- wolves • chick ₋ chicks• responsibility-responsibilities • leaf ₋ leaves• foot- feet • shelf ₋ shelves• street- streets • moose₋ moose
  6. 6. P. 95Compound, Concrete, and Abstract Nouns• COMPOUND= a noun made of two or more words. o open: gray fox, press secretary, line of sight o hyphenated: mother-in-law, tenth-grader o closed: folksinger, headlight, postmaster• CONCRETE= names an object that occupies space or can be recognized by any of the senses• ABSTRACT= names an idea, a quality, or a characteristic
  7. 7. Common and Proper Nouns P. 96COMMON= the general name of a person, place, thing, or ideaPROPER= the name of a particular person, place, thing, or idea Practice: Write a proper name for each common noun 1. city ____________________ 2. lake ____________________ 3. day ____________________ 4. athlete ____________________ 5. restaurant ____________________ 6. President ____________________ 7. holiday ____________________ 8. month ____________________ 9. planet ____________________ ____________________
  8. 8. Collective Nouns P. 97COLLECTIVE: singular in form but names a groupPractice: Identify each collective noun. Label it S if it’ssingular and P if it’s plural.1. The decorating committee disagree about everything.2. The couple in the film were Meg Ryan and Tom Hanks.3. The mob is howling outside the gates of the embassy.4. Ideally, a union represents all the workers.5. Every night, the audience gives the play a standing ovation.6. We like to harmonize at out house, and the family sing all the different parts.7. In this story, an entire class decides to volunteer at a homeless shelter.
  9. 9. Possessive Nouns P. 94POSSESSIVE FORM: shows possession , ownership, or thegeneral relationship between two nouns.• Add ’s (apostrophe s) to form the possessive of all singular nouns.• When a plural noun ends with an s or z sound, the possessive may be formed by adding just an apostrophe.EXAMPLE: the lids from the containers the containers’ lids• Add apostrophe and –s to form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in s.
  10. 10. Possessive NounsPractice: Write the possessive form. 1. the benefits of the company the company’s benefits 2. the spoons belong to the ladies the ladies’ spoons 3. the pay of the workers The workers’ pay 4. the music of Coldplay Coldplay’s music 5. the armies of Napoleon Napoleon’s armies
  11. 11. Verbs P.107-108A word that expresses action or state of being and isnecessary to make a statement.• Action Verbs o Transitive: followed by a direct object (answers the questions what or whom) o Intransitive: not followed by a direct object--Thomas Morris, an Australian athlete, once skipped rope fromMelbourne to Adelaide, Australia.--Manuel, the head chef of the finest restaurant in the hotel,baked fourteen different kinds of cakes for the weddingreception.
  12. 12. P.108-109• Linking Verbs does not show action. Links the subject with a noun, pronoun, adjective. *Be in all its forms- am, is, are, was, were- is the most commonly used. Look Remain Seem Became Stay Grow Appear Sound Taste Smell Feel turn• EXAMPLE: The players are ready. The salad tastes good.• Auxiliary Verbs accompanies the main verb may express time or emphasize meaning. Forms of be Am, is, are, was, were, being, been Forms of have Has, have, had, having Other auxiliaries Can, could, do, does, did, may, might, shall, should, Must, will, would• EXAMPLE: We will need vegetables gardens. I should be leaving.
  13. 13. Adjectives P.110-111 A word that modifies a noun or a pronoun by limitingits meaning. An adjective tells what kind, which one, howmany, or how much.Examples: red barn interesting poem these ideas*Possessive (my, our, your, his, her, its, and their) anddemonstrative (this, that, these, and those) pronouns andpossessive nouns (‘s) can also serve as adjectives when theymodify nouns.Examples: my kitten [possessive adjective] those bicycles [demonstrative adj.] Lucy’s report. *possessive noun acting as adj.+ leather shoes [noun acting as adj.]
  14. 14. P.112- 113Adjectives P.110-111Verbs can also serve as adjectives.Examples: a spinning top some burned toastThe adjective can be in various position depending onthe word it modifies.• How suspenseful this movie is!• The movie is suspenseful.• The movie, relentlessly suspenseful, ended suddenly.
  15. 15. P.112- 113Adjectives P.110-111Practice: identify the adjective and the word it modifies1. The shrew is a small, ferocious mammal.2. Delicate white curtains hung at the tall windows of our old house.3. Marcus was not paying close attention, and he fell through the cracked ice on the lake.4. In the empty house, dried flowers hung on the faded yellow wall.5. The flowers are amazingly beautiful in the bright sunlight.
  16. 16. Articles P.113 a, an, thea, an= indefinite articles They can refer to any noun (person, place, thing, or idea) indefinite definiteExample: He found an IPod. He found the IPod. Bryan gave Sandra a ring. Bryan gave Sandra the ring. I have a used computer. I have the used computer.