Classification of fibre


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Classification of fibre

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF FIBRE 1- Natural Fibres 2- Man-made Fibres NATURAL FIBRES 1- VEGETABLE FIBRE [Cellulose Base] Bast  Flax  Hemp  Jute  Ramie Leaf  Maniia  Sisal Seed Hair  Cotton  Kapok 2- ANIMAL FIBRE [Protien Base] Hair  Alpaca  Camel
  2. 2.  Cashmere  Wama  Mohair  Vicuma Wool  Sheep Filament  Silk 3- MINERAL [Asbestos] MAN-MADE FIBRES 1- Organic Natural Polymer Base  Rayon  Lycocell  Acetale  Triacetate Protein Base  Azion Alinginate  Rubber
  3. 3. Synthetic Polymer Base  Acryic  Anidex  Fluorocarbon  Modacrylic  Nylon  Nytri  Olefin  Vinal  Vinyon NATURAL FIBRE Any hair like substance or raw material which is obtainable from a natural element like vegetable, animal and mineral source that can be converted into yarn after spinning and then into fabric. There are various categories of natural fibre:  Plant or Vegetable fibre  Animal Fibre  Minerals Fibre Plant or Vegetable Fibre A fibre which can be obtained from a seed pod, stem or skin of a plant is known as vegetable or plant fibre. Example: cotton, hemp, jute, etc.
  4. 4. Plant fibre’s are cellulosic. Vegetable fibres can be classified as:  Fibre occurring on the seed (rw cotton, java cotton)  Phloem fibre (flax, ramie. Hemp, jute)  Tendon fibre from stem or leaves (minila hemp, sisal hemp etc.)  Fibre occurring around the truck (hemp palm)  Fibre of fruit/ nut shells (coconut fibre – coir) Cotton and Linen are the most important among them. COTTON Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of cotton plant. Cotton fibre grows in the seed pod or boll of the cotton plant. Each fibre is a single elongated cell that is flat twisted and ribbon like with a wide inner hollow (lumer). The composition of cotton fibre is:  90% cellulose, 6% moisture and the remainder fats and impurities.  The outer surface is covered with a protective wax like coating which gives fibre and adhsive quality. Cotton is widely used Textile Fiber in Textile Industry. Due to it’s versatile uses; people feel comfort to use Cotton fiber to make fabric. Here is the basic things about Cotton Fiber. Cotton is a natural vegetable fibre produced in the cotton plant in many countries of the world even in Bangladesh also. Some important properties of cotton fibres are discussed very briefly below:
  5. 5. Properties of Cotton Fibres:  Length of cotton fiber: Physically the individual cotton fibres consist of a single long tubular cell. Its length is about 1200-1500 times than its breadth. Length of cotton fibre varies from 16mm to 52 mm depending upon the type of cotton. Indian cotton- 16-25 mm American cotton- 20-30 mm Sea Island- 38-52 mm Egyptian cotton- 30-38 mm  Fineness of cotton fiber: Longer the fibre, finer the fibre in case of cotton fibre. It is expressed in term of decitex and it varies from 1.1 to2.3 decitex. Indian= 2.2-2.3dtex American= 2.1-2.2 dtex Egyptian= 1.2-1.8 dtex Sea Island= 1.0-1.1 dtex Fineness may be more in case of immature fibre. So it is necessary to express maturity with fineness.  Strength and extension of cotton fiber: Cotton fibre is fairly among natural fibres in relation to tenacity which is 3-3.5g/dtex. Its tensile strength is between wool and silk fibre but disadvantage is low extension at break which is 5-7%.  Elastic properties of cotton: Recovery from deformation of cotton fibre, yarn or fabric from applied load is very low. By applying heat it can’t be achieved. This property can be achieved by -1.Chemical treatment to improve crease recovery, but the problem is the materials become harsher due to chemical treatment 2. blending or mixing of cotton with elastic fibre, e.g. polyester, blend ratio depends on the end use of the fabric. The initial modulus is fairly high=0 5 g/dtex (wool=0.25 g/dtex)
  6. 6.  Cross-section: Cross-section of cotton fibre is some what ribbon like. The cell wall is rather thin and the lumen occupies about two-third of the entire breadth and shows up very prominent in polarized light. Fibre cross-section becomes round when mercerized.  Appearance: Cotton fibre is fairly short, fine and creamy white color. Color of the fibre depends on soil of growth. By adding chemicals in the soil, color of the cotton fibre may be varied.  Crimp: Cotton fibre is more or less twisted on its longitudinal axis which cab not be seen from outside is called convolution. The twist in the fibre does not to be continuous in one direction i.e. if at first right direction, then left direction. This property of cotton fibre helps in spinning.