Chapter03

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object oriented analysis and design with the unified process

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Chapter03

  1. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the elements of project management and the responsibilities of a project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the UP disciplines of business modeling and environment relate to the inception phase </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the project management activities that are done during the inception phase  </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a project schedule using a work breakdown structure (WBS) and PERT and Gantt charts </li></ul>
  2. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Use Microsoft Project to build the project schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a risk analysis of potential project risks  </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a cost/benefit analysis using net present value calculations </li></ul><ul><li>List the key deliverables and activities of the end of the inception phase  </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss three techniques for monitoring and controlling a system development project </li></ul>
  3. 4. Overview <ul><li>Unified Process (UP) development methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of phases, iterations, and disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides framework for project definition and execution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project management: critical support discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management prominent in inception phase </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks include monitoring and controlling projects </li></ul>
  4. 5. Project Management <ul><li>Development project artifacts (products) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a new software system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement or upgrade of an existing system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of software into existing environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projects constrained by schedule and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Project novelty presents great challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different products are produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different activities required for varying schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different resources are used </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Project Success Factors <ul><li>Development projects produce software systems </li></ul><ul><li>Projects are wide ranging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of real-time business applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues complicating project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated business needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating OS, support programs, and new systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project success rate very low: 28 percent as of 2000 </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Role of the Project Manager <ul><li>Project manager coordinates project development </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications in a detailed plan at project inception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities that must take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The deliverables that must be produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project manager accountable for success or failure </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager has internal/external responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Many career paths lead to project management </li></ul>
  7. 8. Figure 3-1 Various Roles of Project Managers
  8. 9. Project Management Knowledge Areas <ul><li>The Project Management Institute (PMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional organization promotes project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMI provides extensive support material and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines specialist’s body of knowledge (BOK) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PMBOK organized into nine knowledge areas </li></ul><ul><li>PMBOK principles to be applied to iteration activities  </li></ul>
  9. 10. Project Management within the Unified Process <ul><li>Project management is a support business discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Project management tasks prominent at inception </li></ul><ul><li>Other important disciplines of inception phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Figure 3-2 UP Phases and Iterations with Disciplines
  11. 12. The Unified Process and the Inception Phase <ul><li>Inception phase of the UP has (5) objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the business need for the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish the vision for the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify scope of the new system and the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop preliminary schedules and cost estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the business case for the project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inception phase may be completed in one iteration </li></ul>
  12. 13. Business Modeling and the Inception Phase <ul><li>Primary purpose: understand business needs </li></ul><ul><li>Chief activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the business environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the system vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create business models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business modeling interwoven with requirements </li></ul>
  13. 14. Understanding the Business Environment <ul><li>Objective: understand project operational context </li></ul><ul><li>Initial document: statement of business problem </li></ul><ul><li>Two follow-up activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering needed interfaces to other systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating existing architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticality of performing stakeholder analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders: people with an interest in the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users, sponsors and support staff </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. The Stakeholders for Rocky Mountain Outfitters <ul><li>Identify all of the stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Most important executive stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RMO project sponsor: VP William McDougal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive stakeholders: John and Liz Blankens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational users such as sales reps and mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical staff </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Figure 3-5 Sample Stakeholder Analysis Form for RMO
  16. 17. Creating the System Vision <ul><li>Purpose: justify strategic importance of new system </li></ul><ul><li>Clear vision statement includes (3) essential pieces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precisely specified objective(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete (dollar value) benefits tailored to sponsors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System capabilities meeting objective(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project charter: defines need, objective, benefits, scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of business need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis form </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Figure 3-6a Objectives, Business Benefits, and System Capabilities
  18. 19. Figure 3-6b Objectives, Business Benefits, and System Capabilities
  19. 20. Creating Business Models <ul><li>Three major areas normally require business models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information repositories and flows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business models tied to system requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Model format and rigor vary with each project </li></ul>
  20. 21. Environment and the Inception Phase <ul><li>Discipline concerned with development environment </li></ul><ul><li>Several activities are included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select and configure the development tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDEs and CASE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailor the UP development process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the rigor of a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide technical support services </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Figure 3-7 Sample Criteria for Defining Rigor of Project Controls
  22. 23. Finalizing the System and Project Scope <ul><li>System scope: defines capabilities of new system </li></ul><ul><li>Project scope: describes how project is to be built </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides disposition toward staff training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides data conversion information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets parameters for quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System scope is part of the larger project scope </li></ul><ul><li>Essential use case model helps delineate scope </li></ul><ul><li>Essential use case list attached to the project </li></ul>
  23. 24. Figure 3-8 System Scope and Project Scope
  24. 25. Figure 3-9 Sample Essential Use Case List for RMO
  25. 26. Developing the Project and Iteration Schedule <ul><li>Development team sets schedule for project and iterations </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks involved in scheduling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the work breakdown structure (WBS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop resource requirements and staffing plan </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Developing the WBS <ul><li>Two general approaches for building a WBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By deliverable timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By a sequential timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four techniques for identifying WBS tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down: Identify major activities first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-Up: List all tasks first and organize later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Template: Use standard template of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: Copy tasks of similar completed project </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Developing the Schedule <ul><li>Project schedule orders all activities and tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Building the schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify dependencies between the tasks on WBS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the effort that each task will require </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependencies: identify related tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish-start relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start-start relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish-finish relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduling tool: Microsoft Project </li></ul>
  28. 29. Entering the WBS into MS Project <ul><li>Two types of charts used to show project schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT/CPM chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt chart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charts show same information in different formats </li></ul><ul><li>Key metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slack time, or float </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Figure 3-11 Entering the WBS Into MS Project
  30. 31. Figure 3-13 Gantt Chart of RMO’s Inception Iteration
  31. 32. Develop the Resource Requirements and the Staffing Plan <ul><li>Core team members very active in inception iteration </li></ul><ul><li>Most early tasks are project management activities </li></ul><ul><li>MS Project allows several ways to input resource information </li></ul><ul><li>Formula for effort: Effort = Duration x Persons </li></ul>
  32. 33. Figure 3-16 Entering Resources for the Scheduled Tasks
  33. 34. Identify Project Risks and Confirm Project Feasibility <ul><li>Feasibility analysis: verifies project viability </li></ul><ul><li>Activities used to evaluate a project’s feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the risk to the project (risk management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the organizational/cultural feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the technological feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the schedule feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the resource feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform cost/benefit (economic) analysis </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Assessing the Risks to the Project (Risk Management) <ul><li>Feasibility analysis also includes risk management </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management: identify potential trouble spots </li></ul><ul><li>Organize potential problems in risk matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager bases two strategies on matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing the negative event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a contingency plan </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Figure 3-17 Simplified Risk Analysis
  36. 37. Determining Organizational and Cultural Feasibility <ul><li>Identify organizational and cultural risks </li></ul><ul><li>Some potential human risks impacting new system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of computer competency among employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived shifting of organizational power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of employment loss due to increased automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversal of long-standing work procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  One way to counter risks: training sessions </li></ul>
  37. 38. Evaluating the Technological Feasibility <ul><li>Staffing should have technological proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions to problem are straightforward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide additional training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire more experienced employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly alter scope and approach of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic assessments speedup corrective response </li></ul>
  38. 39. Determining the Schedule Feasibility <ul><li>Development of project schedule involves high risk </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions and estimates made without adequate information </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive projects very susceptible to schedule risks </li></ul><ul><li>Project managers use milestones to evaluate pace and compensate for slippage </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency plans help reduce the risk of slippage </li></ul>
  39. 40. Assessing the Resource Feasibility <ul><li>Human and other resources to assess </li></ul><ul><li>Primary resource consists of team members </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysts, system technicians, users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer resources and physical facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors adversely impacting human resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of required people skill sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocations or departures </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Determining the Economic Feasibility <ul><li>Economic feasibility consists of two questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does anticipated value of benefits exceed project costs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there adequate cash flow to fund the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit analysis determines economic feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Developing cost/benefit analysis is a three-step process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate anticipated development and operational costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate the anticipated financial benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract costs from benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MS Project supports cost/benefit analysis </li></ul>
  41. 42. Figure 3-18 MS Project Showing Project Labor Costs
  42. 43. Figure 3-22 Net Present Value, Payback Period, and Return on Investment for RMO
  43. 44. Completing the Inception Phase <ul><li>Inception activities are project foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of key deliverables of inception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project charter package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential use case list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project feasibility and risk analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General scope and approach should be clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Scope and essential use case lead to elaboration phase </li></ul>
  44. 45. Project Monitoring and Control <ul><li>Maintaining pace requires periodic adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for overseeing UP phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control plan (schedule and deliverables) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control internal/external communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage and control the risks and outstanding issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schedules should balance flexibility with firm targets </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager is communication gateway or nexus </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager should maintain log of open issues </li></ul>
  45. 46. Summary <ul><li>Project management processes: initiating, planning, monitoring, controlling, closing </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager is liaison and project focal point </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Institute divides knowledge into nine major areas (PMBOK) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop skills managing integration, scope, cost, quality, communication, human resources, risk, and procurement </li></ul>
  46. 47. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Unified Process (UP): methodology for software development </li></ul><ul><li>UP basic premise: software developed in iterations </li></ul><ul><li>Iteration: m ini-project </li></ul><ul><li>Four phases: inception, elaboration, construction, and transition </li></ul><ul><li>Phases include development activities, called disciplines </li></ul>
  47. 48. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Nine disciplines in UP </li></ul><ul><li>Chief inception phase disciplines: (1) business modeling (2) environment (3) project management </li></ul><ul><li>After inception, project manager tracks and controls project </li></ul>

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