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Use of IT for improving energy efficiency in the buildings of IIT Delhi

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Use of IT for improving energy efficiency in the buildings of IIT Delhi

  1. 1. CSR310 Professional Practices Assignment 1 Vikalp Kumar Singh(2010CS10264) Sarvesh Sahota(2010CS10249) Kangkan Boro(2010CS10221) Somit Pangtey(2010CS10257)
  2. 2. Problem Definition:Buildings are some of the biggest energy consumers in the world, accounting for one-quarter to one-third of all energy use and a similar amount of greenhouse gas emissions. While cars have had tomeet increasingly strict fuel efficiency standards, buildings for the most part have gotten off easy.Surprisingly little attention has been paid to ensuring energy efficiency in buildings, despite thetremendous impact buildings have on costs and the environment.That oversight is starting to be addressed. A combination of higher energy prices, skyrocketingdemand for electricity and deepening environmental concerns has pushed us to a tipping point withregard to energy efficiency in buildings.IITD also reflects the need of such buildings. Although many techniques have already been deployedto cut off energy bills and make things “greener”, there is still a lot scope left. As the campusbuildings are expanding, being reconstructed, the idea of sustainable development comes intopicture. Although the greenest building is the building that doesnt get built, but that does not solvethe problem. So, there emerges a need of making our buildings more efficient using the technologyand techniques available.Opportunities for Improvement and Proposed Solution:Buildings like the Bharti Building, that are accessed 24/7, can be made energy efficient by theBuilding Management System as proposed by Prof. Culler. An automated system which through theuse of a wide array of sensors spread across the building monitoring the presence of people, amountof light entering through the windows and efficiency of the cooling units can be used to feed data toautomated system, this system can use this data to make energy efficient decisions regarding thebuilding. So the automated system would itself turn off/hibernate all computers when it sees that noone is in the lab, and also shutting off the cooling system as well as the lights. If in summers a roomhas reached the desired temperature and is not being used and is not scheduled to use for a while,the system would automatically stop further cooling of the room, if it’s daytime and the lightentering through the windows is enough to brighten up the room, it will turn off the light bulbs anduse only the light entering through the windows and when it detects that this light is not enough it’llstart turning on the bulbs. Unused corridors will light up only when someone is sensed using themand turned off when no one is detected during the night. This automated system could be a part ofthe larger automated system that monitors energy usage throughout the entire campus, andredirect more energy to labs during the day and to hostels during nights, as hostels are usuallyempty during the day and labs during the night.Other than the automated system which makes smart decisions for the building, we can do better byusing devices that are themselves more energy efficient. A simple enough device to replace wouldbe the bulbs that we use. We can switch to more efficient lighting bulbs such as the LED bulbs. Thefollowing table gives the comparison between the LED, CFL and incandescent bulbs
  3. 3. It’s pretty obvious that in the longer run LED bulbs provide a more efficient lighting solution.Wiki defines Daylighting as the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfacesso that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given todaylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduceenergy use. Energy savings can be achieved either from the reduced use of artificial (electric) lightingor from passive solar heating or cooling. Artificial lighting energy use can be reduced by simplyinstalling fewer electric lights because daylight is present, or by dimming/switching electric lightsautomatically in response to the presence of daylight, a process known as daylight harvesting. Sowith new buildings coming up, we can design them in such a manner that we use natural light asmuch as possible by using daylighting techniques.Daylighting: Specially designed skylights, energy-efficient lights, and a sophisticated system ofmonitoring and controlling the consumption of electricity illuminate the complex. The conferencerooms enjoy glare-free daylight through strategically placed skylights. A master control systemswitches off the lights automatically whenever it senses that daylight alone is enough to maintainthe desired level of illumination. In the hostel rooms, strategically placed light points and speciallydesigned swivels make it possible to use the light at a study table as well as for bedside reading.Biomass gasifier: Firewood, dried leaves and twigs, the stubble left in the fields, and such otherforms of biomass can fuel a 50-kilowatt gasifier, which will be the source of power for the buildingsduring the day. The gasifier runs a generator, the diesel requirements of which have been cut downto 30% after appropriate modifications; the rest of the fuel comes from the gasifier in the form of‘producer gas’.Subterranean air tunnels: Effective insulation, shade provided by trees, and a network ofunderground earth air tunnels circulating cool subterranean air throughout the residential block
  4. 4. might ensure that the temperature in the complex remains more or less even all year round. Thesystem can be augmented by adding chillers for dehumidification and additional cooling during rainydays.Solar Lighting(Photovoltaic Cells): Use of solar energy is a very good alternative to conventionalsources of energy. Solar Photo-Voltaic (SPV) cells can be installed at the roofs of all the buildings ofthe institute which can supply considerable amount of energy.The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1500–2000sunshine hours per year (depending upon location), which is far more than current total energyconsumption. [Source: Wikipedia]Now let us take the lowest of these values to get a lower bound on the energy produced:IIT has a land area of about 325 acres i.e. 1,315,000 sq. meters. Let us assume that IIT Delhi has4kWh/m2 incident solar energy per day (the lower bound). Also, we assume that the solar cells havean efficiency of only 10%. From that logic, even if we are able to install solar cells on 10,000 m 2 ofarea, we have a net energy production of 4000 KWh per day! This energy can easily be used forlighting purposes in the campus, including lighting the lecture theatres. This value is just the lowerbound on the energy produced. We definitely can expect to get more than that. As far as cost issuesare concerned, the government can fund this project to conduct research on solar energy, which, ifsuccessful (which we hope it would be), could potentially be used for the whole country.Energy Efficient Windows: Windows are an important element in passive solar design, which usessolar energy at the site to provide heating, cooling, and lighting for a house. Passive solar designstrategies vary by building location and regional climate, but the basic window guidelines remain thesame—select, orient, and size glass to maximize solar heat gain in winter and minimize it in summer.In heating-dominated climates, major glazing areas should generally face south to collect solar heatduring the winter when the sun is low in the sky. In the summer, when the sun is high overhead,shading devices prevent excessive heat gain.To be effective, south-facing windows should have a solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of greaterthan 0.6 to maximize solar heat gain during the winter, reduced conductive heat transfer, and a highvisible transmittance (VT) for good visible light transfer. Windows on east-, west-, and north-facingwalls should be minimized while still allowing for adequate daylight. It is difficult to control heat andlight through east- and west-facing windows when the sun is low in the sky, and these windowsshould have a low SHGC and/or be shaded. North-facing windows collect little solar heat, so they areused only for lighting. Low emissivity window glazing can help control solar heat gain and loss inheating climates. [Source: http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles]References: 1. http://eartheasy.com/live_led_bulbs_comparison.html 2. “Building Energy Efficiency: Why Green Buildings are key to Asia’s Future”, 2007, Wen H., Medalaine C., Ruth A. Shapiro, Mark L. Clifford, Hong Kong. 3. http://www.teriin.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=45
  5. 5. 4. http://www.uniblogger.com/en/Solar_Power_in_India5. http://energy.gov/enerysaver/articles/energy-efficient-windows

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