E-waste: DefinitionAre those electronic equipments/ products thatconnect with power plug, batteries which havebecome obsolete due to : - advancement in technology - changes in fashion, style and status - nearing the end of their useful life
Classification: types of e-waste Mobile Phones Washing Machine Computers Cartridges Servers Military electronic Telecom Mother board TV Alarm Calculators Sirens Audio Automobile Catalytic Scanners Converter Printers Sensor Air Conditioner CD Microwave Security Device
Quick Facts 1200 tons of scrap / yr , Only 11% of e-waste get recycled Indias hospitals to see patients with 10 times the expected level of lead in their blood In India, a water sample revealed levels of lead 190 times as high as the drinking water standard set by the World Health Organization.
Old computers and, mobiles are being dumped in Asia where they are releasing toxic materials into the environment. A pile of 500 computers contains 717kg of lead, 1.36kg of cadmium, 863 grams of chromium and 287 grams of mercury – all poisonous metals. CRT tubes contain avg of 4 pounds of lead Thousands of children throughout the India are attending schools that were built on or near toxic waste sites, with increased risk of developing asthma, cancer, learning disorders and other diseases linked to environmental pollutants.
Present Scenario Every house having electronic equipments Business necessity More than 40-50 million tons e-waste worldwide / year Asia-estimate of 12 million tons/ year 50-80% e-waste collected in US and other developed countries exported to third world countries E-waste is still the fastest growing municipal waste
2005- 2.6 m tons in India of which 12.6% recycled Growth – 30% / yr 20 to 24 million computers and televisions are added to storage each year 400 m units to be scrapped by end of decade 8% of municipal waste in EU and 2-5% in US 1-20 kg per person/p.a and growing at 3 times faster than the municipal waste.
These are 500 times more poisonous gases than pollution from other means
My meansof livelihood ??? But your death sentence…
20 million electronic household appliances including TV, washing machines, PCs etc) and 70 million cell phones reach end-of-life every year About 70% of the heavy metals (mercury and cadmium) and 40% lead, in landfills in India come from e-waste 22% of the yearly world consumption of mercury is used in electronics manufacture
Informal recyclers – more in number More of acid content flow into the land contaminating the soil and land value. About 70 percent, of heavy metals in India landfills comes from E-Waste. One of the most threatening substances is lead, of which only 5 percent is recycled in India. 315 million computers became obsolete in US by 2004 315 million X 4 = 1.2 billion pounds of lead
312,000 pounds of lead from more than 500 million stockpiled mobile phones in the India China and India - 178 million & 80 million new computers, out of the global total of an estimated 716 million new computer users by 2010. B/n 2000 - 2004, i) The number of fixed line telephones in India doubled. ii) Mobile phones - use rose from 35,000 to 9.2 million, an increase by a factor of about 260. iii) Internet - users rose from 107,000 to 1.8 million.
Mobile phones World’s 80% population live in areas of cell phone reception Over one billion cell phones sold worldwide in 2006 Discarded mobiles by Americans – 150 million phones i.e., 40000 phones / day 150 million phones consume energy that would power 250000 homes / yr. Produce 258 million kgs of carbon. 2 % recycled
Indians upgrade or exchange their cell phones every 18 months, meaning there are approximately 16 million unused mobile phones stashed away at home or in the office Average working life of a mobile phone is 7 years but worldwide the average consumer changes their mobile every 11 months Indians purchased 40 million mobile phones in past 5 years including 9.28 million in 2007
Over one billion mobile phone handsets were currently in use around the world till 2006 In 2006, it was estimated that each year 130 million mobile phones in the US and 105 million mobile phones in Europe will be thrown away 700 million obsolete phones discarded in 2005 contained an estimated 560,000 kg of lead in the form of solder
Scenario Batteries have toxic constituents such as cadmium and brominated flame-retardants and are replaced at least once before retiring the phones. Indian mobile phone users are expected to rise to over 120 million by 2008, making telecom sector one of the most lucrative markets. In the United States alone, experts estimate that 130 million cell phones will be discarded by the year 2005, resulting in 65,000 tonnes of cell phone waste -- most probably headed towards Indian shores to be dumped here.
The Indian picture India, one of the fastest growing mobile telephone markets in the world Boasted over 14.17 million mobile phone subscribers in May 2003 About 102.8 per cent more than the previous year.
Mobile phone users are expected to rise to over 120 million by 2008 The advent of ‘use and throw’ , ‘low value- low life’ CHINA MOBILES has caused havoc in e-waste.
Others India i) 5-6 retired instruments in i) Indians will not junk every office cabinet. their mobiles, but pass ii) United States alone, them on to a new low- experts estimate that 130 end user who will, in million cell phones will be turn, junk them in the discarded by the year 2005, flea market from where resulting in 65,000 tons of the instruments make cell phone waste their way to the Kabadiwallas.
Mobile batteries Mobile phone BATTERIES are also a threat. They wear out faster than the phone, giving cellular telephone companies more business opportunities! A typical NiMH battery has a life of 350 to 400 charging cycles, however short or long the recharging time.
Future UN : By 2008 the number of cell phone users around the world is projected to reach some 2 billion India - the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year
Composition of chemicals The composition of toxic chemicals in an average computer of 31.5 kg
Sales Growth PC sales -1.4 million in 1999-00 to 5.4 million units in 2006-07 and expected 14% in 2008 laptop sales - 44,000 units in 2001-02 to 850,000 units in 2006-07, with the last year growth of 97%
The market for consumer durables is also exhibiting highly accelerated growth rate of approximately 10-15% over last two years Telephone industry - witnessed a phenomenal growth in the recent past and the sector today has 75 million cell phone users, which is likely to grow to 200 million by the year 2007
Reasons for growth Globalization high obsolescence rate Inability of technology to support up-gradation Less costly components used in the electronic equipments Low cost of products Purchasing power increase
Why exported to India ??? Cheap labour US - $ 30/ computer India - $ 2/ computer Saving - $ 28/ computer Weak environmental laws Excess dumping of CRT tubes due to the ramp walk of flat screen monitors Driven by the potential for corporate profits
E waste: Main sources Government Public 70% Private (Industrial) discards Illegal imports e-waste generated in 2007 Government-126% Households - 15%
Indian Scenario Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad-largest contributors Informal recylers (cheap labour) Technology rudimentary 7 million ppl in Bangalore – direct contributors of e- waste Dioxins in the recyling place Lead to cancer 330000 tonnes generated in 2007 19000 processed
Hazardous processIncineration - process of destroying waste through burning. Because of the variety of substances found in e-waste, incineration is associated with a major risk of generating and dispersing contaminants and toxic substances. The gases released during the burning and the residue ash is often toxic and this happens as there is no prior treatment nor sophisticated flue gas purification. Studies have shown that copper, which is present in printed circuit boards and cables, acts a catalyst for dioxin formation when flame- retardants are incinerated. These brominated flame retardants when exposed to low temperature (600-800°C) can lead to the generation of extremely toxic polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs) and furans (PBDFs). PVC, which can be found in e-waste in significant amounts, is highly corrosive when burnt and also induces the formation of dioxins. Incineration also leads to the loss valuable of trace elements which could have been recovered had they been sorted and processed separately.
Open air burning - open fires burn at relatively low temperatures, release more pollutants. - Chronic exposure to open fire emissions may lead to diseases such as emphysema and cancer.
- Inhalation of open fire emissions can trigger asthma attacks, respiratory infections, and cause other problems such as coughing, wheezing, chest pain, and eye irritation.- example : burning PVC releases hydrogen chloride, which on inhalation mixes with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid.- This can lead to corrosion of the lung tissues, and several respiratory complications.- Often open fires burn with a lack of oxygen, forming carbon monoxide, which poisons the blood when inhaled.- The residual particulate matter in the form of ash is prone to fly around in the vicinity and can also be dangerous when inhaled.
Health impact Reproduction : damage to both male and female reproductive systems, including interfering with development of the testes; reduction in semen production and quality; abnormal morphology of sperm; low egg hatchability; and reduced fertility rates. DNA : damage in lymphocytes, fetal and developmental toxicity; growth retardation; abnormal brain development, which can result in intellectual impairment; and possible long-term impacts on memory, learning and behaviour. Nervous System: damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and blood system, including CNS depression and neurotoxicity; immune system suppression, including inhibition of a key blood cell enzyme.
Organs : damage to the brain, including swelling; liver, including liver necrosis; kidney, including renal toxicity; thyroid; pancreas; lymph nodes; spleen; and bone, including bone toxicity. Skin : contact dermatitis; skin lesions; carcinogenic, including tumour promotion and lung cancer; anaemia; CBD (a currently-incurable, debilitating disease that can sometimes be fatal); and mortality. Hormonal System : disruption to endocrine systems including the oestrogen, androgen, thyroid hormone, retinoid and corticosteroid systems; inhibition of human androgen hormone reception; and ability to mimic natural oestrogen hormones, leading to altered sexual development in some organisms. Other: hypertension (high blood pressure); cardiovascular and heart disease; respiratory tract irritation, including irritation of the nose, mouth and eyes.
Effect of the trade 330000 tons generated in 2007, of which 150000 tons in India Jun 05, 2008- half ton e-waste generated in Mumbai Sep 24, 2007- 10000 tonnes in delhi, with 25000 workers including children Indian hospitals are treating patients who have 10 times the normal level of lead in their blood
Microsofts new operating system launched in January -- Windows Vista -- will make many older machines obsolete and create a "tsunami of e-waste" exported to developing nations, according to Jim Puckett, coordinator for the Basel Action Network.
Future !!! India emerging as a graveyard for the world’s e-waste More amount of money to be spent on medical bills if proper attention and care not given importance Less availability of space as playgrounds for children and the presence of more number of dumping grounds
Recommendations Promote recycling units to ease process and to encourage generators to have proper e-waste disposal Impart training to generators on e-waste handling Awareness program on recycling
Fix duties and responsibilities to recyclers Tax incentives for scrap dealers Reward and reprimand schemes for performance and non-compliance of e-waste management To make recycling business viable one
Government should encroach legal import of e-waste Should subsidize recyling and disposal industry Incentive schemes for garbage collectors, general public Disposal fee from manufacturers and consumers