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Introduction and History ofBiological Warfare Agents                   Dr Kamran Afzal       Classified Pathologist and Mi...
Al-Quran 17 : 53When We Bestow Favours on Man,   He Turns his Back and Holds Aloof.But when Evil Befalls him,   He Grows D...
I. Introduction
Types of Biowarfare Agents    Bacteria        Cause disease by reproducing        Single cell organism        Typhus, ...
   Rickettsia      Larger than viruses      Smaller than bacteria      From fleas, lice and ticks      Q-fever   Tox...
CDC - Category A BacteriaBacterial Agent           DiseaseBacillus anthracis        AnthraxFranscisella tularensis   Tular...
CDC - Category A VirusesViral Agents            DiseaseArenaviruses -          Viral Hemorrhagic FeversLassa, Junin, Machu...
CDC - Category A Toxins Toxin Name                    Disease Clostridium botulinum toxin   Botulism
CDC – Category BAgents                    DiseaseCoxiella burnetti         Q feverBrucella species          BrucellosisBur...
CDC - Category CAgents                       DiseaseNipah virus                  Viral Hemorrhagic FeversHanta viruses    ...
Key Production Techniques -                           BTW AgentsType of agent             Low-tech production             ...
Production of Biological Agentsby Fermentation
Biofermentor
What Is a Biological Weapon?    Uses a living organism     or its toxic agent    Delivery device    Both conventional a...
A PRIMITIVE BIOLOGICAL WEAPON  DELIVERY DEVICE - Aerial Bomb                                                  Explosive   ...
Biological Warfare (BW)    Biological Warfare (BW) is defined as     ‘Intentional or threatened use of viruses, bacteria,...
Biological Warfare- A deadly mystery    Man-made Epidemic of unprecedented scale    Wide spread morbidity    High morta...
Biological Terrorism    Use of biological agents to intentionally produce     disease or intoxication in susceptible popu...
Features of Bioterrorism    Weapon:     Microbe or toxin    Strike:     Premeditated    Goals:      Political, religiou...
Biological Terrorism? Epidemiologic Clues     Tight cluster of cases     High infection rate     Unusual or localized g...
The Potential of BioterrorismAgent             Lethal infective doses in 5mlsCyanide           50Mustard gas       100Sari...
Worst case scenario- WHO Estimates, 1970A release of 50 kg agent in    an area with population    5 million….      Anthra...
Biodefense
Threats…   Naturally occuring outbreaks – pandemic influenza   Small intentional outbreaks   Inadvertant outbreaks – re...
Preparation for BW Defense    Strong Intelligence    Strict Bio-Security    Advance Inoculation (Army and Scientists) ...
   Awareness to the use of protective agents/devices like    respirator MOPP Device    (Mission Oriented Protective Postu...
II. History
Emperer Barbarossa - Tortona                                                               1155Used infected dead bodies t...
The Tatars threw plague infected cadavers byhurling machines into the city of Caffa- Ukraine                              ...
Siemenowics- a Polish artillery general                                                               1650He put saliva fr...
Gen Sir Jeffery Amherst                                                       1754-1767Offered infiltrated smallpox infest...
Smallpox Pandemic                    1775-1782
Dr. Luke Blackburn, future governor of Kentucky - War between the States                                                  ...
Japanese Tests with BW agents                                                           1932-1945More than 1,000 of Chines...
British trials with B. anthraciswere held on Gruinard Island, Scotland                                   1941-42
US Army established BW researchstation - Camp Detrick                                                                1943-...
Umbrella gun to assassinate Bulgarianexile Georgi Markov - London                                                  1978   ...
The Rajneeshee cult                                               1984Salmonella in Oregon restaurants - 751 cases
Aum Shinrikyo cult- Tokyo Subway                                                           1995Sarin Gas Attack, Tokyo Sub...
Iraqi Biological Warfare Program                                            1995    166 bombs        100 botulinum toxin...
Bioengineering “Super bugs”                              1998
Anthrax Bioterrorism                                                 1998     San Francisco Chronicle, 20 December 1998
Anthrax through post - US                                                    200122 Cases: 5 deaths, 11 inhalational, 11 c...
NBC Events since 1970                               March 1995 Sarin                                 12 Dead, 5500        ...
Pakistan’s Stance On Biowarfare    Pakistan is a signatory nation of     “The Biological Toxin Weapons (BTW) Convention o...
Pakistan’s Experience of Bioterrorism    A total of 230 suspected samples of Anthrax from 194     sources were analyzed f...
   Out of these, 141 samples yielded growth suggestive of    Bacillus species   On the basis of colony morphology, Gram’...
Challenges in Pakistan    Smart detection, field preparedness        Would require quick military intervention    Vacci...
Current Stockpiles   MAPW (Australia)                           Bio & Chem Weapons 2006
Conclusions   For continuous surveillance and monitoring of important    strategic, tactical and containment areas, and w...
Albert Einstein      ‘I Know Not, What the Third World War        would be Fought with, but the Fourth  World War will be ...
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1.introduction and history of biological warfare agents

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1.introduction and history of biological warfare agents

  1. 1. Introduction and History ofBiological Warfare Agents Dr Kamran Afzal Classified Pathologist and Microbiologist
  2. 2. Al-Quran 17 : 53When We Bestow Favours on Man, He Turns his Back and Holds Aloof.But when Evil Befalls him, He Grows Despondent!
  3. 3. I. Introduction
  4. 4. Types of Biowarfare Agents Bacteria  Cause disease by reproducing  Single cell organism  Typhus, anthrax Viruses Anthrax  Multiply only inside host cells  Sub-microscopic organisms  Ebola, Chikungunya Ebola
  5. 5.  Rickettsia  Larger than viruses  Smaller than bacteria  From fleas, lice and ticks  Q-fever Toxins  Poisons from living things  Botulinum most lethal known : <10-6 g  But some beneficial uses
  6. 6. CDC - Category A BacteriaBacterial Agent DiseaseBacillus anthracis AnthraxFranscisella tularensis TularemiaYersinia pestis Plague
  7. 7. CDC - Category A VirusesViral Agents DiseaseArenaviruses - Viral Hemorrhagic FeversLassa, Junin, MachupoFiloviruses – Viral Hemorrhagic FeversEbola, MarburgVariola major Smallpox
  8. 8. CDC - Category A Toxins Toxin Name Disease Clostridium botulinum toxin Botulism
  9. 9. CDC – Category BAgents DiseaseCoxiella burnetti Q feverBrucella species BrucellosisBurkholderia mallei GlandersRicinus communis Ricin Toxin(castor beans)Clostridium perfringens Epsilon toxinStaphylococcus Enterotoxin B
  10. 10. CDC - Category CAgents DiseaseNipah virus Viral Hemorrhagic FeversHanta viruses Viral Hemorrhagic FeversTick-borne hemorrhagic fever Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
  11. 11. Key Production Techniques - BTW AgentsType of agent Low-tech production Hi-tech productionBacteria Batch fermentation, Genetically engineered production in animals strains, continuous- flow fermentationRickettsiae and Viruses Cultivation in eggs, mouse Culture in mammalian cells brains, or tissue culture and grown on beadsProtein toxins Batch fermentation and Cloning of toxin gene in purification of a bacterial microbial host, extraction toxin, or extraction of toxin of toxin from a plant or animal sourceNon-protein toxins Extraction from plant or Cloning of a series of animal source genes, each governing production of one of the enzymes needed to complete a step in the biosynthetic pathway
  12. 12. Production of Biological Agentsby Fermentation
  13. 13. Biofermentor
  14. 14. What Is a Biological Weapon? Uses a living organism or its toxic agent Delivery device Both conventional and unconventional means of delivery MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006
  15. 15. A PRIMITIVE BIOLOGICAL WEAPON DELIVERY DEVICE - Aerial Bomb Explosive Thin fragile aluminium cylinders filled with nitrogen under pressure to create an aerosol and release organisms when the bomb lands MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006
  16. 16. Biological Warfare (BW) Biological Warfare (BW) is defined as ‘Intentional or threatened use of viruses, bacteria, fungi, or toxins from living organisms to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants’ BW agents can cause widespread casualties with minimal logistic requirements BW agents are easy to produce, economical for deployment, selective to the target Cost of 50% casualties per meter square is “US$ 1” as compared to conventional weapons (US$ 2000), nuclear armaments (US$ 800), chemical agents (US$ 600)
  17. 17. Biological Warfare- A deadly mystery Man-made Epidemic of unprecedented scale Wide spread morbidity High mortality with minimum logistics Easy availability of agents from: a. Universities b. Biological Research Organizations c. Biological Production Units d. Clinical specimens Easy deployment through simple aerosol devices Incubation period of the BW agent
  18. 18. Biological Terrorism Use of biological agents to intentionally produce disease or intoxication in susceptible populations – humans, animals, or plants ‘to meet terrorist aims’ Biological agents are much deadlier than chemical agents  Estimated 10 grams of anthrax could kill as many people as a ton of the nerve agent Sarin
  19. 19. Features of Bioterrorism Weapon: Microbe or toxin Strike: Premeditated Goals: Political, religious, ideological Motivation: Fear, disruption, instability Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering have enabled scientists to increase the virulence, develop antibiotic resistant strains, and create novel strains for which population lacks immunity
  20. 20. Biological Terrorism? Epidemiologic Clues  Tight cluster of cases  High infection rate  Unusual or localized geography  Unusual clinical presentation  Unusual time of year  Dead animals
  21. 21. The Potential of BioterrorismAgent Lethal infective doses in 5mlsCyanide 50Mustard gas 100Sarin 5,000Botulinum toxin 1,000,000Anthrax 50,000,000,Tularemia 50,000 x 106
  22. 22. Worst case scenario- WHO Estimates, 1970A release of 50 kg agent in an area with population 5 million….  Anthrax  250,000 cases  100,000 deaths  Plague  150,000 cases  36,000 deaths  Tularemia  250,000 cases  19,000 deaths
  23. 23. Biodefense
  24. 24. Threats… Naturally occuring outbreaks – pandemic influenza Small intentional outbreaks Inadvertant outbreaks – research labs Large scale attack New encounters – Legionella, Monkeypox New organisms – SARS, Nipah virus Limited  Anthrax Letters  Scary, but very small risk to a small number of people
  25. 25. Preparation for BW Defense Strong Intelligence Strict Bio-Security Advance Inoculation (Army and Scientists) Extended Scientific Research (Public Sector) Creation of Awareness (Service and Medical) Personal Protection of Masses
  26. 26.  Awareness to the use of protective agents/devices like respirator MOPP Device (Mission Oriented Protective Posture – battle dress over garment) Extension of genetic engineering Scientific vigilance through internet Continuous monitoring/surveillance in the field of air bacteriology/virology etc
  27. 27. II. History
  28. 28. Emperer Barbarossa - Tortona 1155Used infected dead bodies to poison the enemy’s water supply
  29. 29. The Tatars threw plague infected cadavers byhurling machines into the city of Caffa- Ukraine 1347–1353
  30. 30. Siemenowics- a Polish artillery general 1650He put saliva from rabid dogs into hollow spheres for firing
  31. 31. Gen Sir Jeffery Amherst 1754-1767Offered infiltrated smallpox infested blankets to unsuspected American Indians during French-Indian war
  32. 32. Smallpox Pandemic 1775-1782
  33. 33. Dr. Luke Blackburn, future governor of Kentucky - War between the States 1879-83He attempted to infect clothing with smallpox andyellow fever and then sell it to unsuspecting Union troops
  34. 34. Japanese Tests with BW agents 1932-1945More than 1,000 of Chinese, Koreans, Mongolian,Soviet, American, British, and Australian prisoners wereestimated to have died in experiments by the Japanesewith agents causing anthrax, botulism, brucellosis,cholera, dysentery, gas gangrene, and plague - Unit 731
  35. 35. British trials with B. anthraciswere held on Gruinard Island, Scotland 1941-42
  36. 36. US Army established BW researchstation - Camp Detrick 1943-1969 Operationalized 7 months later By Jan 1944, field station for Horu Island was functional By 1969, US Dept of Defense completed study on fol BW agents  Incapacitating agents  Rickettsia, RVFV and VEE virus  Lethal agents  Yellow fever virus, Bacillus anthracis, Rickettsia rickettsiae, Yersinia pestis
  37. 37. Umbrella gun to assassinate Bulgarianexile Georgi Markov - London 1978 A pellet was designed to contain Ricin toxin
  38. 38. The Rajneeshee cult 1984Salmonella in Oregon restaurants - 751 cases
  39. 39. Aum Shinrikyo cult- Tokyo Subway 1995Sarin Gas Attack, Tokyo Subway- 12 killed; 5,000 injured
  40. 40. Iraqi Biological Warfare Program 1995 166 bombs  100 botulinum toxin, 50 anthrax, 16 aflatoxin 25 Scud missile warheads  13 botulinum toxin, 10 anthrax, 2 aflatoxin 122-mm rockets filled with  Anthrax, botulinum toxin, and aflatoxin Spray tanks capable of being fitted to a fighter aircraft or remotely piloted aircraft, and spraying 2,000 L
  41. 41. Bioengineering “Super bugs” 1998
  42. 42. Anthrax Bioterrorism 1998 San Francisco Chronicle, 20 December 1998
  43. 43. Anthrax through post - US 200122 Cases: 5 deaths, 11 inhalational, 11 cutaneous
  44. 44. NBC Events since 1970 March 1995 Sarin 12 Dead, 5500 Affected May 1995 April Plague 1997 1984 U235 1972 June 1994 February 1997 Salmonella SarinTyphoid Chlorine 200 Injured 7 Dead, 200 Injured 14 Injured, 500 Evacuated 2001 Anthrax 5 dead ??? Injured 1992 June Cyanide 1996 1984 Botulinum March 1995 Uranium Ricin December 1995 1985 April Ricin Cyanide 1995 Sarin November 1995 Radioactive April-June 1995 Cesium Cyanide, Phosgene, Pepper Spray
  45. 45. Pakistan’s Stance On Biowarfare Pakistan is a signatory nation of “The Biological Toxin Weapons (BTW) Convention of 1972”  Signed by 158 nations  US has rejected enforcement Convention abstract:  The prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling, and destruction of bacteriologic and toxin weapons  Required to submit information annually to the United Nations concerning facilities where biological defense research is being conducted
  46. 46. Pakistan’s Experience of Bioterrorism A total of 230 suspected samples of Anthrax from 194 sources were analyzed for anthrax spores at NIH from Nov 2001 to March 2002  71 samples were from clinical specimens (anterior nares, skin, blood)  159 were from non-clinical environmental samples (powders, swabs from inanimate objects, papers, envelopes, packages, plastics etc) The samples were received from Foreign mission, media organizations, banks, government institutions, universities, hospitals and individuals
  47. 47.  Out of these, 141 samples yielded growth suggestive of Bacillus species On the basis of colony morphology, Gram’s stain and other preliminary laboratory tests 62 isolates were found suspicious for B. anthracis, however all the samples were negative by animal inoculation The suspected anthrax parcel/letter bombs in Pakistan during the investigation period were hoaxes
  48. 48. Challenges in Pakistan Smart detection, field preparedness  Would require quick military intervention Vaccination drives—cheaper to prevent Limited funding: un-smart intelligence Collaborative programs—funds not available Need dynamic consolidated vision Don’t know where to look for
  49. 49. Current Stockpiles MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006
  50. 50. Conclusions For continuous surveillance and monitoring of important strategic, tactical and containment areas, and with the rapid advancement in the field of genetic engineering and biotechnology and possibility of use of genetically modified BW agents, it is essential to acquire/ use advanced early detection devices at national level - in addition to gold standard conventional microbiological methods for rapid and quick response Plan ahead smartly, and be prepared to move quickly and decisively Communication, data integration and timely delivery of data analysis to decision-makers is crucial
  51. 51. Albert Einstein ‘I Know Not, What the Third World War would be Fought with, but the Fourth World War will be Fought with Sticks and Stones!’

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