Vietnamese language belongs to Austroasiatic Language family tree.
Linguistical introduction to vietnamese language
Linguistic Introduction to
Kamo Araz Ahmad
Lebanese French University
Language Family Tree
• Vietnamese language belongs to Austroasiatic
Language family tree.
Austroasiatic is a large language family of Southeast Asia, also
scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern
border of China.
• The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family. The
vietic family consists of Vietnamese , and a number minority languages in
northern and central Vietnam, and in the Lao border regions.
• the term Vietic was proposed by Hayes (1992), who proposed to redefine
Việt–Mường as referring to a sub-branch of Vietic containing only
Vietnamese and Mường.
• Vietic can be thought of as
having a northern Viet-Mương
sub-branch, and a number of
small southern languages that
are spoken in the Lao-Vietnam
borderlands and beyond:
• a) Vietnamese (various dialects)
• b) Mương (various dialects)
• Maleng (~ Malieng, Pakatan, Bo)
• Ruc, Sach, May, Chu’t
• Pong, Hung, Tum, Khong-Kheng
• Cuôi or Thô
• Ahloa, Ahoa (Thavung)
Vietnamese Morphology :
• Vietnamese, like many languages in Southeast Asia, is an analytic
language. Vietnamese lacks morphological marking of case, gender,
number, and tense (and, as a result, has no finite/nonfinite distinction).
• Vietnamese words may consist of one or more syllable, most of the words
are disyllabic but there are also polysyllabic which are made by
Reduplication, the process of creating a new word by repeating
either a whole word or part of a word, is very productive in
Vietnamese and other Austro-Asiatic languages.
Vietnamese has very limited affixation. A few affixes are used
along with reduplication.
Many affixes are derived from Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary.
Vietnamese has tonal tonal ablaut which are used
• Basic sentence order in vitenamese is SVO:
tôi nòi tiếng việt
I speak Vietnamese
using vietnamese pronouns depend on relationship,kinship,
and gender of the speaker, it is a complicated system of
• Ấy: by adding it we can make third person :
Anh ấy = He
các: a particle added before nouns and prnouns
to make plural:
Vietnamese language doesn’t have verb conjugations or endings, verbs in
vietnamese won’t change, Vietnamese relies on context to express tense: