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Project Communication Management
Project Communication Management
Knowledge Area
Process
Initiating Planning Executing
Monitoring &
Contol
Closing
Communication
Indentify
Stakeholder
Plan
Communication
Distribute Information
Manage Stakeholders -
Expectations
Report
Performance
Enter phase/
Start project
Exit phase/
End project
Initiating
Processes
Closing
Processes
Planning
Processes
Executing
Processes
Monitoring &
Controlling Processes
Project Communication Management
• The process required to ensure timely and appropriate generation,
collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of
project information.
• Project managers spend the majority of their time (90%) to
communicate.
4
We all can recognize an elephant .. “when we see one”, can’t
we?
And the elephant (project) became …
Identify Stakeholder
• The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project,
and documenting relevant information regarding their interest, involvement,
and impact on project success.
Inputs
1. Project charter
2. Procurement
documents
3. Enterprise
environmental factors
4. Organizational process
assets
Tools &
Techniques
1. Stakeholder analysis
2. Expert judgment
Outputs
1. Stakeholder register
2. Stakeholder
management strategy
Stakeholder Analysis
• A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative &
qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken
into account throughout the project.
• Step 1: Identify all otential project
stakeholders and relevant
information
• Step 2: Identify the potential impact or
support each stakeholder could
generate and classify them so as to
define an approach strategy.
• Step 3: Assess how key stakeholder
are likely to react or respond in
various situation
Sample grid showing classification model
Keep
Satisfied
Manage
Closely
Keep
Informed
Monitor
(Minimum Effort)
Interest
Power
Low High
High
• A
• B
• C
• D
• E
• F
• G
• H
Output of Identify Stakeholder
• Stakeholder Register
Stakeholder Stakeholder interest(s) in
the project
Assessment of impact Potential strategies for gaining
support or reducing obstacles
Name
Contact
Information
Role in
Project
Department/
Supervisor
Company Impact Influence Main expectations
Attitude about
the project
Major requirement
• Stakeholder Management Strategy
- Defines an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of
stakeholder.
- The information could be too sensitive to be shared.
- A common way of representing is by using a stakeholder analysis matrix.
Plan Communication
• The process of determining the project stakeholder
information needs and defining a communication
approach.
Inputs
1. Stakeholder register
2. Stakeholder
management strategy
3. Enterprise
environmental factors
4. Organizational process
assets
Tools &
Techniques
1. Communication
requirement analysis
2. Communication
technology
3. Communication models
4. Communication
methods
Outputs
1. Communication
management plan
2. Project document
updates
90% of project manager’stime is spent for communication
Communication Requirement
Analysis
• Includes communicating in all
directions
• Determine and limit who will
communicate with whom and who
will receive what information.
Customer, sponsor, Functional
managers, and Team Members
Other
Project
Managers
Other
Projects
Other
Stakeholders
The
Project
2
)1( NN
• Consider the number of potential
communication channels or paths
• Formula:
Communication technology
Urgency of the need for information
Availability of technology.
Expected project staffing.
Duration of the project
Project environment
Is project success dependent upon having frequently updated information available
on a moment’s notice, or would regularly issued written reports suffice?
Are appropriate systems already in place or do project needs warrant change?
Are the proposed communication systems compatible with the experience and
expertise of the project participants, or is extensive training and learning required?
Is the available technology likely to change before the project is over?
Does the team meet and operate on a face-to-face basis or in a virtual environment?
Communication Model
• Basic Communication Model
– The sender is responsible for making information clear and complete so that the
receiver can receive it correctly, and for confirming that it is properly understood.
SenderSender
Encode
Decode
decode
Encode
Noise
Noise
Mediu
m
• To make effective communication, sender/receiver need to be aware of these
factors:
- Nonverbal: 55% of all communication is nonverbal
- Paralingual: pitch and tone of voice
- Effective listening
Communication Blockers
• Noise
• Distance
• Language
• Hostility
• Culture
• Saying NO or BAD IDEA
• Improper encoding
Active listening
• Don’t just hear the words. Get the whole
message!
- Pay attention
- Show that you’re listening
- Provide feedback
- Defer Judgment
- Respond appropriately
Communication Methods
• Interactive Communication
– Most efficient way to ensure a common understanding
– E.g. meetings, phone calls, video conferencing
• Push Communication
– Does not certify that it reached or understood
– E.g. letters, email, press release, faxes, voice mail
• Pull communication
– Used for very large information volumes, very large
audiences
– E.g. intranet site, e-learning
Communication type
- Formal or informal
- Written or verbal
Preferred MethodSituation
Formal WrittenProject Plan
Informal WrittenMemo
Informal VerbalMeetings
Formal VerbalPresentations
Informal verbalConversations
Formal WrittenProject Charter
Formal verbalSpeeches
Informal writtenEmail
Informal writtenNotes
Formal WrittenComplex Problems
Formal WrittenLong Distance
Effective Meeting
• Plan or prepare the meeting
– Set a time/schedule and determine the participants.
– Have a clear purpose for each meeting & communicate it in the
invitation.
– Create the agenda and distribute it in advance.
• Stick to the plan (discipline)
– Begin on time, end on time.
– Introduce the moderator and stipulate who will keep the minutes.
– End every agenda with a summary and consensus of the participants.
• Good follow-up
– Send the minutes showing the result along with the to do list.
– Get feedback from the participants.
– Monitor the status of all action items.
Communication Management Plan
COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT PLAN
Project Title: Date Prepared:
Message Audience Method Frequency Sender
Describe the information to be
communicated: For example, status
reports, project updates, meeting
minutes, etc.
List the people
or the groups
of people who
should receive
the information.
Describe how
the information
will be
delivered. For
example, e-
mail, meetings,
Web meetings,
etc.
List how often
the information
is to be
provided.
Insert the name
of the person
or the group
that will provide
the information.
Term or Acronym Definition
List any terms or
acronyms unique to the
project or that are used
in a unique way.
Provide a definition of the term or the full term for acronyms.
List any assumptions or constraints. Constraints can include descriptions of proprietary information and
relevant restrictions on distribution.
Communication Constraints or Assumptions
Distribute Information
• Effective information distribution includes
• Sender-receiver models. Feedback loops and barriers to
communication.
• Choice of media. writing versus orally, informal memo
versus a formal report, face-to-face versus by e-mail.
• Writing style. Active versus passive voice, sentence
structure, and word choice.
• Meeting management techniques. Preparing an agenda
and dealing with conflicts.
• Presentation techniques. Body language and design of
visual aids.
• Facilitation techniques. Building consensus and
overcoming obstacles.
Distribute Information
• The process of making relevant information available to project
stakeholders as planned.
Inputs
1. Project management
plan
2. Performance reports
3. Organizational process
assets
Tools &
Techniques
1. Communication
methods
2. Information distribution
tools
Outputs
1. Organizational process
assets updates
Make surethe information arereceived, effective and efficient.
Performance Reports
project performance and status information, should be
made available prior to project meetings, and should be
as precise and current as possible.
Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work
performance measurements provided as the project is
executed.
This information is about the project’s past
performance that could impact the project in the
future, for example in earned value management
Manage Stakeholder Expectations
• The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to
meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
Inputs
1. Stakeholder register
2. Stakeholder
management strategy
3. Project management
plan
4. Issue log
5. Organizational process
assets
Tools &
Techniques
1. Communication
methods
2. Interpersonal skills
3. Management skills
Outputs
1. Organizational process
assets updates
2. Change requests
3. Project management
plan updates
4. Project document
updates
Managing Stakeholder Expectations
• Actively managing the expectation of stakeholders.
– Increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating.
– Influencing their desire to achieve & maintain project goals.
• Clarifying and resolving issues that have been identified.
Interpersonal Skills
interpersonal skills to manage stakeholder expectations.
• Building trust,
• Resolving conflict,
• Active listening
• Overcoming resistance to change.
Management Skills
Management skills used by the project manager
include but are not limited to:
- Presentation skills,
- Negotiating,
- Writing skills, and
- Public speaking.
Report Performance
• the process of collecting and distributing performance information,
including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts
Inputs
1-Project management
plan
.2 Work performance
information
.3 Work performance
measurements
.4 Budget forecasts
.5 Organizational process
assets
Tools &
Techniques
.1 Variance analysis
.2 Forecasting methods
.3 Communication methods
.4 Reporting systems
Outputs
.1 Performance reports
.2 Organizational process
assets updates
.3 Change requests
Report must betruthfuland not hide what is really going on.
Types of Performance Reports
Status Report:
Where do we stand? Budget? schedule?
Progress Report:
what have we accomplished?
-Trend Report:
- are we improving?
-Forecasting Report:
-predicting future status and performance.
-Earned Value:
-unified reporting method that incorporate cost,
scope and time.
1 ) Originally the project had four team
members. Now the scope has expanded, and
there are a total of six people in the project
team. How many communication channels
does the project have?
A ) 6
B ) 9
C ) 12
D ) 15
2 ) All of the following are part of the
communication management plan EXCEPT?
A ) names of the stakeholders who can talk to the
project manager
B ) Names of those receiving a telephone call when
the system crashes
C ) Methods used to collect and store information
D ) Names of the stakeholders and instructions on
sending project status to them
3 ) If a project manager wants to report on
the actual project results vs. planned
results, he would use a :
A ) trend report
B ) forecasting report
C ) status report
D ) variance report
4 ) Project A has had ineffective project meetings
since its inception. There have been complaints
that information does not get to the right
people, some people are talking too much
during the meeting, and the right people are
not there to resolve issues. What is MOST likely
missing from this project?
A ) A project scope management plan
B ) A staffing management plan
C ) A communication management plan
D ) A process improvement plan
5 ) When a project manager is engaged in
negotiations, nonverbal communication skills
are of :
A ) Little importance.
B ) Major importance
C ) important only when cost and schedule
objectives are involved.
D ) Important only to ensure you win the
negotiation
6 ) Inputs to plan communications include all the
following EXCEPT?
A ) Stakeholder register
B ) project scope statement
C ) Organizational process assets
D ) forecasts

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Session 16 4th edition

  • 2. Project Communication Management Knowledge Area Process Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Contol Closing Communication Indentify Stakeholder Plan Communication Distribute Information Manage Stakeholders - Expectations Report Performance Enter phase/ Start project Exit phase/ End project Initiating Processes Closing Processes Planning Processes Executing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes
  • 3. Project Communication Management • The process required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information. • Project managers spend the majority of their time (90%) to communicate.
  • 4. 4
  • 5. We all can recognize an elephant .. “when we see one”, can’t we?
  • 6.
  • 7. And the elephant (project) became …
  • 8. Identify Stakeholder • The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interest, involvement, and impact on project success. Inputs 1. Project charter 2. Procurement documents 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Stakeholder analysis 2. Expert judgment Outputs 1. Stakeholder register 2. Stakeholder management strategy
  • 9. Stakeholder Analysis • A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative & qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. • Step 1: Identify all otential project stakeholders and relevant information • Step 2: Identify the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate and classify them so as to define an approach strategy. • Step 3: Assess how key stakeholder are likely to react or respond in various situation Sample grid showing classification model Keep Satisfied Manage Closely Keep Informed Monitor (Minimum Effort) Interest Power Low High High • A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H
  • 10. Output of Identify Stakeholder • Stakeholder Register Stakeholder Stakeholder interest(s) in the project Assessment of impact Potential strategies for gaining support or reducing obstacles Name Contact Information Role in Project Department/ Supervisor Company Impact Influence Main expectations Attitude about the project Major requirement • Stakeholder Management Strategy - Defines an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholder. - The information could be too sensitive to be shared. - A common way of representing is by using a stakeholder analysis matrix.
  • 11. Plan Communication • The process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach. Inputs 1. Stakeholder register 2. Stakeholder management strategy 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Communication requirement analysis 2. Communication technology 3. Communication models 4. Communication methods Outputs 1. Communication management plan 2. Project document updates 90% of project manager’stime is spent for communication
  • 12. Communication Requirement Analysis • Includes communicating in all directions • Determine and limit who will communicate with whom and who will receive what information. Customer, sponsor, Functional managers, and Team Members Other Project Managers Other Projects Other Stakeholders The Project 2 )1( NN • Consider the number of potential communication channels or paths • Formula:
  • 13. Communication technology Urgency of the need for information Availability of technology. Expected project staffing. Duration of the project Project environment Is project success dependent upon having frequently updated information available on a moment’s notice, or would regularly issued written reports suffice? Are appropriate systems already in place or do project needs warrant change? Are the proposed communication systems compatible with the experience and expertise of the project participants, or is extensive training and learning required? Is the available technology likely to change before the project is over? Does the team meet and operate on a face-to-face basis or in a virtual environment?
  • 14. Communication Model • Basic Communication Model – The sender is responsible for making information clear and complete so that the receiver can receive it correctly, and for confirming that it is properly understood. SenderSender Encode Decode decode Encode Noise Noise Mediu m • To make effective communication, sender/receiver need to be aware of these factors: - Nonverbal: 55% of all communication is nonverbal - Paralingual: pitch and tone of voice - Effective listening
  • 15. Communication Blockers • Noise • Distance • Language • Hostility • Culture • Saying NO or BAD IDEA • Improper encoding
  • 16. Active listening • Don’t just hear the words. Get the whole message! - Pay attention - Show that you’re listening - Provide feedback - Defer Judgment - Respond appropriately
  • 17. Communication Methods • Interactive Communication – Most efficient way to ensure a common understanding – E.g. meetings, phone calls, video conferencing • Push Communication – Does not certify that it reached or understood – E.g. letters, email, press release, faxes, voice mail • Pull communication – Used for very large information volumes, very large audiences – E.g. intranet site, e-learning
  • 18. Communication type - Formal or informal - Written or verbal Preferred MethodSituation Formal WrittenProject Plan Informal WrittenMemo Informal VerbalMeetings Formal VerbalPresentations Informal verbalConversations Formal WrittenProject Charter Formal verbalSpeeches Informal writtenEmail Informal writtenNotes Formal WrittenComplex Problems Formal WrittenLong Distance
  • 19. Effective Meeting • Plan or prepare the meeting – Set a time/schedule and determine the participants. – Have a clear purpose for each meeting & communicate it in the invitation. – Create the agenda and distribute it in advance. • Stick to the plan (discipline) – Begin on time, end on time. – Introduce the moderator and stipulate who will keep the minutes. – End every agenda with a summary and consensus of the participants. • Good follow-up – Send the minutes showing the result along with the to do list. – Get feedback from the participants. – Monitor the status of all action items.
  • 21. COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT PLAN Project Title: Date Prepared: Message Audience Method Frequency Sender Describe the information to be communicated: For example, status reports, project updates, meeting minutes, etc. List the people or the groups of people who should receive the information. Describe how the information will be delivered. For example, e- mail, meetings, Web meetings, etc. List how often the information is to be provided. Insert the name of the person or the group that will provide the information. Term or Acronym Definition List any terms or acronyms unique to the project or that are used in a unique way. Provide a definition of the term or the full term for acronyms. List any assumptions or constraints. Constraints can include descriptions of proprietary information and relevant restrictions on distribution. Communication Constraints or Assumptions
  • 22. Distribute Information • Effective information distribution includes • Sender-receiver models. Feedback loops and barriers to communication. • Choice of media. writing versus orally, informal memo versus a formal report, face-to-face versus by e-mail. • Writing style. Active versus passive voice, sentence structure, and word choice. • Meeting management techniques. Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts. • Presentation techniques. Body language and design of visual aids. • Facilitation techniques. Building consensus and overcoming obstacles.
  • 23. Distribute Information • The process of making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned. Inputs 1. Project management plan 2. Performance reports 3. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Communication methods 2. Information distribution tools Outputs 1. Organizational process assets updates Make surethe information arereceived, effective and efficient.
  • 24. Performance Reports project performance and status information, should be made available prior to project meetings, and should be as precise and current as possible. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance measurements provided as the project is executed. This information is about the project’s past performance that could impact the project in the future, for example in earned value management
  • 25. Manage Stakeholder Expectations • The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur. Inputs 1. Stakeholder register 2. Stakeholder management strategy 3. Project management plan 4. Issue log 5. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Communication methods 2. Interpersonal skills 3. Management skills Outputs 1. Organizational process assets updates 2. Change requests 3. Project management plan updates 4. Project document updates
  • 26. Managing Stakeholder Expectations • Actively managing the expectation of stakeholders. – Increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating. – Influencing their desire to achieve & maintain project goals. • Clarifying and resolving issues that have been identified.
  • 27. Interpersonal Skills interpersonal skills to manage stakeholder expectations. • Building trust, • Resolving conflict, • Active listening • Overcoming resistance to change.
  • 28. Management Skills Management skills used by the project manager include but are not limited to: - Presentation skills, - Negotiating, - Writing skills, and - Public speaking.
  • 29. Report Performance • the process of collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts Inputs 1-Project management plan .2 Work performance information .3 Work performance measurements .4 Budget forecasts .5 Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques .1 Variance analysis .2 Forecasting methods .3 Communication methods .4 Reporting systems Outputs .1 Performance reports .2 Organizational process assets updates .3 Change requests Report must betruthfuland not hide what is really going on.
  • 30. Types of Performance Reports Status Report: Where do we stand? Budget? schedule? Progress Report: what have we accomplished? -Trend Report: - are we improving? -Forecasting Report: -predicting future status and performance. -Earned Value: -unified reporting method that incorporate cost, scope and time.
  • 31. 1 ) Originally the project had four team members. Now the scope has expanded, and there are a total of six people in the project team. How many communication channels does the project have? A ) 6 B ) 9 C ) 12 D ) 15
  • 32. 2 ) All of the following are part of the communication management plan EXCEPT? A ) names of the stakeholders who can talk to the project manager B ) Names of those receiving a telephone call when the system crashes C ) Methods used to collect and store information D ) Names of the stakeholders and instructions on sending project status to them
  • 33. 3 ) If a project manager wants to report on the actual project results vs. planned results, he would use a : A ) trend report B ) forecasting report C ) status report D ) variance report
  • 34. 4 ) Project A has had ineffective project meetings since its inception. There have been complaints that information does not get to the right people, some people are talking too much during the meeting, and the right people are not there to resolve issues. What is MOST likely missing from this project? A ) A project scope management plan B ) A staffing management plan C ) A communication management plan D ) A process improvement plan
  • 35. 5 ) When a project manager is engaged in negotiations, nonverbal communication skills are of : A ) Little importance. B ) Major importance C ) important only when cost and schedule objectives are involved. D ) Important only to ensure you win the negotiation
  • 36. 6 ) Inputs to plan communications include all the following EXCEPT? A ) Stakeholder register B ) project scope statement C ) Organizational process assets D ) forecasts