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Quality tools for Improvement

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The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of Quality are one of the most followed systems across the globe. There have been personal adaptations from real life.

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Quality tools for Improvement

  1. 1. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality A PowerPoint TrainingA PowerPoint Training PresentationPresentation ByBy Kamleshwar PandeyKamleshwar Pandey "As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved"As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools." - Kaoru Ishikawawith seven fundamental quantitative tools." - Kaoru Ishikawa
  2. 2. What are the BasicWhat are the Basic Seven Tools of Quality?Seven Tools of Quality? • Fishbone DiagramsFishbone Diagrams • HistogramsHistograms • Pareto AnalysisPareto Analysis • FlowchartsFlowcharts • Scatter PlotsScatter Plots • Run ChartsRun Charts • Control ChartsControl Charts
  3. 3. Where did the BasicWhere did the Basic Seven come from?Seven come from? Kaoru IshikawaKaoru Ishikawa • Known for “Democratizing Statistics”Known for “Democratizing Statistics” • The Basic Seven Tools made statisticalThe Basic Seven Tools made statistical analysis less complicated for the averageanalysis less complicated for the average personperson • Good Visual Aids make statistical andGood Visual Aids make statistical and quality control more comprehendible.quality control more comprehendible.
  4. 4. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality Fishbone DiagramsFishbone Diagrams • No statistics involvedNo statistics involved • Maps out a process/problemMaps out a process/problem • Makes improvement easierMakes improvement easier • Looks like a “Fish Skeleton”Looks like a “Fish Skeleton”
  5. 5. Constructing a FishboneConstructing a Fishbone DiagramDiagram • Step 1 - Identify the ProblemStep 1 - Identify the Problem • Step 2 - Draw “spine” and “bones”Step 2 - Draw “spine” and “bones” Example:Example: High Inventory Shrinkage at local DrugHigh Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug StoreStore Shrinkage
  6. 6. Constructing aConstructing a Fishbone DiagramFishbone Diagram • Step 3 - Identify different areas whereStep 3 - Identify different areas where problems may arise fromproblems may arise from Ex. :Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug StoreHigh Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage employees shoplifters
  7. 7. Constructing aConstructing a Fishbone DiagramFishbone Diagram • Step 4 - Identify what these specificStep 4 - Identify what these specific causes could becauses could be Ex. :Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug StoreHigh Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage shoplifters Anti-theft tags poorly designed Expensive merchandise out in the open No security/ surveillance
  8. 8. Constructing a FishboneConstructing a Fishbone DiagramDiagram • Ex. :Ex. : High Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug StoreHigh Inventory Shrinkage at local Drug Store Shrinkage shoplifters Anti-theft tags poorly designed Expensive merchandise out in the open No security/ surveillance employees attitude new trainee training benefits practices
  9. 9. Constructing a FishboneConstructing a Fishbone DiagramDiagram • Step 5 – Use the finished diagram toStep 5 – Use the finished diagram to brainstorm solutions to the main problems.brainstorm solutions to the main problems.
  10. 10. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality HistogramsHistograms • Bar chartBar chart • Used to graphically represent groupsUsed to graphically represent groups of dataof data
  11. 11. ConstructingConstructing a Histograma Histogram From a set of data computeFrom a set of data compute • sumsum • mean (x)mean (x) • MaxMax • MinMin • Range (max-min)Range (max-min)
  12. 12. ConstructingConstructing a Histograma Histogram • Use range to estimate beginningUse range to estimate beginning and endand end • Calculate the width of eachCalculate the width of each column by dividing the range bycolumn by dividing the range by the number of columnsthe number of columns Range # of Columns = Width
  13. 13. Superb Pizza ExampleSuperb Pizza Example • Let’s say the owner wants aLet’s say the owner wants a distribution of Superb’sdistribution of Superb’s Thursday Night SalesThursday Night Sales Data Set from last Thursday(slices)Data Set from last Thursday(slices) 0 2 1 2 2 4 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 4 3 4 1 4 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 20 2 1 2 2 4 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 4 3 4 1 4 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 42 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 4 2 1 2 4 22 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 4 2 1 2 4 2 1 7 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 4 2 41 7 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 4 2 4
  14. 14. Superb Pizza ExampleSuperb Pizza Example Mean = 2.032258Mean = 2.032258 Max = 7Max = 7 Min = 0Min = 0 Range = 7Range = 7 QuestionQuestion For 7 columns what would the widthFor 7 columns what would the width be?be? Range/Columns=7/7=1 slice
  15. 15. Superb Pizza ExampleSuperb Pizza Example 33 65 8 12 0 0 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slices of Pizza #timesordered Histogram
  16. 16. Constructing a HistogramConstructing a Histogram How is this helpful to Superb?How is this helpful to Superb? • 2 slices of pizza most common order2 slices of pizza most common order placedplaced • Distribution of sales useful forDistribution of sales useful for forecasting next Thursday’s lateforecasting next Thursday’s late night demandnight demand If you were an Superb manager howIf you were an Superb manager how could you apply this information?could you apply this information?
  17. 17. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality Pareto AnalysisPareto Analysis • Very similar to HistogramsVery similar to Histograms • Use of the 80/20 ruleUse of the 80/20 rule • Use of percentages to showUse of percentages to show importanceimportance
  18. 18. Superb Pizza (part 2)Superb Pizza (part 2) SlicesSlices FrequencyFrequency %% 00 11 .3.3 11 3333 13.0913.09 22 6565 25.7925.79 33 88 3.173.17 44 1212 4.764.76 55 00 00 66 00 00 77 11 .3.3
  19. 19. Superb Pizza (part 2)Superb Pizza (part 2) • The completed Pareto Analysis results in theThe completed Pareto Analysis results in the following graph:following graph: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Slices of Pizza #timesordered 2 1 4 3 7 5 6
  20. 20. Superb Pizza (part 2)Superb Pizza (part 2) Critical ThinkingCritical Thinking • How does the Pareto AnalysisHow does the Pareto Analysis differ from the Histogram?differ from the Histogram? • How can this be a useful tool toHow can this be a useful tool to the Superb boss?the Superb boss?
  21. 21. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality FlowchartsFlowcharts • A graphical picture of a PROCESSA graphical picture of a PROCESS Process Decision The process flow
  22. 22. FlowchartsFlowcharts Don’t Forget to:Don’t Forget to: • Define symbols before beginningDefine symbols before beginning • Stay consistentStay consistent • Check that process is accurateCheck that process is accurate
  23. 23. Superb Pizza ExampleSuperb Pizza Example (Flowchart)(Flowchart) WindowWindow Take CustomerTake Customer Money?Money? (start)(start) OrderOrder Get PizzaGet Pizza LockupLockup Put More inPut More in OvenOven 2 Pies2 Pies Available?Available? TimeTime to close?to close? Take to CustomerTake to Customer no yes no yes no yes
  24. 24. How can we use the flowchart toHow can we use the flowchart to analyze improvement ideas fromanalyze improvement ideas from the Histogram?the Histogram? WindowWindow Take CustomerTake Customer Money?Money? (start)(start) OrderOrder Get PizzaGet Pizza LockupLockup Put More inPut More in OvenOven 2 Pies2 Pies Available?Available? TimeTime to close?to close? Take to CustomerTake to Customer no yes no yes no yes
  25. 25. Want some practice?Want some practice? Make a flowchart for:Make a flowchart for: • Taking a showerTaking a shower • Cooking dinnerCooking dinner • Driving a carDriving a car • Having a partyHaving a party • Creating a FlowchartCreating a Flowchart Any other processes you can think of?Any other processes you can think of?
  26. 26. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality Scatter PlotsScatter Plots • 2 Dimensional X/Y plots2 Dimensional X/Y plots • Used to show relationshipUsed to show relationship between independent(x) andbetween independent(x) and dependent(y) variablesdependent(y) variables
  27. 27. Superb PizzaSuperb Pizza (Scatter Diagram)(Scatter Diagram) Minutes CookingMinutes Cooking Defective PiesDefective Pies 1010 11 4545 88 3030 55 7575 2020 6060 1414 2020 44 2525 66 In this simple example, you can find the existingIn this simple example, you can find the existing relationship without much difficulty but…relationship without much difficulty but…
  28. 28. Scatter DiagramsScatter Diagrams 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 20 40 60 80 •Easier to see direct relationship Time Cooking (minutes) DefectivePizzas
  29. 29. Scatter DiagramsScatter Diagrams As a quality toolAs a quality tool • What does this tell SuperbWhat does this tell Superb management about theirmanagement about their processes?processes? • Improvements?Improvements? 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 20 40 60 80 Time Cooking (minutes) DefectivePizzas
  30. 30. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality Run chartsRun charts • Time-based (x-axis)Time-based (x-axis) • CyclicalCyclical • Look for patternsLook for patterns
  31. 31. Run ChartsRun Charts 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 PM- AM PM- AM PM- AM Thursday Thursday Thursday 5101520253035404550556065707580859095100 Slices/hour Time
  32. 32. The Basic Seven (B7)The Basic Seven (B7) Tools of QualityTools of Quality Control ChartsControl Charts • Deviation from MeanDeviation from Mean • Upper and Lower Spec’sUpper and Lower Spec’s • RangeRange
  33. 33. Control ChartsControl Charts Upper LimitUpper Limit Lower LimitLower Limit Unacceptable deviation X
  34. 34. Control ChartsControl Charts Superb Pizza Management wants to get in on the control chart action •Average Diameter = 16 inches •Upper Limit = 17 inches •Lower Limit = 15 inches
  35. 35. Superb exampleSuperb example Control ChartsControl Charts Upper LimitUpper Limit 17 inches17 inches Lower LimitLower Limit 15 Inches15 Inches Small Pie X16 inches=
  36. 36. Superb example #50Superb example #50 Control ChartsControl Charts •Pies within specifications were acceptable •One abnormally small pie is “uncommon” •Should be examined for quality control
  37. 37. SummarySummary • Basic Seven Tools of QualityBasic Seven Tools of Quality • Measuring dataMeasuring data • Quality AnalysisQuality Analysis • ““Democratized statistics”Democratized statistics”
  38. 38. BibliographyBibliography • Foster, Thomas.Foster, Thomas. InternetInternet • Stevenson, William.Stevenson, William. InternetInternet • ““Dr Kaoru Ishikawa.” InternetDr Kaoru Ishikawa.” Internet .. • ““Chemical and Process Engineering.”Chemical and Process Engineering.” Internet.Internet.

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