Critical Approach Wikileaks Make More Transparent Media
Publishing improves transparency, and this transparency creates a better society for all people. Better scrutiny leads to reduced corruption and stronger democracies in all society’s institutions, including government, corporations and other organisations. A healthy, vibrant and inquisitive journalistic media plays a vital role in achieving these goals. We are part of that media....” they said. Is Wikileaks realy make media tranperant or it is an illusion serve for dark powers.
Critical Approach Wikileaks Make More Transparent Media
“Publishing improves transparency, and this transparency creates a
better society for all people. Better scrutiny leads to reduced
corruption and stronger democracies in all society’s institutions,
including government, corporations and other organisations. A
healthy, vibrant and inquisitive journalistic media plays a vital role
in achieving these goals. We are part of that media....” they said. Is
Wikileaks realy make media tranperant or it is an illusion serve for
[Kamil Mehmet ÖZKAN]
[New Media Master Program]
What is Wikileaks ? 3.......................................................................................
How WikiLeaks works ? 4..................................................................................
Why the media is important ? 5..........................................................................
Who is Julian Assange ? 6.................................................................................
Important Leaks 7..........................................................................................
Diplomatic Cables Release 8..............................................................................
Some of the topic stories they have broken 8..........................................................
How They Administrate Wikileaks ? 9....................................................................
After US Diplomatic Leaks, Are They in Danger ? 9....................................................
Upcoming Leaks and Insurance 10.......................................................................
Critical View Wikileaks 11................................................................................
Sum Up 12...................................................................................................
Critical Aproach Wikileaks Can Make Media Transperancy or Make Innocent Life in
By Kamil Mehmet ÖZKAN
What is Wikileaks ?
“WikiLeaks is a not-for-proﬁt media organisation. Our goal is to bring
important news and information to the public. We provide an innovative, secure
and anonymous way for sources to leak information to our journalists (our
electronic drop box). One of our most important activities is to publish original
source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see
evidence of the truth. We are a young organisation that has grown very quickly,
relying on a network of dedicated volunteers around the globe. Since 2007, when
the organisation was ofﬁcially launched, WikiLeaks has worked to report on and
publish important information. We also develop and adapt technologies to
support these activities.” They discribe themself in their ofﬁcial website very self
deniying organization and they want publish secrets which are kept from public.
Ok. What is Wikileaks ?
WikiLeaks is an international non-proﬁt organisation that publishes submissions of
private, secret, and classiﬁed media from anonymous news sources and news leaks.
The wikileaks.org domain name was registered on 4 October 2006. Its website,
launched in 2006 and run by The Sunshine Press, claimed a database of more than
1.2 million documents within a year of its launch. The organisation describes its
founders as a mix of Chinesedissidents, journalists, mathematicians, and start-up
company technologists from the United States, Taiwan, Europe, Australia, and South
The website was unveiled, and published its ﬁrst document in December 2006.
The creators of WikiLeaks have not been formally identiﬁed. It has been represented
in public since January 2007 by Julian Assange and others. Assange describes
himself as a member of WikiLeaks' advisory board.
News reports in The Australian have called Assange the "founder of WikiLeaks".
According to Wired magazine, a volunteer said that Assange described himself in a
private conversation as "the heart and soul of this organisation, its founder,
philosopher, spokesperson, original coder, organiser, ﬁnancier, and all the rest". As of
June 2009, the site had over 1,200 registered volunteers and listed an advisory
board comprising Assange and eight other people.
“WikiLeaks has sustained and triumphed against legal and political attacks
designed to silence our publishing organisation, our journalists and our
anonymous sources. The broader principles on which our work is based are the
defence of freedom of speech and media publishing, the improvement of our
common historical record and the support of the rights of all people to create new
history. We derive these principles from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In particular, Article 19 inspires the work of our journalists and other volunteers. It
states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this
right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and
impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. We
agree, and we seek to uphold this and the other Articles of the Declaration.”
They are soldier of freedom and heroes of journalists. Are they ? Are the information
they show us really important for us ? Or can they changed anything about blatant
injustice ? Or are they mirror in front of the big plans. Are somebody have problem
about leaks ?
Lets look how wikileaks system works.
How WikiLeaks works ?
“WikiLeaks has combined high-end security technologies with journalism and
ethical principles. Like other media outlets conducting investigative journalism, we
accept (but do not solicit) anonymous sources of information. Unlike other outlets, we
provide a high security anonymous drop box fortiﬁed...
We are fearless in our efforts to get the unvarnished truth out to the public. When
information comes in, our journalists analyse the material, verify it and write a
news piece about it describing its signiﬁcance to society. We then publish both the
news story and the original material in order to enable readers to analyse the story in
the context of the original source material themselves ...
As the media organisation has grown and developed, WikiLeaks been developing
and improving a harm minimisation procedure. We do not censor our news, but
from time to time we may remove or signiﬁcantly delay the publication of some
identifying details from original documents to protect life and limb of innocent
We accept leaked material in person and via postal drops as alternative methods,
although we recommend the anonymous electronic drop box as the preferred
method of submitting any material. We do not ask for material, but we make sure that
if material is going to be submitted it is done securely and that the source is well
protected. Because we receive so much information, and we have limited resources,
it may take time to review a source’s submission.
We also have a network of talented lawyers around the globe who are
personally committed to the principles that WikiLeaks is based on, and who
defend our media organisation.”
Wikileaks works like a media organization. It is not a common website which publish
documents when it found. Wikileaks have lots of volunteers, journalists, lawyers and
talented people about security and technology.
They edit leaks and look is the document true or not. They look about forensic
problems with their lawyer army and publish their documents in a legal way which is
not unstoppable way. They want to change the way of making journalism with
technological developments. Also they want to change new age history.
Also they said sometime they remove information from leaks for keeping their
Why the media is important ?
“Publishing improves transparency, and this transparency creates a better society
for all people. Better scrutiny leads to reduced corruption and stronger
democracies in all society’s institutions, including government, corporations
and other organisations. A healthy, vibrant and inquisitive journalistic media plays a
vital role in achieving these goals. We are part of that media.
Scrutiny requires information. Historically, information has been costly in terms of
human life, human rights and economics. As a result of technical advances
particularly the internet and cryptography - the risks of conveying important
information can be lowered. In its landmark ruling on the Pentagon Papers, the US
Supreme Court ruled that "only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose
deception in government." We agree.
We believe that it is not only the people of one country that keep their own
government honest, but also the people of other countries who are watching
that government through the media.
In the years leading up to the founding of WikiLeaks, we observed the world’s
publishing media becoming less independent and far less willing to ask the hard
questions of government, corporations and other institutions. We believed this
needed to change.
WikiLeaks has provided a new model of journalism. Because we are not
motivated by making a proﬁt, we work cooperatively with other publishing and
media organisations around the globe, instead of following the traditional
model of competing with other media. We don’t hoard our information; we
make the original documents available with our news stories. Readers can verify
the truth of what we have reported themselves. Like a wire service, WikiLeaks
reports stories that are often picked up by other media outlets. We encourage this.
We believe the world’s media should work together as much as possible to bring
stories to a broad international readership.”
Wikileaks have some problems with traditional media sources. They think pure
journalism doesnot motivated by proﬁt and advertisements or some powerful
politicians. Public must see everything about what they related about.
In an interview on The Colbert Report, Assange explained about the limit to the
freedom of speech, saying, "[it is] not an ultimate freedom, however free speech is
what regulates government and regulates law. That is why in the US constitution the
bill of rights says that congress is to make no such law abridging the freedom of the
press. It is to take the rights of the press outside the rights of the law because those
rights are superior to the law because in fact they create the law. Every constitution,
every bit of legislation is derived from the ﬂow of information. Similarly every
government is elected as a result of people understanding things".
Who is Julian Assange ?
Before looking Wikileaks media effects we must know some useful information about
founder or spokesman Julian Assange.
Julian Paul Assange ( Born 3 July 1971) is an Australian publisher, journalist,
software developer and Internet activist. He is the founder, spokesperson, and editor
in chief of WikiLeaks, with the stated purpose of creating open governments.
Assange has worked as a computer programmer and was a hacker during his youth.
He has lived in several countries, and has made public appearances in many parts of
the world to speak about freedom of the press, censorship, and investigative
The White House has called Assange's release of the diplomatic cables "reckless
and dangerous" while sources in the Kremlin linked to President Dmitry Medvedev
suggested that he "could be awarded a Nobel prize."
For his work with WikiLeaks Assange has received glowing praise and accolades,
along with public condemnation and calls for his execution. He received a number of
awards and nominations, including the 2009 Amnesty International Media Award for
publishing material about extrajudicial killings in Kenya and Readers' Choice for Time
magazine's 2010 Person of the Year.
Assange is currently wanted for questioning in Sweden regarding alleged sexual
offences, and was arrested in London, England on 7 December 2010. He is currently
on bail and under house arrest in England pending an extradition hearing. Assange
has denied the allegations and claimed that they are politically motivated.
WikiLeaks posted its ﬁrst document in December 2006, a decision to assassinate
government ofﬁcials signed by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys."
In August 2007, The Guardian published a story about corruption by the family of the
former Kenyan leader Daniel arap Moi based on information provided via WikiLeaks.
In November 2007, a March 2003 copy of Standard Operating Procedures for Camp
Delta detailing the protocol of the U.S. Army at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp
was released. The document revealed that some prisoners were off-limits to the
International Committee of the Red Cross, something that the U.S. military had in the
past repeatedly denied. ... In March 2008, WikiLeaks published what they referred to
as "the collected secret 'bibles' of Scientology," and three days later received letters
threatening to sue them for breach of copyright. ...
In January 2009, WikiLeaks released 86 telephone intercept recordings of Peruvian
politicians and businessmen involved in the 2008 Peru oil scandalIn February,
WikiLeaks released 6,780 Congressional Research Service reports followed in
March, by a list of contributors to the Norm Coleman senatorial campaign and a set
of documents belonging to Barclays Bank that had been ordered removed from the
website of The Guardian. In July, they released a report relating to a serious nuclear
accident that had occurred at the Iranian Natanz nuclear facility in 2009. Later media
reports have suggested that the accident was related to the Stuxnet computer worm.
In September, internal documents from Kaupthing Bank were leaked, from shortly
before the collapse of Iceland's banking sector, which led to the 2008–2010 Icelandic
ﬁnancial crisis. The document shows that suspiciously large sums of money were
loaned to various owners of the bank, and large debts written off. They also released
570,000 intercepts of pager messages sent on the day of the 11 September attacks.
During 2008 and 2009, WikiLeaks published the alleged lists of forbidden or illegal
web addresses for Australia, Denmark and Thailand. These were originally created to
prevent access to child pornography and terrorism, but the leaks revealed that other
sites covering unrelated subjects were also listed.
In March 2010, WikiLeaks released a secret 32-page U.S. Department of Defense
Counterintelligence Analysis Report written in March 2008 discussing the leaking of
material by WikiLeaks and how it could be deterred. In April, a classiﬁed video of the
12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike was released, showing two Reuters employees
being ﬁred at, after the pilots mistakenly thought the men were carrying
weapons, which were in fact cameras. In June 2010, A 22-year-old US Army
intelligence analyst, PFC (formerly SPC) Bradley Manning, was arrested after alleged
chat logs were turned in to the authorities by former hacker Adrian Lamo, in whom he
had conﬁded. Manning reportedly told Lamo he had leaked the "Collateral Murder"
video, in addition to a video of the Granai airstrike and around 260,000 diplomatic
cables, to WikiLeaks. In July, WikiLeaks released 92,000 documents related to the
war in Afghanistan between 2004 and the end of 2009 to The Guardian, The New
York Times and Der Spiegel. The documents detail individual incidents including
friendly ﬁre and civilian casualties. At the end of July, a 1.4 GB "insurance ﬁle"
was added to the Afghan War Diary page, whose decryption details would be
released if WikiLeaks or Assange were harmed. WikiLeaks asked the Pentagon
and human-rights groups to help remove names from the documents to reduce the
potential harm caused by their release, but did not receive assistance. Following on
from the leak of information from the Afghan War, in October 2010, around 400,000
documents relating to the Iraq War were released in October. The BBC quoted The
Pentagon referring to the Iraq War Logs as "the largest leak of classiﬁed documents
in its history." Media coverage of the leaked documents focused on claims that the
U.S. government had ignored reports of torture by the Iraqi authorities during the
period after the 2003 war.
Diplomatic Cables Release
On 28 November 2010, WikiLeaks and ﬁve major newspapers from Spain (El
País), France (Le Monde), Germany (Der Spiegel), the United Kingdom (The
Guardian), and the United States (The New York Times) started to simultaneously
publish the ﬁrst 220 of 251,287 leaked conﬁdential diplomatic cables from 274 US
embassies around the world, dated from 28 December 1966 to 28 February 2010.
WikiLeaks plans to release the entirety of the cables in phases over several months.
Some of the topic stories they have broken
• War, killings, torture and detention
• Government, trade and corporate transparency
• Suppression of free speech and a free press
• Diplomacy, spying and (counter-)intelligence
• Ecology, climate, nature and sciences
• Corruption, ﬁnance, taxes, trading
• Censorship technology and internet ﬁltering
• Cults and other religious organizations
• Abuse, violence, violation
How They Administrate Wikileaks ?
According to a January 2010 interview, the WikiLeaks team then consisted of ﬁve
people working full-time and about 800 people who worked occasionally, none of
whom were compensated. WikiLeaks has no ofﬁcial headquarters. The expenses
per year are about €200,000, mainly for servers and bureaucracy. WikiLeaks does
not pay for lawyers, as hundreds of thousands of dollars in legal support have been
donated by media organisations such as the Associated Press, Los Angeles Times,
and the National Newspaper Publishers Association. Its only revenue stream is
donations, but WikiLeaks has planned to add an auction model to sell early
access to documents. The Wau Holland Foundation helps to process donations to
WikiLeaks. In July 2010, the Foundation stated that WikiLeaks was receiving no
money for personnel costs, only for hardware, travelling and bandwidth.
After US Diplomatic Leaks, Are They in Danger ?
According to The Times, WikiLeaks and its members have complained about
continuing surveillance by law enforcement and intelligence organisations. Two
lawyers for Julian Assange in the United Kingdom told The Guardian that they
believed they were being watched by the security services after the US cables leak,
which started on 28 November 2010.
Furthermore, several companies severed ties with WikiLeaks. After providing 24-hour
notiﬁcation, American owned EveryDNS dropped WikiLeaks from its entries on 2
December 2010, citing DDoS attacks that "threatened the stability of its
infrastructure". On the same day, Amazon.com severed its ties with WikiLeaks, to
which it was providing infrastructure services, after an intervention by an aide of
U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman. But the other hand Amazon denied acting under
political pressure citing a violation of its terms of service.
In the days following, hundreds of (and eventually more than a thousand) mirrors of
the WikiLeaks site appeared and the Anonymous group of internet activists, called on
supporters to attack the websites of companies which do not support WikiLeaks,
under the banner of Operation Payback, previously aimed at anti-piracy
On 3 December, PayPal, the payment processor owned by eBay, permanently cut off
the account of the Wau Holland Foundation that had been redirecting donations to
WikiLeaks. PayPal alleged that the account violated its "Acceptable Use Policy",
speciﬁcally that it was used for "activities that encourage, promote, facilitate or
instruct others to engage in illegal activity." The Vice President of PayPal later
stated that they stopped accepting payments after the “State Department told
us these were illegal activities. It was straightforward.” Later the same day, he
said that his previous statement was incorrect, and that it was in fact based on a
letter from the State Department to WikiLeaks.
On 6 December, the Swiss bank, PostFinance, announced that it had frozen the
assets of Assange that it holds, totalling 31,000 euros. In a statement on their
website, they stated that this was because Assange "provided false information
regarding his place of residence" when opening the account. WikiLeaks released a
statement saying this was due to that Assange, "as a homeless refugee attempting to
gain residency in Switzerland, had used his lawyer's address in Geneva for the
bank's correspondence".On the same day, MasterCard announced that it "is taking
action to ensure that WikiLeaks can no longer accept MasterCard-branded products",
adding "MasterCard rules prohibit customers from directly or indirectly engaging in or
facilitating any action that is illegal." The next day, Visa Inc. announced it was
suspending payments to WikiLeaks, pending "further investigations". In a move of
support for WikiLeaks, XIPWIRE established a way to donate to WikiLeaks, and
waived their fees. On December 18, Bank of America announced it would "not
process transactions of any type that we have reason to believe are intended for
Wikileaks" citing "Wikileaks may be engaged in activities that are... inconsistent with
our internal policies for processing payments".
On 7 December, The Guardian stated that people can still donate to WikiLeaks via
Commerzbank Kassel in Germany or Landsbanki in Iceland or by post to a post
ofﬁce box at the University of Melbourne or at the wikileaks.ch domain.
On 21 December, media reported that Apple had removed an application from its App
Store, which provided access to the embassy cable leaks.
Upcoming Leaks and Insurance
In an interview with Chris Anderson on 19 July 2010, Assange showed a document
WikiLeaks had on an Albanian oil well blowout, and said they also had material from
inside BP, and that they were "getting enormous quantity of whistle-blower
disclosures of a very high calibre" but added that they have not been able to verify
and release the material because they do not have enough volunteer journalists.
In October 2010, Assange told a leading Moscow newspaper that "The Kremlin had
better brace itself for a coming wave of WikiLeaks disclosures about Russia."
Assange later clariﬁed: "we have material on many businesses and governments,
including in Russia. It’s not right to say there’s going to be a particular focus on
In a 2009 Computer World interview, Assange claimed to be in possession of "5GB
from Bank of America". In 2010 he told Forbes magazine that WikiLeaks was
planning another "megaleak" early in 2011, from inside the private sector, involving "a
big U.S. bank" and revealing an "ecosystem of corruption". Bank of America's stock
price fell by 3% as a result of this announcement. Assange commented on the
possible impact of the release that ”it could take down a bank or two.”
In December 2010, Assange's lawyer, Mark Stephens, told The Andrew Marr Show
on the BBC, that WikiLeaks had information it considers to be a "thermo-nuclear
device" which it would release if the organisation needs to defend itself.
Insurance ﬁle is still waiting. If any attacks Wikileaks or Julian Assange himself, they
release cyrpto of insurance ﬁle which contains more than Cablegate documents.
They may have very important leaks fro banking sector.
Critical View Wikileaks
Wikileaks organization describe themself non proﬁt organization and new way to
make news. They ﬁght freedom and transparency about secret informations
somebody have from government.
When we look “The Global Media in the late 1990s” (Edward Herman and Robert
McChesney) and “Globalization and Cultural Imperialism Reconsidered: Old
Questions in New Guises” in( James Curran and David Morley) Wikileaks ﬁt to this
model. After technological revolution and growing information ways it effects media
and news sector. In past if you leaks one or two paper you can publish pysical
newspaper in one country. It canbe censored before publishing and leaker is arrested
But today with internet can be reach billions of people in seconds and can not be
censored in classical way. If the internet does not exist we can not know anything
about leaks. In global media age every information can be leaks and inform from
cyber soldiers or terrorists. Wikileaks reach thousands of documents from all around
the world via technology anonymus way.
They can kept their sources. They said they do not know most of their sources.
New media makes new way making journalism. With new media and social media
tools today Wikileaks have millions of supporters. Today in Facebook Wikileaks have
more than 1,500,000 people. More than 650.000 followers. And thousands of
anonymus hacker supporter which we do not know about them ﬁght for Wikileaks.
They hacked Paypal, Amazon, Banks website. This is another and modern way
“A Propaganda Model” in Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass
Media(Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky), Wikileaks ﬁght big power baroons,
money and goverment. They want transperancy about secret information about
diplomatic relations. Ok. Is it really possible. Is it really important for public. Common
citizen must know everything their purpose. Is the aim so cute and so innocence.
With technology there are always new way to phshcological war. Who wants to
publish top secret government documents. Or these documents help something or
someone to change.
However Hillary Clinton said that Julian Assange and their team make danger
innocents life. But above Wikileaks said that sometime we remove name or the other
contact informations from leaks because we want to keep their life. ” We do not
censor our news, but from time to time we may remove or signiﬁcantly delay
the publication of some identifying details from original documents to protect
life and limb of innocent people.”
Another way they claim that their works based on freedom. They ﬁght proﬁt centered
news sector censor some important informations which public knowledge worh. They
take their power from Universal Decleration of Human Rights. It can be possible a
real movement from civil but it can be motivated from international intelligence
powers such as USA or Russia or meybe China. Its ıs all about what they show us.
“...our work is based are the defence of freedom of speech and media
publishing, the improvement of our common historical record and the support of the
rights of all people to create new history. We derive these principles from the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In particular, Article 19 inspires the work of
our journalists and other volunteers. It states that everyone has the right to
freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions
without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through
any media and regardless of frontiers.”
In tihs case Propaganda model is working. You can say public we do this for you.
This secrets hide from you, but the other hand the big plans run on. It can be and
possible. But can not verifyied.
We are living high technology edge. Media is top the global and more crowded form
all the time. With social networks and internet based information and communication
systems everybody have their all media channnel. With Twitter or Facebook or only
writing in a blog everybody can reach all audiences in internet all around the world.
This is global media and global worlds. Every person in internet is a media channel.
With this condition propaganda in past make some powerful media relared baroons
but today everyone can make propaganda. Classic media is message today’s
medium internet. One person can take war logs from army computer and arrived
Julian Assange and their team and nobody can not do anything.
Media became more transperancy as Julian Assange and their team want. Nobody’s
life can hurt from Wikileaks . Wikileaks change government in Afrika. Nowadays in
Tunusian dictator escape from public angry. They said it is all related with Wikileaks
last cablegate documents.
We say only one thing, Julian Assange and Wikileaks wants really or not media
came more tranperancy from past. Today every body publish what they want and
reach millions of people in seconds.
- Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky “A Propaganda Model” in Manufacturing
Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media, 2002. pp. 1-35. (kit).
- Edward Herman and Robert McChesney “The Global Media in the late 1990s” in
Mckay ed., pp. 178-210. (kit)
- David Morley “Globalization and Cultural Imperialism Reconsidered: Old Questions
in New Guises” in James Curran and David Morley eds. Media and Cultural Theory,
London: Routledge, 2006. pp. 30-43. (kit)
- Lev Manovich. “What is New Media?” in The Language of New Media, MIT Press,
- http://www.orbooks.com/our-books/wikileaks/ with Google book search