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A vision for Physical Planning

Policy, Strategy and Regional Context

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A vision for Physical Planning

  1. 1. Physical Planning Forum Vision policy, strategy; regional context. Kamil Khan Mumtaz July 2014
  2. 2. • The Ecological Footprint measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resource it consumes and to absorb its carbon dioxide emissions. • Since the 1970s, humanity has been in ecological overshoot with annual demand on resources exceeding what Earth can regenerate each year. • It now takes the Earth one year and six months to regenerate what we use in a year. • We maintain this overshoot by liquidating the Earth’s resources. Overshoot is a vastly underestimated threat to human well- being and the health of the planet. N/page/footprint_basics_overview/ The Global Context Key Issues •Environmental crisis •Poverty •Income Disparities
  3. 3. Ecological ‘income’ (bio-capacity) and ‘expenditure’ (eco- footprint) Since 2006, the World Fund for Nature has been issuing a bi-annual audit, ‘Living Planet Report’, of the world’s ecological ‘income’ (bio-capacity) and ‘expenditure’ (eco-footprint). We in Pakistan are trying hard to emulate Dubai (aspiring to create global cities, water-front developments, dazzling skyscrapers and malls, etc) which is one of the highest over-consumers per capita in the world, exceeding even the US. The Global Context Key Issues Environmental crisis
  4. 4. Qatar has the worst ecological footprint per person in the world. The Global Context Urbanization is a symptom of the present global ecological crisis. Its principal cause is the modern development paradigm. Pursuit of Endless Economic Growth has resulted in over-production, depletion of resources, waste, environmental degradation, social disintegration and dehumanization.
  5. 5. The Global Context Key Issues •Poverty •Income Disparities
  6. 6. Vision, Policies & Strategies
  7. 7. The Earth Charter was created by the independent Earth Charter Commission, which was convened as a follow-up to the 1992 Earth Summit in order to produce a global consensus statement of values and principles for a sustainable future. The document was developed over nearly a decade through an extensive process of international consultation, to which over five thousand people contributed. The Charter has been formally endorsed by thousands of organizations, including UNESCO and the IUCN (World Conservation Union). For more information, please visit Preamble to The Earth Charter We stand at a critical moment in Earth's history... We must join together to bring forth a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace. … Earth, Our Home ... Earth, our home, is alive with a unique community of life. ..The global environment with its finite resources is a common concern of all peoples. The protection of Earth's vitality, diversity, and beauty is a sacred trust. The Global Context The Earth Charter
  8. 8. The Global Situation The dominant patterns of production and consumption are causing environmental devastation, the depletion of resources, and a massive extinction of species. Communities are being undermined. The benefits of development are not shared equitably and the gap between rich and poor is widening. Injustice, poverty, ignorance, and violent conflict are widespread and the cause of great suffering. An unprecedented rise in human population has overburdened ecological and social systems. The foundations of global security are threatened. These trends are perilous—but not inevitable. The Challenges Ahead …Fundamental changes are needed in our values, institutions, and ways of living. We must realize that …human development is primarily about being more, not having more. .. Our environmental, economic, political, social, and spiritual challenges are interconnected, and together we can forge inclusive solutions. The Global Context The Earth Charter
  9. 9. • “Urbanization presents one of the key challenges and, at the same time, opportunities in the new millennium” • “Those cities that fail to plan ahead and execute the plans will not be competitive in the globalized world. Urban economies are contributing significantly more to national exchequer and at the same time have become key employment markets. Cities indeed are important engines of economic growth and provide significant economies of scale in the provision of jobs, housing and services.” (our italics) (LDA’s Integrated Strategic Development Plan for Lahore Region) TLP Vision and Strategies City & Region Key Issues Pursuit of Endless Economic Growth
  10. 10. We do not share this corporate capitalist vision of rapid urbanization as an investment opportunity, and cities as employment markets, whose expanding size provides economies of scale for profiteers who are valorized for their contribution to the national exchequer. TLP Vision and Strategies The City & its Region Key Issues Pursuit of Endless Economic Growth
  11. 11. The City & its Region • Cities process primary raw materials, manufacturer secondary products and provide services. • Economically they are integrated with the region that produces the primary products, and the region to which they provide goods and services. • In a symbiotic relationship, the value of what each takes from the other is more or less equivalent to what it gives. • In a parasitic relationship the city extracts resources in excess of their rates of renewal and re-generation, and produces toxic and non- recyclable waste. The Region On the basis of bio-capacity of 0.07 hectares of arable land per person, Lahore Division may be taken as a sustainable region.
  12. 12. Bio-Capacity -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 Pakistan Balochistan Punjab Sindh NWFP FATA Islamabad LahoreD LahoreDis KarachiDis Times surplus/deficient The City & its Region • Lahore District: • Total Area:1772 • Cultivable Area: 319 sq. km • Bio-capacity:.0036 ha/capita • Lahore Division • Total Area: 14687 • Cultivable Area: 9455 sq. km • Bio-capacity: .0672m sq./capita On the basis of bio-capacity of 0.07 hectares of arable land per person, Lahore Division may be taken as a sustainable region.
  13. 13. • Population: 14 million (Lahore Division) • 8.5 million People reside in Lahore District and 82 % of which are urban dwellers. • Population growth rate of 2.5% since 1998 Census is much faster than the national and provincial rate of 1.9% • Age Profile in Lahore District is very much young (below 14 = 39.2%; 15 – 49 = 50%) Key Issues People
  14. 14. Occupations: • Services: 38.8 %; • White collar: 31 %; • ‘lumpen’: 19.5 %; • Manufacturing: 10.4 % Employment by zone of residence • Primary: 4.4% • Secondary: 14.6% • Tertiary: 81% • Employment Participation rate: 27% • Unemployment Exceeds those employed by 27% • Female residents unemployment: 99% • GDP: average growth rate declined from 6% in the 1980s to 3% in the last five years • Incomes: Average Household Income for Towns/Tehsils(Pak Rs/month) • Highest: 43,397 in Cantonment • Lowest: 22,26 in Muridke. Key Issues Economy
  15. 15. Vision and Strategies Key Issues Urbanization Period Cumulative Developed Area (km2) Average Growth Area per year (ha) Pre-British 23.8 1850 – 1900 68.7 90 1901-1950 71.2 48 1951-65 117.2 323 1966-80 175.7 390 1981-90 245.6 699 1991-2000 326.0 804 2001-2006 397.8 1196
  16. 16. Vision and Strategies Key Issues Urbanization Unsustainable Physical Growth Trends based on motorized circulation, single central high-rise business district and cultural center low-density suburbs, segregated and widely separated land-use zones and open-ended growth in the size of its population and physical area
  17. 17. Densities Majority of developed urban land (90%) comprises low-density (less than 150 persons per hectare), for the rich minority (42% of the population), while the poor (58 % of the population) are crammed into a tiny proportion of the urban area (10%), at densities over a thousand persons per hectare. Vision and Strategies Key Issues Urbanization
  18. 18. Our (TLP) studies have shown conclusively that there is no need to expand the urban area of Lahore. There is more than enough space and invested infrastructure capacity in the existing developed urban area to accommodate the projected doubling of the population over the next 25 years! Infrastructure Capacity Vision and Strategies Key Issues Urbanization
  19. 19. •Sustainable economy based on need rather than greed; •Extraction from resources should not exceed their rates of renewal and re-generation; •All that is consumed should be fully recycled; •Toxic and non-recyclable waste should be eliminated; •Equitable distribution of wealth Progressive taxation on incomes, movable and immovable property, and conspicuous consumption ; Full employment opportunities for working population; Place of work located within walking distance of place of residence; •Integrate housing for all income and occupational groups; •Integrate land uses, particularly housing, employment and social infrastructure; •Balance location of urban services and facilities in relation to population for each neighborhood; Principles & Policies
  20. 20. •Integrate urban economy with economy of host region •Organic farming in host region and artisanal manufacture of commodities at village, town and city levels based on natural raw materials and renewable energy will: reduce unemployment; improve balance of payments; produce healthier food; reduce of environmental degradation; result in 100% recycling; and zero waste •Tertiary Services: markets, trading and services at village, town and city levels •Taxation of non-essential consumption and investment of revenues in social infrastructure will: reduce income disparities; provide better quality of life; and reduce unemployment; Economic Strategy
  21. 21. • Equitable utilization of urban resources including land and invested infrastructure. This will: Rationalize urban densities; create space for social infrastructure (education, health, recreation etc.) in high density areas; and optimize utilization of surplus capacity in low-density areas; • Pedestrian circulation will Reduce motor vehicle traffic; Reduce traffic accidents; Reduce noise and air pollution; Reduce dependence on non-renewable energy; Save foreign exchange; Permit higher densities; Provide space for social infrastructure including recreation; Provide for better community integration; Urban Strategies
  22. 22. •Integration of land uses •Integration of income groups •Low-rise •Low-tech •High density •Control of urban expansion. This will: Conserve green areas including agriculture, forests and water bodies; Reduce utility infrastructure costs; Urban Strategies
  23. 23. Regional Structure Populati on /UnitUnits Quant ity 4000Village 400 17000Town 80 375000city 11 7000000 Metropolis comprising of 18 ‘cities’ 1 Regional Strategies
  24. 24. Union Council Pop. = 38282 Density Persons /hectares Area: hectares Highest 1500 25.5 high 700 54.7 Low 125 306.3 Lowest 37 1034.6 Alternate Urban Strategies
  25. 25. Walkable Town Pop: 306256 Area: 4 sq. km Density: 765/ha Motorized Union Council Pop: 38282 Area: 9 sq km Density: 42.5/ha Alternate Urban Strategies
  26. 26. Motorised City Pop: 2,450,048 Green City Pop: 2,450,048 Density: 765/ha Alternate Urban Strategies
  27. 27. Green Megalopolis Pop: 9,800,192 Alternate Urban Strategies
  28. 28. Our Vision for Lahore A center of urbanity and civilization A city that thrives in a symbiotic relationship with its region.
  29. 29. Our Goals • Realization of our highest human potential. • the greatest challenges of the new millennium is the conservation of our humanity and our environment • Our humanity is defined by the universal set of qualities and values that define what it means to be “human” – qualities such as Love, Compassion, Justice and Beauty – not by quantities such as gross national product, monetary wealth and material possessions
  30. 30. For the Conservation of our Humanity & our Environment