History of education


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History of education

  1. 1. History of American Schooling and Reform Kamila Bohacova Goddard College Fall 2013
  2. 2. Timeline of American Schooling Colonial Period 1620-1780 Early Republic Era 1780-1820 Common School Era 1820-1870 Industrial Era 1870-1940 Progressive Era- 1890-1920 Post World War II Era 1945-1980 Multicultural/Pluralistic Era 1970-present Educational Reforms1950-present
  3. 3. Colonial Period 1620-1780 Primary education of upper class children included reading, writing, simple math, poems and prayers. Teachers were primarily white, middle class and educated as well as being of high moral character The three most common books were the Bible, New England Primer and a hornbook The “Dame” School- preschool An early form of education in the American colonies was apprenticeship
  4. 4. The 1st School Boston Latin School was founded in 1635 First public school Education consisted of traditional English methods of family, church, community and apprenticeship Girls were not considered for these schools Purpose of school was to help boys get into Harvard College(est. 1636)
  5. 5. Early National Era 1780-1840 Benjamin Franklin believed that science could solve the problems of human life English Grammar School had a curriculum that illustrated scientific and practical skills Education was now controlled by the state as opposed to the government Thomas Jefferson believed that only through education can a democratic society emerge Noah Webster- America’s greatest lexicographer, with mastery of twenty languages, developed a speller “Blue-backed Speller”
  6. 6. The Common School Era 1820-1870 Meant to serve individuals of all social classes and religions Schools were free and open to all white children Funded by local taxes and overseen by elected local school board Taught by one teacher in a one room schoolhouse Children learned reading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography Horace Mann “Father of the Common School Movement” (1796-1859) – first secretary of Massachusetts state board of education McGuffey reader was the most common text book Established only in the North(Puritan) States, the South(Anglican) States did not have a tradition of
  7. 7. Industrial Era 1870-1950 Creation of larger schools More urbanization New teaching methods brought upon by the interest in psychology Age-graded classrooms Industrialization Standardized curriculum o Teacher Centered Classroom o Learning theories based on John Locke’s philosophy o John Dewey- challenged current thinking on how children learn
  8. 8. Progressive Era 1890-1920 Reform and modernize the school at the local level Passing compulsory schooling laws Integration of community service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum Jane Addams and the Founding of Hull House Development of manual training “child centered”, “social reconstructionist” Importance of emotional, artistic and creative aspects of human development John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Johann Pestalozzi, John Dewey, Maria Montessori
  9. 9. Post World War II Era 1945-1980 Higher education experienced a boom as Congress passed the GI Bill providing subsidies for returning veterans to attend college (over 10 million veterans took advantage of this opportunity) Bigger schools were built to accommodate the growing number of school-age children 1950’s marked the beginning of the end of school segregation- Brown vs. Board of Education Programs such as Head Start, Job Corps, subsidized school lunches and Title One appeared
  10. 10. Multicultural Education 1970’s • Emerged as part of the nation’s growing concern for racism and civil rights • To help students know and value the diverse traditions that enrich and dignify the nation’s heritage • To engage students in learning and maintaining their own heritage and language • Two-way bilingual programs • Multicultural education seeks to create equal educational opportunities for all students, including those from different racial, ethnic, and social- class groups • Cooperative teaching rather than competitive teaching • Value and support cross-racial interactions
  11. 11. What is Educational Reform? A demand with the goal of improving education Education reform is tied with the spread of Compulsory Education Economic growth and the spread of democracy have increased the importance of all children and adults having equal access to high quality and effective education
  12. 12. Major Reform Efforts o A Nation At Risk 1983 o Goals 2000 o No Child Left Behind Act 2001 Recovery Act-2010 Race to the Top-2010 Educate to Innovate-2010
  13. 13. Reform arising from the Civil Rights Era 1950-1970 Ending racial segregation Desegregation Affirmative action Banning of school prayer The launch of Russian’s Sputnik satellite in 1957 generated significant federal funding directed toward increased science and mathematics curricula in schools
  14. 14. Reform efforts in the 1980’s A Nation at Risk by President Ronald Reagan put a spotlight on federal and state government pushing for higher standards and more impressive academic results The alternatives included: charter schools, progressive schools, Montessori schools, Waldorf schools, or homeschool. E. D. Hirsch- advocated for “cultural literacy” – the facts, phrases and text that were essential to every American Goals 2000- an effort by the federal government to set standards for American education to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse population
  15. 15. No Child Left Behind Act 2001 Requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a state wide standardized test annually to all students Attempt to reduce the minority-majority achievement gap Requires states to provide highly qualified teachers Increased accountability for schools and teachers Reduces instruction time in subjects such as art, music, history & language to provide more time for mathematics and English
  16. 16. Quote “The No Child Left Behind Act sets a clear objective for American Education. Every child in every school must be performing at grade level in the basic subjects that are the key to all learning, reading and math. This ambitious goal is the most fundamental duty of every school, and it must, and it will be fulfilled” -President George W. Bush, June 10, 2002
  17. 17. Recovery Act 2010 President Obama and the administration provided a total of $100 billion toward education: $53.6 billion in aid to local school districts to prevent layoffs & cutbacks $15.6 billion to increase Pell Grants $13 billion for low-income public schoolchildren $12.2 billion for special education $2.1 billion for Head Start $2 billion for childcare services $650 million for educational technology $300 million for increased teacher salaries $250 million for states to analyze student performance $200 million to support working college students $70 million for the education of homeless children
  18. 18. Race to the Top 2010 Introduced by President Obama, drawn up by the Bill & Melinda Gates, Walton Family, Boeing and other foundations Prompted 48 states to adopt the Common Core Standards Federally funded Consists of four federally mandated “solutions”- school transformations, school turnarounds, school restarts, and school closures.
  19. 19. Educate to Innovate 2010 Promote excellence in science, technology, engineering, and math education aka “STEM” education “Reaffirming and strengthening America’s role as the world’s engine of scientific discovery and technological innovation is essential to meeting the challenges of this century”- President Obama
  20. 20. My Thoughts On Reform Educational reform is inevitable as we continue to diversify and grow. The new reform I am hoping to seeing in the twenty-first century is a shift toward a more democratic, multicultural and pluralistic society which is integrated into the school. Technology is becoming a major vehicle in educational reform as it allows access to virtually any inquiry in an instant. The implementation of the Common Core Standards were necessary in order to guide teachers in content, but I disagree with the high degree of accountability the teacher is responsible for when students are not performing up to the standards. The No Child Left Behind Act had great intentions but has demoralized many teachers. Instead of teaching what they are passionate about, they are teaching test-taking strategies. Another problem with NCLP is that the children tested come from a wide variety of abilities and backgrounds yet still take the same test. This gives a disadvantage to non native born and speaking children as well as those with disabilities.
  21. 21. Works Cited Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (2007). Teaching To Change The World. New York: McGraw- Hill Cuban, L. (2003). Why Is It So Hard To Get Good Schools? New York: Teachers College, Columbia University Kohn, A. (1999). The Schools Our Children Deserve: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and „Tougher Standards‟. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.