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Christ andBusiness CultureProfessor Kam-hon LeeCUHK Business SchoolThe Chinese University of Hong Kong
Research Background                 Professor Kam-hon Lee   2
Integrity • Sustains business • Promotes prosperity                         Professor Kam-hon Lee   3
Competitive pressure • Temptation • Malpractices                       Professor Kam-hon Lee   4
Ethics • Behavior • Value conviction                      Professor Kam-hon Lee   5
Calling • Salt and light • Marketplace                    Professor Kam-hon Lee   6
Research Design                  Professor Kam-hon Lee   7
Research subjects• 119 executives• Practicing Christians                          Professor Kam-hon Lee   8
Critical incident • Observable behavior • Sufficiently complete                          Professor Kam-hon Lee   9
H Richard Niebuhr Framework                                                        T YP E   5   Christ the transformer    ...
Negotiation Styles Framework        Yielding                  IntegratingOther              Compromising        Avoiding  ...
Integrated Framework        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture     ...
Variables • Key variable   • Response to an ethical challenge • Other variables   • Antecedents   • Consequences          ...
Data• 119 executives• 539 incidents• Coded by two co-authors                            Professor Kam-hon Lee   14
Research Findings                    Professor Kam-hon Lee   15
Results • Response to an ethical challenge • Focus on antecedents • China business • Christian corporate culture          ...
China business        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture           ...
Avoiding             Christ againstTYPE   1             business culture           • Unable to handle             corrupti...
China business        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture           ...
CompromisingTYPE   4     Christ and business             culture in paradox           • Paid penalty in spite of innocence...
Christian corporate culture        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business cultu...
Dominating           Christ the transformerTYPE   5           of business culture       • No intermediary roles for MNCs  ...
Christian corporate culture        TY PE   2    Yielding                    TChrist 2                     Y P E of        ...
Not YieldingTYPE   2             Not Christ of             business culture           • No more in-company fellowship     ...
Normative reflection • Beyond positive science • Prescriptive directive                             Professor Kam-hon Lee  ...
Normative reflection        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture      ...
Avoiding             Christ againstTYPE   1             business culture           • Christian corporate culture          ...
Normative reflection        TY PE   2    Yielding                    TChrist 2                     Y P E of                ...
YieldingTYPE   2             Christ of             business culture           • China business           • Nurturing guanx...
Normative reflection        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture      ...
IntegratingTYPE   3           Christ above           business culture       • China business       • Investing in safety e...
Normative reflection        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture      ...
CompromisingTYPE   4     Christ and business             culture in paradox           • Christian corporate culture       ...
Normative reflection        TY PE   2   Yielding                      Christ of                      business culture      ...
Dominating           Christ the transformerTYPE   5           of business culture       • China business       • Prayer an...
Conclusion             Professor Kam-hon Lee   36
Righteousness & Profitableness H Richard Niebuhr         Negotiation       Types                 Styles       5 types      ...
Integrated Framework• Upholds righteousness• Understands profitableness                              Professor Kam-hon Lee ...
Q&Akhlee@cuhk.edu.hk                    Professor Kam-hon Lee   39
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Christ & Business Culture

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Christ & Business Culture

  1. 1. Christ andBusiness CultureProfessor Kam-hon LeeCUHK Business SchoolThe Chinese University of Hong Kong
  2. 2. Research Background Professor Kam-hon Lee 2
  3. 3. Integrity • Sustains business • Promotes prosperity Professor Kam-hon Lee 3
  4. 4. Competitive pressure • Temptation • Malpractices Professor Kam-hon Lee 4
  5. 5. Ethics • Behavior • Value conviction Professor Kam-hon Lee 5
  6. 6. Calling • Salt and light • Marketplace Professor Kam-hon Lee 6
  7. 7. Research Design Professor Kam-hon Lee 7
  8. 8. Research subjects• 119 executives• Practicing Christians Professor Kam-hon Lee 8
  9. 9. Critical incident • Observable behavior • Sufficiently complete Professor Kam-hon Lee 9
  10. 10. H Richard Niebuhr Framework T YP E 5 Christ the transformer of business culture TY P E 3 Christ above business culture TY P E 4 Christ and business culture in paradoxT YPE 2 Christ of business culture T YP E1 Christ against business culture Professor Kam-hon Lee 10
  11. 11. Negotiation Styles Framework Yielding IntegratingOther Compromising Avoiding Dominating Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 11
  12. 12. Integrated Framework TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 12
  13. 13. Variables • Key variable • Response to an ethical challenge • Other variables • Antecedents • Consequences Professor Kam-hon Lee 13
  14. 14. Data• 119 executives• 539 incidents• Coded by two co-authors Professor Kam-hon Lee 14
  15. 15. Research Findings Professor Kam-hon Lee 15
  16. 16. Results • Response to an ethical challenge • Focus on antecedents • China business • Christian corporate culture Professor Kam-hon Lee 16
  17. 17. China business TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding YPE 1 TChrist against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 17
  18. 18. Avoiding Christ againstTYPE 1 business culture • Unable to handle corruption practices • Closed down China operation Professor Kam-hon Lee 18
  19. 19. China business TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising ChristP E 4 T Y and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 19
  20. 20. CompromisingTYPE 4 Christ and business culture in paradox • Paid penalty in spite of innocence • Amount smaller than what violators paid Professor Kam-hon Lee 20
  21. 21. Christian corporate culture TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5Dominating TChrist 5 transformer YPE the of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 21
  22. 22. Dominating Christ the transformerTYPE 5 of business culture • No intermediary roles for MNCs • Only two new clients per year Professor Kam-hon Lee 22
  23. 23. Christian corporate culture TY PE 2 Yielding TChrist 2 Y P E of T Y P E 2 culture business T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 23
  24. 24. Not YieldingTYPE 2 Not Christ of business culture • No more in-company fellowship meetings • Operating like an ordinary plant Professor Kam-hon Lee 24
  25. 25. Normative reflection • Beyond positive science • Prescriptive directive Professor Kam-hon Lee 25
  26. 26. Normative reflection TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding YPE 1 TChrist against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 26
  27. 27. Avoiding Christ againstTYPE 1 business culture • Christian corporate culture • Not going public in spite of success Professor Kam-hon Lee 27
  28. 28. Normative reflection TY PE 2 Yielding TChrist 2 Y P E of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 28
  29. 29. YieldingTYPE 2 Christ of business culture • China business • Nurturing guanxi Professor Kam-hon Lee 29
  30. 30. Normative reflection TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating T Christ3 YPE above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 30
  31. 31. IntegratingTYPE 3 Christ above business culture • China business • Investing in safety equipments Professor Kam-hon Lee 31
  32. 32. Normative reflection TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising ChristP E 4 T Y and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5 Dominating Christ the transformer of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 32
  33. 33. CompromisingTYPE 4 Christ and business culture in paradox • Christian corporate culture • Trapping a disloyal senior executive Professor Kam-hon Lee 33
  34. 34. Normative reflection TY PE 2 Yielding Christ of business culture T YP E 3 Integrating Christ above business cultureOther TY P E 4 Compromising Christ and business culture in paradox TY P E 1 Avoiding Christ against T YP E 5Dominating TChrist 5 transformer YPE the of business culture business culture Self Professor Kam-hon Lee 34
  35. 35. Dominating Christ the transformerTYPE 5 of business culture • China business • Prayer and miracle Professor Kam-hon Lee 35
  36. 36. Conclusion Professor Kam-hon Lee 36
  37. 37. Righteousness & Profitableness H Richard Niebuhr Negotiation Types Styles 5 types 5 styles Equal righteousness Different profitableness Professor Kam-hon Lee 37
  38. 38. Integrated Framework• Upholds righteousness• Understands profitableness Professor Kam-hon Lee 38
  39. 39. Q&Akhlee@cuhk.edu.hk Professor Kam-hon Lee 39

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