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  1. ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES PROLACTINE/TSH/ACTH/FSH/LH By Mr.S.KAMESHWARAN.,M.Pharm.,(Ph.D). Associate Professor, Excel College of Pharmacy Komarapalayam, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India.
  2. PITUITARY HORMONES ANTERIOR: ♫Growth hormones(GH) ♫Prolactin (Prl) ♫Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ♫Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) ♫Gonadotropins (hormones having stimulatory action on gonads) Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) Luteinizing hormone(LH) POSTERIOR: Oxytocin Anti diuretic hormone (ADH, VASOPRESSIN)
  3. PROLACTIN It contains 199 Amino acid Molecular weight -23000 Dalton Chemically similar to GH It is a single chain peptide The hormone which causes secretion of milk from crop glands of pigeon. Pigeon - Bird (milk is similar in composition to mammalian milk)
  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS Cause growth and development of breast during pregnancy Promotes proliferation of ductal and acinar cells in the breast and induces synthesis of milk protein and lactose. After child birth prolactin induces milk secretion. Prolactin may affect immune response through action on T-Lymphocytes.
  5. RECEPTOR ☻Prolactin receptor present on the surface of target cells. ☻It is a tyrosine kinase receptor REGULATION OF SECRETION: No specific factors identified to release the prolactin.  Dopaminergic antagonist stimulates prolactin secretion PRIH from hypothalamus (Dopamine) act on D2 receptor & blocks prolactin secretion. Secretion is high during pregnancy and lactation.
  6. PHATHALOGICAL INVOLVEMENT:  Increased Prolactin secretion (hyperprolactinaemia) may lead to Female: Galactorrhoea- Amenorrhea- Infertility Galactorrhoea- spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth Amenorrhea- absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age Infertility- inability to conceive a baby Male: Loss of libido (loss of sex drive), Decrease fertility.
  7. PROLACTIN INHIBITORS: BROMOCRIPTINE & CABERGOLINE BROMOCRIPTINE:  Synthetic ergot derivative. Potent dopamine agonist, greater action on dopamine D2 receptor Decreased prolactin release from pituitary  Has levadopa like action,  Decrease GI motility. ADR: Constipation Nasal blockage Hypotension USES: Hyper prolactinemia Acromegaly Parkinsonism
  8. GONADOTROPINS (FSH & LH) Gonadotropins contains TWO different hormones Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) ♣ Contain 207 Amino acids, ♣ Has two peptide chain ♣ MW :FSH-32000 Dalton, LH-30,000 Dalton PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS: ♣ Promote GAMETOGENESIS (spermatogenesis) and SECRETION OF GONADAL HORMONES
  9. FSH: ♥ In female Induce Follicular growth, development of ovum, secretion of estrogens. ♥ In male Support spermatogenesis. LH: ♀ Female: It induce preovulatory swelling of the ripe grafian follicle & triggers ovulation. Followed by luteinization of the ruptured follicle & sustains corpus luteum till the next menstrual cycle.
  10. REGULATION OF SECRETION GnRH produced by hypothalamus Stimulate synthesis & release of both FSH& LH from pituitary. Gn secretion increased at puberty, higher in women than man.
  11. PATHALOGICAL INVOLVEMENT Disturbance of Gn secretion  It produce Delayed puberty. Decreased Gn secretion Women Amenorrhea, sterility (inability of a living organism to effect sexual reproduction ) Man Oligozospermia (semen with a low concentration of sperm), impotence (Erectile dysfunction), infertility.
  12. PREPARATIONS 1. MENOTROPINS (FSH + LH), - Obtained from urine of menopausal women, 2. MENOTROPIN (FSH), 3 .HUMAN CHRONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG), - Obtained from urine of pregnant women. ADR: Polycystic ovary Pain in lower abdomen Ovarian bleeding Allergic reactions USES: Amenorrhea & infertility Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism in male Cryptorchism (failure of one or both of the testes to descend into the scrotum)
  13. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) Consist of 210 Amino acids, Two chain glycoprotein, MW-30,000 Dalton. PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION: TSH stimulating the thyroid gland Stimulated thyroid synthesize the following hormones: Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3)
  14. TSH produce,  Hyperplasia & hypertrophy (increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells) of thyroid follicles, increase in blood supply to the glands  Promotes trapping of iodide by thyroid PATHOLOGICAL INVOLVEMENT: Hypothyroidism & hyperthyroidism USE:  Thyrotropin- No therapeutic use,  Thyroxine- Choice of drug in hypothyroidism
  15. ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONES (ACTH) Consists of 39 Amino acid Single peptide chain, MW- 4500 Dalton PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS:  It promotes steroidogenesis in adrenal cortex.
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