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  2. 2.  Introduction  Study by ToxicsLink  Objectives of the study  Findings of the study  Recommendations  Conclusions
  3. 3.  International Scenario  Indian Scenario
  4. 4. What is CFL? A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called energy-saving light, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent lamp. The lamps use a tube which is curved or folded to fit into the space of an incandescent bulb, and a compact electronic ballast in the base of the lamp. Source: Wikipedia
  5. 5.  About 90% of the energy from an incandescent bulb is emitted as heat, and only about 10% of that energy is emitted as light.  Only about 30% of energy consumed by a compact fluorescent bulb is converted to heat. (Source: Progress energy, Florida ,Student Environmental Standard:Report on Mercury lighting)
  6. 6.  The central element in a fluorescent lamp is a sealed glass tube.  The tube contains mercury and an inert gas, typically argon, kept under very low pressure.  The tube also contains a phosphor powder, coated along the inside of the glass.  The tube has two electrodes, one at each end, which are wired to an electrical circuit.  The electrical circuit, is hooked up to an alternating current (AC) supply. Source: How Stuff works
  7. 7. Lamp turned on Current flows through the electrical circuit to the diodes Cathode emits electrons Source : How Stuff Works
  8. 8. This energy changes the liquid mercury to a gas As electrons and charged atoms move through the tube, some of them will collide with gaseous mercury atoms Mercury atoms excited to a higher energy levels Source : How Stuff Works
  9. 9. On de-excitation, these atoms release photons in UV range The photons excite the phosphor atoms to higher levels On de-excitation, phosphor atoms emit light photons in visible range (visible to us) Source : How Stuff Works
  10. 10.  Toxics Link had undertaken a study in September 2011 to assess the total quantity of mercury present in CFLs in India with an objective to reduce mercury levels in CFLs and promote the issue of its end-oflife management.
  11. 11.  To detect the total mercury content in CFL lights sold in India  To assess exceedance in mercury levels in Indian CFLs as compared to the global standards  To make recommendations to regulators for mercury standards in CFLs and end of life management for CFLs.
  12. 12.  The study was done in New Delhi, India  Twenty-two samples of CFL lights of wellknown brands were purchased from authorized dealers (brand names not disclosed)  Wattages vary randomly between 5 and 20 watts.
  13. 13.  The CFL samples were sent to Delhi Test House (NABL accredited lab – ISO/ IEC 17025:2005), Azadpur, Delhi for analysis of mercury content.  There has been no universally acceptable Standard Operating Protocol (SOP) for analyzing mercury content in CFLs. ToxicsLink and Delhi Test House have jointly developed the SOP for this study
  14. 14.  Average mercury content per CFL bulb was found to be 21.21mg (global standards at 5 mg)  Fifty percent of the samples analyzed were found to have a high average mercury content ranging between 12.24mg and 39.64mg
  15. 15.  A large variation of mercury content across different wattage even within a single brand was found.  In most brands the mercury content decreased with increasing wattage. (Reason : High light output (lumens) with lesser wattage implies more mercury)
  16. 16.  Average mercury dosing in India is four to six times the standards followed in some of the developed countries.  With the present growth rate, approximately 8.5 tonnes of mercury would be consumed on an annual basis  Such an amount would to be managed when these units burn out or are discarded.
  17. 17.  There is no disposal mechanism or infrastructure to deal with the discarded and used-up lamps  No voluntary action being taken by manufacturers to cap mercury dosing in CFLs
  18. 18.  The Government must come up with a maximum limit for the mercury dosing in CFLs.  At present, there are no regulations (neither for consumer nor producer) for proper disposal and recycling of CFLs
  19. 19.  The end-of life management must be the joint responsibility of manufacturers, regulatory agencies and executive bodies  Consumers, too, have a responsibility for the proper disposal of broken and used-up lamps.  For recycling etc. the best-suited technology must be decided based on a collective dialogue between various manufacturers.
  20. 20.  Cautionary (Hg) mark must be made mandatory with specific amount present in CFL.  Proper instructions on managing broken CFLs also be provided.
  21. 21.  The amount of mercury in CFLs is strictly regulated in many countries  On February 26, 2011, Environment Canada proposed a regulation that CFLs will be subject to a maximum mercury content limit of 3.5 mg.(Source: Ministry of Natural Resources, Canada: Office of Energy Efficiency)
  22. 22.  In the European Union, it is restricted to 5 mg under their RoHS regulations.(ToxicsLink Study)  Waste collection agencies are set up in US for collection of broken CFLs by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
  23. 23.  In India , CFLS have been exempt from recent regulations .  Efforts undertaken (as reported by Central Pollution Control Board) to reduced mercury dosing in CFLs to an optimum level using technology internationally best available
  24. 24.  But CPCB has not prescribed an upper limit.  ToxicsLink study finds that CFLs in India contain more than 10 times the current 5 mg limit.
  25. 25.  The introduction of massive amounts of CFLs in the market has led to broken and discarded CFLs with nowhere to go.  These are dumped, lie around or are sometimes scavenged for glass, metals and electronic chips.  They cause exposure to wastepickers, also leads to environmental contamination.
  26. 26.  The "Bachat Lamp Yojana" launched by the Indian Government in Feb 2009 aimed at the large scale replacement of incandescent bulbs in households by CFLs.  But no initiatives for making the Indian consumer aware of deadly effects and proper disposal of mercury-containing CFLs
  27. 27.  There is currently no substance that can serve as an alternative to mercury to produce light in fluorescent lamps .(Source: Ministry of Natural Resources, Canada: Office of Energy Efficiency)  But the developed nations have successfully regulated the amount of mercury in CFLs
  28. 28.  Only Televisions, Mobile phones and Monitors are taken back at authorized collection centres.  The packaging of a CFL from Philips contains no specific information on disposal or risks associated with mercury contained in the bulbs. The information on the packaging details the life expectancy, wattage, a recycling symbol and an A rating.(Source: VaporLok™ Products LLC is a company dedicated to providing environmentally safe packaging solutions for mercury containing materials, at Mankato, USA)
  29. 29.  Havells is the first Indian electrical company to manufacture CFL with Pill Dosing Technology.  With help of pill dosing technology Havells have achieved mercury content of just 0.5 mg
  30. 30.  Most of the CFL manufacturers worldwide use liquid mercury  It is extremely difficult to limit the weight of liquid mercury.  In PDT, amalgamated mercury pills are used instead of liquid mercury. Precise and controlled amount of mercury is thus filled in CFLs
  31. 31.  CFLs may pose an added health risk due to the ultraviolet and blue light emitted. This radiation could aggravate symptoms in people who already suffer skin conditions that make them exceptionally sensitive to light. (Source: European Commission Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) in 2008 )