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Kaizen masaakiimai-090701152003-phpapp01


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Kaizen masaakiimai-090701152003-phpapp01

  1. 1. KAIZENThe Key to Japan’sCompetitive SuccessBy MASAAKI IMAI // YIS//062709//
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. KAIZEN, The Concept 2. Improvement East and West 3. KAIZEN by Total Quality Control 4. KAIZEN, The Practice 5. KAIZEN Management 6. The KAIZEN Approach to Problem Solving 7. Changing the Corporate Culture // YIS//062709//
  3. 3. CHAPTER I KAIZENThe Concept // YIS//062709//
  4. 4. Kaizen & Implications of QCKAIZEN Values Management for KAIZEN KAIZEN & The Kaizen &KAIZEN & TQC Suggestion Competition System Process Oriented Management VS Result Oriented Management // YIS//062709//
  5. 5. // YIS//062709//
  6. 6. JOBS FUNCTION PERCEPTIONSJapanese perceptions Western perceptions Top management Middle management Supervisors Workers // YIS//062709//
  7. 7. Middle Top Management Supervisors WorkersManagement and Staff Determine to Use Kaizen in Deploy and Engage in Kaizenintroduce Kaizen as functional rules implement Kaizen through thea corporate strategy goals as directed by suggestion system top management Formulate plans for and small group through policy Kaizen and provide activitiesProvide support and deployment and guidance for workersdirection for Kaizen cross functional by allocating management resources Practice discipline in Improve the workshop Use Kaizen in communication with Establish policy for functional capabilities workers and sustain Kaizen and cross high morale functional goals Engage in Establish, maintain, a nd upgrade standard Support small group continuous self- activities (such as development toRealize Kaizen goals quality circles) and become better through policy Make employees the individual problem solvers deployment and Kaizen-concious audits through intensive suggestion system training programs Introduce discipline in Build Help employees the workshop Enhance skills andsystem, procedures, develop skills and job performance and structures tools for problem expertise with cross Provide Kaizenconducive to Kaizen solving education suggestions // YIS//062709//
  8. 8. Deming Wheel DesignResearch Production Plan Act PDCA Do Sales Check // YIS//062709//
  9. 9. Three Award in Sumo Tournament ; - An outstanding performance award - A skill award - A fighting spirit awardFocus more on process Rather than result !!! // YIS//062709//
  10. 10. CHAPTER IIImprovement East & West // YIS//062709//
  11. 11. Continuous ImprovementKAIZEN INNOVA TION BreakthroughScience Technology Design Production Market Innovation KAIZEN
  12. 12. KAIZEN 1 INNOVATION Long term Short term Effect Un-dramatic Dramatic Small steps Pace Big steps Time Intermittent &Continuous & incremental frame non incremental Gradual & consistent Change Abrupt & volatile Everybody Involvement “Champion” Collectivism, Rugged individualism, group efforts, systems Approach individual ideas & efforts approach // YIS//062709//
  13. 13. KAIZEN 2 INNOVATION Maintenance & Scrap Mode Improvement & RebuildConventional know-how & Technological breakthroughs, state of the art Spark new inventions, new theories Little investment Practical Large investment Great effort to maintain Requirements Little effort to maintain Effort People Technology orientation Process & efforts for Evaluation Results for profits better results criteria Economic Slow growth economy Fast growth economy condition // YIS//062709//
  14. 14. Standard Maintenance Innovation Actual Standard MaintenanceInnovation Actual Time Actual KAIZEN StandardInnovation + Kaizen Actual KAIZEN Innovation Standard Time // YIS//062709//
  15. 15. INNOVATION KAIZEN Creativity Adaptability Individualism Teamwork (system approach) Specialist oriented Generalist-oriented Attention to great leaps Attention to details Technology oriented People oriented Information: closed, proprietary Information: open, sharedFunctional (specialist) orientation Cross functional orientation Seek new technology Build on existing technology Line + staff Cross functional organization Limited feedback Comprehensive feedback // YIS//062709//
  16. 16. Upcoming Japanese product perceptionsTechnology Level Preferred Process Product High Technology oriented Innovative product Technology innovation with Kaizen orientation Technology oriented KAIZEN People oriented Kaizen orientedLow Technology KAIZEN product // YIS//062709//
  18. 18. 1 Quality control deals with the Quality of people2 Speaks with data3 Quality first, not Profit first4 Manage the previous process ( Upstream)5 The next process is the customer6 Customer oriented TQC, not manufacturer oriented TQC7 TQC starts with training and ends with training8 Cross Functional Management to Facilitate Kaizen9 Follow PDCA cycles Standardize the results // YIS//062709//10
  19. 19. 1. Quality assuranceTQC 2. Cost reduction 3. Meeting production quota 4. Meeting delivery schedule 5. Safety 6. New-product development 7. Productivity improvement 8. Supplier management TQC // YIS//062709//
  20. 20. Manpower Technique Method Time Muda (Waste) Facilities Muri (Strain) Jigs and toolsMura (Discrepancy) Materials Production volume Inventory Place Way of thinking
  21. 21. ACT PLAN Standardi- Definitions zation of problemCHECK Confirmation Analysis of of results problem Identificati Implemen- on of tation causes Planning DO counter- measures // YIS//062709//
  22. 22. Man ( operator) Machine (facilities) Material Operation Method Does it meet production Are there any mistakes in Are the work standardsDoes he follow standard? requirements? volume? adequate? Is his work efficiency Are there any mistakes in Does it meet process capabilities? Is the work standard upgraded? acceptable? grade? Are there any mistakes inIs he problem conscious? Is the oiling (greasing) adequate? Is it a safe method? the brand name? Is he Are there impurities mixed Is it a method that ensures a Is the inspecction adequate?responsible/accountable? in? good product? is operation stopped often because Is the inventory level Is he qualified? Is it an efficient method? of mechanical trouble? adequate? Does it meet precision Is there any waste in is the sequence of work Is he experienced? requirements? material? adequate?Is he assigned to the right Does it make any unusual noises? Is the handling adequate? Is the setup adequate? job? Is the work in process Are the temperature andIs he willing to improve? Is the layout adequate? abandoned? humidity adequate? Does he maintain good Are there enough Are the lighting and ventilation Is the layout adequate? human relations? machines/facilities? adequate? Is there adequate contact with Is the quality standard Is he healthy? Is everything in good working order? the previous and next adequate? processes? // YIS//062709//
  24. 24. Maintain a questioning & Use tools & Achieve open-minded facilitates to maximum Maintain attitude for Eliminate hard maximizequality with minimum constant work quality & maximum inventory improvement efficiency & efficiency based on minimize effort teamwork & cooperation // YIS//062709//
  25. 25. Management Oriented Group Oriented KAIZEN Individual Oriented KAIZEN KAIZENTools Seven Statistical Tools Seven Statistical Tools Common sense New Seven Tools New Seven Tools Seven Statistical Tools Professional skillsInvolves Managers & Professional QC- circles group members EverybodyTarget Focus on system & Within the same workshop Within one’s own work Procedures areaCycle (Period) Lasts for the duration of project Requires 4-5 months to Anytime completeAchievements As many as management 2-3 per years Many choosesSupporting Line & Staff project team Small-group activities Suggestion systemsystem QC circles Suggestion systemImplementation Sometimes require small Mostly inexpensive Inexpensivecost investment to implement the decisionResult New system and facility Improved work procedures On-the-spot improvement Revision of standard improvementBooster Improvement in Managerial Morale improvement Morale improvement performance Participation KAIZEN awareness Learning experience Self-developmentDirection Gradual & visible improvement Gradual & visible Gradual & visible Marked upgrading of current improvement // YIS//062709// improvement status
  26. 26. Seiton BSeiri A C Seiso 5sShitsuke E D Seiketsu // YIS//062709//
  27. 27. Waste of Waste in Waste in REJECTS DESIGN WIP quality cost deliveryNINEWASTES !! product Waste in Method / system FIRST PHASE OF PRODUCTION resources manpower facilities money Waste in Waste in Waste in Waste in Waste in MOTION MANAGEMENT MANPOWER FACILITIES EXPENSES // YIS//062709//
  28. 28. Shortened lead time Reduced time spent on non-process work Reduced inventoryJIT Better balance between different processes // YIS//062709// Problem clarification
  29. 29. Design Product planning Top Administration management responsibility:responsibility : Strategy & QCS Production preparation Provide support Planning Marketing Production & Purchasing // YIS//062709//
  30. 30. Time 100%Involvement 50% 0% Idea Design Model Trial runs Final product Production Development Development Development & design customer PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT appraisal Tools & machinery PHASE AT IDEAL COMPANY Process control
  32. 32. Management & Labor ;Enemies or Allies? Cooperation Working together to bake bigger pie Confrontationfighting over how to divide the pie // YIS//062709//
  33. 33. Managers first job is to learn to communicate with hisemployees so both workers and the company can achieve theircommon goal Union leader who cannot understand financial statement and analyze the companys performance will not be able to negotiate with management on such labor- related subjects as technological innovation, personnel transfers, and scrapping facilities
  34. 34. MANAGEMENT & LABOR RELATION Confrontation Collective Alleviation of bargaining frustrations Formal & Informal & Organization Individual oriented oriented Labor- Small-group management activities consultation Cooperation // YIS//062709//
  35. 35. Income potential Job allocationif labor is flexible + Calls for management initiatives Job potential if management is flexible Job potential If management is not flexible Calls for labor initiatives - Job allocation If labor is not flexible // YIS//062709//
  36. 36. General statement of directionfor change (qualitative ) Top managementDefinition of topmanagement statement(quantitative) Division Management POLICYSpecific goals(quantitative) DEPLOYMENT Middle ManagementSpecific actions(quantitative) Supervisors Goals Governing Body Long range policy Board of directors meeting Annual top management Top management policy Top management cross Cross-functional policy functional committee Departmental (functional) Line management policy
  38. 38. When there is no problem , there is no potential for improvementsKAIZEN starts with a problem,more precisely therecognition that aproblem exists // YIS//062709//
  39. 39. Seven Statistical tools New Seven tools• Pareto diagrams • Relations diagram• Cause & Effect diagram • Affinity diagram• Histograms • Tree diagram• Control charts • Matrix diagram• Scatter diagram • Matrix data-analysis diagram• Graphs • PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart)• Check-sheets • Arrow Diagram // YIS//062709//
  40. 40. Who What Where When Why How Why does he do Who does it? What to do? Where to do it? When to do it? How to do it? it? Where is itWho is doing it? What is being done? When is it done? Why do it? How to do it? done?Who should be What should be Where should When should How should it be Why do it there? doing it? done? It be done? it be done? done? Can this methodWho else can do What else can be Where else can What other time Why do it then? be used in other it? done? it be done? can it be done? areas? Where elseWho else should What else should be What other time Why do it that Is there any other should it be do it? done? should it be done? way? way to do it? done? Where are 3- Are there any 3- Are there anyWho is doing 3- What 3-Mus are Are there any time Mus being Mus in the way of 3-MUs in the Mus? being done? 3-Mus ? done? thinking? method? // YIS//062709//
  41. 41. VELOCITY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGEStandardizationProcess optimizationElimination of wasteEvolution in people and techniqueDurable training // YIS//062709//
  42. 42. CUTTING CHANGE OVER 1. Form a team & TIME allocate responsibilities 7. Set-up board for visualization & 2. Measure monitoring current state Seven6. Analysis & Steps improvem 3. Analysis & ent improvement 5. Set process 4. Apply first with new improvement scenario // YIS//062709//
  44. 44. The costumer : 1 The ultimate Judge of quality The eye of the needle – 2 struggle to enter the market Supplier relations 3 Changing Corporate culture : 4 Challenge to the west “We call some societies primitivebecause of their desire to remain in thesame state and in unchanging standard of living – as their gods or ancestors created them at the beginning of time” // YIS//062709//
  45. 45. Establishing better Developing additional criteria to measure supply sources that optimum inventory can ensure faster levels deliveryBUY(Outsidecontactors) Improving the quality Improving how orders MAKE are placed of information provided to suppliers (part time /contract employee) Establishing better Understanding the physical distribution suppliers internal system requirements better
  46. 46. Conventional Japanese Wisdom Revolutions Higher quality leads to Higher quality leads to higher costs lower costs Larger lots lead to lower Smaller lots lead to lower costs costsWorkers do not need to be A thinking worker is a taken into account productive worker // YIS//062709//
  47. 47. Constant effort to improve industrial relations getting workersEmphasis on training & education of workers acceptance and overcoming their resistanceDeveloping informal leaders among the workers to change.Formation of Small Group Activities such as QC circles “Creating a Cooperative atmosphere andSupport & recognition for workers’ KAIZEN effort corporate culture”Conscious effort for making the workplace a place whereWorkers can pursue life goalsBringing social life into the workshop as much aspracticalTraining supervisor so that they can communicate better& create a more positive involvement with workersBringing discipline to the workshop // YIS//062709//
  48. 48. KAIZEN PHILOSOPHY “Be it our working life, our sociallife, or our home life, deserves to be constantly improved” // YIS//062709//