With the Basic Kaizen Tools and a stopwatch, anyone can improve any process.
There is no set order to using the basic kaizen tools, but there is a normal pattern.
Quantify current state and target state. Add relevant categories when necessary. Write improvements (lowered inventory, shorter walking distance, etc.) in RED INK. Use the target progress report to report on status of activities at the end of each day and at the presentation at the end of the week-long workshop.
Use grid to express site to scale accurately and remember to include “real world” aspects such as posts, trash cans, tool boxes, break areas -- whatever is truly in the area. Do not forget to fill out the “BASIC DATA,” without it Standardized Work cannot be defined. Try to break up the process into the shortest steps possible. Each step of the operation sequence must be shown where it is done and given a sequence number. These numbers are identical to those entered in the Standardized Work Combination Sheet in the “Step” column. Connect the sequence numbers with solid lines that truly express the route traveled by the operator. Do not use arrows. The sequence numbers express the direction of movement. Do not forget to express the path the operator takes to return to the first step with a dotted line.
Time many cycles to increase accuracy. “ Step” column entries are identical to sequence numbers on Standardized Work Sheet and Standardized Work Combination Sheet. Partner with another person - one runs stopwatch and calls times for each step while observing the process, the other writes down times on sheet. Keep stopwatch running, write times called for steps above dotted line. After observation has been completed, subtract to calculate splits for each step and write below dotted line. Calculate complete times for each cycle observed and enter at bottom of column. Find best time for each step and enter in “Best Time” column. Total best times and enter in bottom row (“Complete Cycle Time”). ALWAYS USE THE BEST TIMES FOR CALCULATING CYCLE TIME. DO NOT AVERAGE TIMES.
Print out a hard copy for use in your workshop. Denote takt time with a horizontal red line across the length of the chart. Denote the length of the cycle time for each process with a vertical bar over the corresponding process number. Cycle times that are longer than takt time are candidates for kaizen or re-balancing of tasks.
Double-click on the graph and use the graph editor to enter the cycle times for each process in the spreadsheet provided. Quit the graph editor and the bar chart will be generated automatically. Place the red line at the appropriate height in on the chart to denote takt time. Click after the red “T/T” to enter the takt time value. Cycle times that are longer than takt time are candidates for kaizen or re-balancing of tasks. While it is better to hand write the Kaizen tools during activities (for speed and flexibility) this slide is handy for presentations and recording final results.
Print out a hard copy for use in your workshop. Denote takt time with a horizontal red line across the length of the chart. Denote the length of the cycle time for each element of each process with a vertical stack chart over the corresponding process number. The Yamazumi chart aids in targeting tasks for kaizen in a process that does not meet takt time, and as a last resort for re-balancing (re-assigning) tasks to meet takt time.
Double-click on the graph and use the graph editor to enter the cycle times for each task of process in the spreadsheet provided. Add more tasks as needed. The graph editor will automatically chose colors and calculate. Quit the graph editor and the bar chart will be generated automatically. Place the red line at the appropriate height in on the chart to denote takt time. Click after the red “T/T” to enter the takt time value. The Yamazumi chart aids in targeting tasks for kaizen in a process that does not meet takt time, and as a last resort for re-balancing (re-assigning) tasks to meet takt time. While it is better to hand write the Kaizen tools during activities (for speed and flexibility) this slide is handy for presentations and recording final results.
BE CERTAIN TO SHOW TAKT TIME by drawing a straight, vertical line in RED INK at the appropriate point along the time line. Try to break up the process into the shortest steps possible. End each line with a short vertical line. Don’t forget to connect the end of one step with a the next step using the wavy line when there is walking between steps. Don’t forget to connect the end of the final step with the beginning of the next cycle, this time going up to the first row, when there is walking to return to begin the cycle again. If automatic run times (dotted line) run past takt time, finish them by drawing the remainder of the line from the 0 line. Any long lines are likely to be opportunities for kaizen.
Use pictures (sketches, photos, cartoons, etc.) in “Before and “After” boxes. Express proposal visually as much as possible and avoid verbal descriptions. Quantify “Problem” and “Effects” whenever possible. Examples: “Cycle time is 4 seconds over takt time.” “Standard Work in Process: 3 pcs., should be 1 pc.” “Searching for adhesive: 5 secs.” “5 instances of wrong bolt/hr. observed.”
Use pictures (sketches, photos, cartoons, etc.) -- express visually and avoid verbal descriptions. Post in the area and check for completion deadlines at meeting at beginning of every shift. Add kaizen proposals as they are offered. The Kaizen Newspaper should change every day.
The Kaizen License is granted to those who have learned and applied kaizen – customarily after participation in a kaizen workshop.Note that it has an expiration date. It is not a certification or qualification, it merely acknowledges that the recipient has made an effort to learn and practice. It is customarily signed by the factory manager, the kaizen promotion leader, and the consultant who guided the workshop.
F hcom kaizenforms
B A S IC K A IZ E N TO O L S1. TA R G E T P R O G R E S S R E P O R T2. S T A N D A R D IZ E D W O R K S H E E T3. T IM E O B S E R V A T IO N S H E E T4. C YC L E T IM E / T A K T T IM E B A R C H A R T5. YA M A Z U M I ( S T A C K ) C H A R T6. S T A N D A R D IZ E D W O R K C O M B IN A T IO N S HEET7. C A P A C IT Y S H E E T8. K A IZ E N P R O P O S A L S H E E T9. K A IZ E N N E W S P A P E R
U s in g t h e B a s ic K a iz e n T o o ls 3 1 2Calculate Takt Time. Pair up 2 for each process.Identify problems. Observe site. One times w/ stopwatch, otherSet targets and enter on Identify Process. jots down times.Target Progress Report Prepare Standardized Find best times.Plan initiate Kaizen Work Sheet Verify if Cycle Time meets TaktWorkshop. Time. 4 5 6If equipment seems to lack Note long times on Combination Try out ideas for kaizenin capacity, use Capacity Sheet, there are opportunities for immediately, verify results.Sheet to define problems. Kaizen. Prepare Kaizen ProposalFill out Standardized Work Continue to observe site, note Sheets for effective kaizenCombination Sheet with best problems on Kaizen Newspaper ideas.times. 7 ∞ Update Kaizen newspaper. Kaizen EVERY Update Target Progress Report. DAY!!.
TA R G E T P R O G R E S S REPORTDepartment / Section / Site Date: ___/____/____/____/__________ Takt Time: _______________________ CATEGORY CURRENT TARGET DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 FINAL RESULT % CHANGESPACE (sq. ft.)INVENTORYWALKING DISTANCEMATERIAL TRAVEL DISTANCELEAD TIME (sec.)CYCLE TIME (sec.)OUTPUT (units / day)CREW SIZEPRODUCTIVITYCHANGEOVER TIME (sec.)REMARKS:
S T A N D A R D IZ E D W O R K DATE: _____/____/____Process: __________________________ S HEET Approvals:Part # ____________________________ Scope of FROM: OperationPart Name: ________________________ TO: SYMBOLS Quality Safety Standard Work Total Pcs of Std Takt Cycle Operators NOTE: Takt Time, Work Sequence (same as numbers in “Step” column on BASIC Check Precaution In Process Work in Process Time Time this op/line total Combination Sheet), and numbers of Standard Work in Process must be known to define Standardized Work. Identify all safety concerns, points where DATA quality must be verified (go/no-go) and numbers of pieces of standard work in 1/ sec. process using the symbols to the right.
Page _____ of _____ T IM E O B S E R V A T IO N S H E E T Date / Time: ___/____/____/_________________:________Line / Process: __________________________________________________ Observed by: _____________________________________ # Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Best Time Observations (changeover time) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Complete Cycle Time
C y c l e Ty ci lmi m e / /a kTTa ekB t r CTairm len k Bh aat ) r C h a C e T e T t im a h t ( B a C rC y c le T im e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P roc e s s
C y c le T im e / T a k t T im e B a r C h a r t ( w iTime / G r Time BariChart Cycle t h Takt a p h n g 1.2 F e a ture ) 1 T /T 0.8 0.6 0.4Cycle Time 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before After Process
Y a mY a m azz uu imt aic k() Sh atr ta( B ca nk C)h a C) h a r t a m (S C l k rtC y c le T im e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P roc e s s
Ya m a z u m i ( S t a c k ) C h a r t ( w it h G r a p h in g F e a t u r e ) Yamazumi (Stack) Chart Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 1 0.8 T /T 0.6 0.4 0.2Cycle Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Process
Operator _____ of _____ S T A N D A R D IZ E DLine: ____________________________ WO R K Date: ______/______/_______ Quota / Shift: ____________ MANUAL: AUTO:Process: _________________________ C O M B I N A T I O N Section: __________________ Takt Time: ______________ sec. WALKING: Time S HEET TIME (unit: 1 sec.)Step Description Man Auto Walk 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 1 Waiting Totals
Page ____ of ____ New / Revised as of (date): ___/___/___ Current OutputAuthorizations: Part No. Line pieces C A P A C IT Y Part Name Max Output pieces Per Day Workers S HEET Base Times Tools per Day Needed Times: Manual MachineStep Description Capacity Remarks Automatic ID Walking Time Manual Time Auto Run Time Completion Time Pieces/Run Change Time Time/Piece Walking１ Subtotal NOTE Update times when improvements are achieved through kaizen, and detail reasons for improvement in “Remarks” column. Total
K A IZ E N P R O P O S A L S H E E T Location Objective Date Operator Before AfterProblem Effects (cycle time / inventory / changeover time reduction,poka yoke etc.)
K A IZ E N N E W S P A P E RTEAM: __________________________________ DATE: _______/_______/_______/___________ No. PROBLEM WHO BY WHEN CHECK
Kaizen License [ N a m e o f R e c ip ie n t ]改 In recognition of your earnest efforts to learn and practice kaizen during the [XXX] Kaizen Workshop held at [XXX] factory during the week善 of [Date], you have been granted this license to practice kaizen daily in accordance with the principles of Just in Time, Quality in Station, Production leveling, and Production Preparation.John Doe John Doe John DoePlant Manager Kaizen Promotion Leader Consultant Expiration Date: [1 year from date of issuance]