Assignment on Strategic Management

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  • @Kamal hossain can u please leave your email address or knock me on priankabishwas20@yahoo.com
    This assignment was really helpful for me. I am studing in the same college as u did your masters. It will be very kind of you if u please send me your email address as i needed some help badly.
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  • @Kamal bahi ... can you send this assignment on my email b/c i can not read, it's kind of mix everything. My email address is initit7070@gmail.com
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Assignment on Strategic Management

  1. 1. School of Business and Law Assignment On Strategic Decision Name Md. Kamal HossainID B0687MHMH0411Semester MBA2Group International Business (B)Module Strategic ManagementLecturer Mervin SookunDue Date 22nd February 2012WORD LIMIT: APPROXIMATELY 4000
  2. 2. Table of content: Page Number1.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4 1.01. Why strategic management?............................................................................4 1.02. What is strategic management?.......................................................................42.0. Company audit………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 2.01. Michael Porter’s approach to industry analysis …………………………………………..5 2.02. Strategic positioning…………………………………………………………………………………….6 2.02.01. Positioning process………………………………………………………………………….6 2.03. Strategic planning……………………………………………………………………………………..…6 2.04. The SWOT analysis………………………………………………………………………………………..8 2.05. The PESTLE analysis……………………………………………………………………………………...83.0. Literature review…………………………………………………………………………………………………….9 3.01. Characteristics of strategic decisions……………………………………………………………..9 3.02. School of strategy…………………………………………………………………………………………..10 3.02.01. Three schools in prescriptive………………………………………………………….10 3.02.02. Seven schools in descriptive…………………………………………………………..114.0. Critical analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………….….12 4.01. Mintzberg strategic decision-making process…………………………………………………12 4.01.01 Mintzberg Seven path configurations using the general strategic decision-making model……………………………………………………………………………….13 4.02. The classic decision making process……………………………………………………………...13 4.03. Pricing strategy and approaches…………………………………………………………………….13 4.04. Modes of foreign market entry………………………………………………………………………14 4.04. Benefits of social networking in web base business market……………………………15 4.05. Globalisation…………………………………………………………………………………………15
  3. 3. 5.0 Recommendation………………………………………………………………………………………………………156.0. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..167.0. REFERENCES and BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………….17
  4. 4. 1.0. Introduction:In every company, they have a management structure and model to build up their businessand for gain the business goal. Vision, mission statement is the important statement for anyorganisations. Entrepreneurs and industry managers are often so lost in thought with inneed of attention issues that they lose view of their eventual objectives. That is why abusiness re-evaluates or groundwork of a strategic plan is a fundamental necessity. This maynot be a formula for success, but not including it, an industry is to a great extent more likelyto fail. By applying, any type of strategic decision company can full fill their vision andmission. Either its big or small organisations, they have managed to achieve theiraspirations, or the management set up a decision to achieve that aspiration.1.01. Why strategic management?Strategic development and administration are more than a set of administrativeinstruments. They represent a approach, an approach to looking at the alterations in theinner and outer situation that meet the administrator. Using planning and administrationtools tactically, then, engage fundamentally a technique of opinion, a psychologicalstructure or approach, as well as a set of logical tools. For strategic management to besuccessfully used the manager must build up a strategic attitude or viewpoint. The difficultyfor the professional is how to help the manager obtain that attitude1.02. What is strategic management?Strategic management: Strategic management process is the pattern or plan of anorganisation by which the organisation can achieve their desired goal. This process isinvolved in the top-level management, decision-making management, led by the ChiefExecutive officer or the President of the company. If business organisations have the strongstrategic management then the company can get the strong output, what is a main aim ofthe business.Strategic management is defined as the combination of formulating, implementing,evaluating cross-functional decisions that make possible a company to accomplish itsobjective.Strategy formulation involves:  Doing a circumstances study.  Synchronized with this consideration, objectives are set.  These objectives must, in the light of the circumstances investigation, recommend a strategic plan. The arrangements supply the elements of how to gain these objectives.
  5. 5. This three-step strategy formation system leads us to determine that at which stage abusiness is now, determined where the business want to go and how they can achieve thegoal point.Strategy implementation involves: Sharing of enough resources Build up a sequence of directive or some alternative Handing over some liability of precise tasks to precise individuals or grouping. It also engage supervision the procedure When implementing particular programs, that engage obtaining the necessary possessions, implementing the method, training, procedure testing, documentation, and integration legacy processes.Strategic evaluation: Strategic evaluation is the last stage of strategic management process.The management need to know in which particular strategies are not performing well. Byevaluating, the business can achieve their success in an easy way.2.0. Company audit:DL limited is a structured educational business company, which need to make a strategicplan to gain their goal and build up a strong structure for long-term life. Their vision andmission is to get the large amount of student to get involved with their academic sector forachieving their higher degree. Objective is providing better quality of study and degree.However to get involved in the competitions of the same business sector. They alreadyinvested £300,000 for overall their business structure likes as web portal, coursedevelopment. Company payback period is 2years, which is much easier for this type ofbusiness management.DL limited intension is increase their business in the market. They providing the distance-learning program in undergraduate programme, which is university, validated. Another mainintention is to entrance in the new market, from where they can achieve their aspiration.But for any company they need to consider to do the external and internal analysis, howthey deal with the external and internal environment, how they can achieve their aspirationfrom those environment. For external and internal analysis, company should analyse thestrategy positioning and strategic planning. A company should consider the SWOT andPESTLE analysis.2.01. Michael Porter’s approach to industry analysis:Michael Porter, an influence on aggressive strategy, challenges that a business is mostanxious among the strength of contest within its business. Essential aggressive forces decidethe strength level. The stronger every one of these forces is, the more corporations arerestricted in their aptitude to increase values and earned superior returns. Porter specifiedfive forces for market analysis:
  6. 6. 01. Rivalry. 02. Supplier power. 03. Threat of new entrants. 04. Threat of substitute. 05. Buyer power.2.02. Strategic positioning: Strategic situation is anxious with the collision on strategy of the outer situation, inner resource and competences, and the prospect and persuade of stakeholders. Mutually, a deliberation of the situation, strategic ability, the prospect and the principles within the cultural and political construction of the administration supply a source for considerate the strategic position of an administration.Overview:  Further stylish planning believes in business position, product and icon.  The position believes in aggressive situation and place prospect.  Positioning take an advantage on characteristics and assets to go to the further stage.There three features of strategic positioning:• The outer situation• The organisation’s strategic ability in provisions of its property and capability• Culture and moral principles of the administration and stakeholder authority.2.02.01. Positioning process:In strategic position organisation should consider these process:Situation analysis: In this analysis, the considerable point is trend, issue, industry growth,transforms, and institutional landscape.Prospective component interest and unmet wants: in this analysis, the considerable point isdemographics and psychographics (how people react with a product or service), opportunityand unmet wants.Business unique competencies and quality: Underutilized assets, product, power, differentrecord.Other process is needs, alternative position, geographic sphere, necessary position, strategicplan based on position, and the final steps of process is organisational design anddevelopment.2.03. Strategic planning:
  7. 7. Definition: Strategic planning is a management tool by which management can go forwardwith their job. Strategic planning processes ensure that all members of the organization areworking toward the goal of business and they follow the given instructions. It helps toproduce fundamental decisions and actions that focus that what is an organization, whatthat dose, why the organization does it. The planning intentionally setting up the businessgoal, setting up the peoples job who are involved with the business, what they need to doand how they need to do their job.Strategic planning outline:Circumstances study: Circumstance includes External situation is economical, social andpolitical. Tendency, relative analysis and internal capacity.Impact: What dissimilarity are the industries going to make?Mission: reason, short declarative and straightforward – why you exist?Vision: evocative, the optical icon of what is look like when you are doing well.Imperatives: those possessions you should do, to the elimination of all else, to be unbeatenstirring forward.Goals: Precise, noticeable, sensible outcome.Objective: How you achieve the business goal.The other factors that should consider by the company are SWOT analysis and PESTLEanalysis. . The company do the SWOT and PESTLE analysis to get the useful information hasto carry the business. It is assessing the market:  What will be the affect for company?  Who are the company customers?  How they can attract the customers?  What happening globally and how that can affect to the company?SWOT and PESTLE analysis assessing to the company:  What are their resources?  What are they doing?  What they do best?SWOT and PESTLE analysis assessing about company competitors:  How the business from the other competitors?  What are the market conditions of the company?  What the company need to do to improve their quality?
  8. 8.  How can they solve the customers need and wants?2.04. The SWOT analysis:SWOT is a short form used to explain the exacting Strength, Weakness, opportunitie andthreats these strategic issue for a corporation.Strength: Strength is the intrinsic worth that allow to achieve the organisation missions.Strength includes:  Exclusive rights.  Strong brand name.  Excellent standing among consumers.  Cost advantage.  Exclusive surplus to high category natural assets.  Favorable right of entry to supply network.Weaknesses: The absences of strength are as weakness of an organisation. Weaknessincludes:  Lack of outline defence.  Weak brand name.  Poor reputation with consumers.  Costly structure.  Unable to access to best natural resources.Opportunity: Opportunity includes:  An unconvinced consumer needs.  Entrance of new technologies.  Loosening of parameter.  Elimination of international trade obstruction.Threats: External environmental changes also may present threats to the firm. Example ofthreats are:  `hChange of consumer taste.  Emergences of alternative of product.  New regulations.
  9. 9. 2.05. The PESTLE analysis: PESTLE analysis stand for political, economical, social, technological, legal and environmental. PESTLE analysis using from last ten years. This analysis is used for taking the business organization decision either the company establishes their business or they should think in another way. It is an important analysis for taking organizational strategic decisions.Political factors: This factor characterize the technique and the aim to which a governmentpower the financial system and a convinced industry. Political factor is characterized byparticular region, such as employment rule, tax rule, trade limitations and even ecologicalregulation.Economical factor: economical factors demote to region exclusive to the financial systemand straight prejudiced by the economy, areas such as increase rate, curiosity rate, andfinancial development or replace rates. All these areas can seriously influence a industry orcorporation, which makes them an tremendously significant part of the PESTLE analysis.Social factors: social factors refer to the demographic factors. This actor considers the socialculture, populations.Technological factors: this factor refers to the new technology, computerization. Technicalfactors consider the cost, productivity, brand level.Legal factor: legal factors demote to all the law straight linked to a business and its area ofaction, together with customer law, antitrust law, favouritism law and health and safety law.Environmental factors: environmental factor related with all others factors. Its consider theenvironmental weather, location, climate changes etc.3.0. Literature review:Strategic decision: strategic decision is a plan by which company direction is affected. Thedecisions apprehension areas such as new product and market, product development,strategic alliance, joint venture, find out a new channel of business and others factor.Strategic decision is the pathway, which concern with the completely organisationalenvironment, the full resources and the people who work in the company to gain theircompany’s goal.“Strategic decisions are those that determine the overall direction of an enterprise and itsultimate viability in the light of the predictable changes that may occur in its most importantsurroundings environments.” Qinn.“Strategic management is the process of making and implementing strategic decisions...(It)is about the process of strategic change.” Bowman and Asch.
  10. 10. 3.01. Characteristics of strategic decisions: there are several types of characteristics ofstrategic decisions. Strategic decisions include: 01. Strategic decisions are affecting the long time directions of an organisation. 02. Strategic decisions contract with the matching managerial resource capabilities with the intimidation and opportunities. 03. Strategic decision is multifaceted in scenery. 04. Strategic decision is effectively the operational decision to set off the emission of minor decisions. It differs from administrative and operational decisions. 05. Strategic decision concerned with the range of organisation actions. 06. The strategy of an organisation not only affected by the ecological sources and services availability but also affected by the worth and hope of those who have in and around the organisations. Finally, from the above discussions we can say that, Strategy is the way and scale of an organisation over the long term, which achieves benefit for the organisation from beginning to end its arrangement of resources within an altering environment, to gather the requirements of markets and fulfil stakeholder prospect.3.02. School of strategy: There are 10 schools of managerial thinking, and that is dividedinto 2 major parts. 01. Prescriptive (based on customs) and 02. Descriptive.3.02.01. Three schools in prescriptive: 01. The Design School: Strategy formation is achieving the necessary fit among inner strengths and weaknesses and outer pressure and opportunities. The higher management defines clear, simple and unique strategies through a planned thinking process - which is not formal-analytical, nor informal-intuitive – so everyone can execute the strategy. This was the leading sight of the strategy process at least into the 1970s given its implicit influence on most teaching and practice. 02. The Planning School: planning is designed parallel with the design school. It was outweighed middle of seventy’s and started to decline from 80’s. Nowadays it is again starting implementing by the organisations and getting importance in the specialized literature. This process be redesigned by the organisations to meet their new challenges. 03. The Positioning School: in 80’s this school was the dominant outlook of strategy formulation. It was given impulsion by Professor Michel Porter in 1980. This school sees as an analytic process. It is placing the business within the context its industry. It looks forward that how the business can improve its strategic positioning within the industry. Positioning is useful in early stage of business strategy process
  11. 11. development, when the data are analysed. Positioning does not consider the politics, power, culture, social elements.3.02.02. Seven schools in descriptive: 01. The Entrepreneurial School: The entrepreneurial school has seen as visionary process. This process takes by the business founder or leader of the business. The entrepreneurial school sets in its core the decision-making management almost as the design school. However, unlike the design school and at the other pole from the planning school, the entrepreneurial school ties this process of suspicion. This direction shifts the strategy from a specific design, from tactics and position to formless visions or large perspectives that are often seen as metaphorical. In this vision, the chief has a joint control over the functioning of the formulated vision. 02. The Cognitive School: This school sees as a mental process. This school analyse that how people are aware about the process and pattern information. It concentrates that what arranging in the strategic mind. Cognitive school is Psychological basis. 03. The learning school: This school formulation is an emergent process. Try to learn, if you do not succeed in first time try again and achieve that, do not stop learning. The management observes very carefully which job does done completely and proper way and which job dose not done in a proper way or completed. Actually management look at that, what does work and what does not work. This is a theory of learning. It is not very useful in stable condition. Learning school offers a solution in strategy formation. This school powerful in multifarious situation with the continuous changes. This school could lead to having no strategy or doing some tactical manoeuvring. 04. The power school: This strategy formulation sees as a process of negotiation. It is moderately not too big, but quite dissimilar school has determined on strategy making entrenched in power, in two sanities. Power school lets the strongest people to survive in the business place. By power, management can control the resistance when they make the changes. Help to do the stakeholder analysis. Micro power sees the maturity of strategies within the business as political, a method linking bargaining, influence, and disagreement between inside the actors. Macro power takes the business as an entity that uses its power in excess of others and between its partners in alliances, joint ventures, and other network interaction to settle "collective" strategies in its interests. Sometimes power schools usages a lot of energy, causes wastages and distortion and it is costly. 05. The cultural school: Cultural school strategy formulation is as a collective process. It is focused on self-interest and disintegration. This strategy tries to gather a mixture of different groups and department within the company. This formation is viewed as an essentially communal and qualified procedure. It is developed the expression of the business culture of the administration. The restriction of cultural school is it can
  12. 12. nourish confrontation to change and can be abused to justify the status-quo. Give a small number of clues how should possessions become. The culture is the big issue in Japan, United State and Europe. 06. The environmental school: Environmental school strategy process is as a reactive process. Conceivably not strictly strategic management, if one takes that term as anxious with how business uses their degrees of autonomy to generate strategy; the environmental school however deserves awareness for the brightness it throws on the anxiety of the situation. Along with its most conspicuous theories is the "contingency theory", that believe what responses are expected of business that face individual environmental situations, and "population ecology", writings that claim severe limits to strategic option. 07. The configuration school: Configuration school is as a form of process transformation. This strategy considers the business to transform the organisation from one type of decision-making structure to another. The configuration school get pleasure from the most wide-ranging and integrative fiction as well as training at present. One side of configuration school, more educational and expressive, sees business as constitution - rational gather of attributes and actions - and so provides as single manner to combine the maintain of the other schools. Every construction, in cause, in its hold situates preparation for example, in machine-type business below circumstances of comparative constancy, private enterprise beneath additional energetic constitution of commence with swivel. However, if business can be explained by such situations, after that alteration should exist explained as somewhat theatrical alteration - the bound commencing one position to one more. Therefore, a fiction and exercise of transformation - more narrow and practitioner oriented urbanized as the other surface of the penny. These two very dissimilar fiction and training however set off one another and so belong to the similar school.4.0. Critical analysis:Many kind of strategic decisions makes the firm to involve the discrete choice. By thestrategic decision firm take the decisions to open a new business in a new place, determinethat where the product should be place or what option to offer in a service contract. Thesedecisions are typically involved with the consideration of a number of demands, cost, andcompetitive factors. The learning of consistent distinct decisions poses several proceduralchallenges such as large state spaces, the incidence of various stability and dynamics in firmdecisions.The interrelation in selection performance staunch from the fact that firm takes intoaccount the action of their opponents when building their won judgment. For example, firmare prejudiced of their selection of position by their anticipation of where their competitorswill situate. In the same way, when deciding what kind of pricing strategy to implementfirm’s base their decisions on what they anticipate their competitors will do.
  13. 13. 4.01. Mintzberg strategic decision-making process: Mintzberg divided his strategic decisionmaking process in five stages. Those steps are:  Recognition: Acknowledge that an incentive or a motivation has generated an prospect, danger or predicament.  Diagnosis: inspection of present and future information resources to describe the issues.  Search and design: search for convenient solution or plan a convention made one.  Evaluation: use of judgement, negotiating and investigation to choose a solution. This is multistage iterative process with a deep examination into the substitute.  Authorisations: the approval of the chosen explanation by the top-level management.4.01.01 Mintzberg Seven path configurations using the general strategic decision-makingmodel:  Simple emphases: An explanation is congested in argue.  Political design: To attain implementation of a explanation, political choreography is necessary.  Basic search: Involves discovery the best expedient result.  Modified search: Ready-made clarifications need to be modified to find an satisfactory solution.  Basic design: Design procedure results in often complex and ground-breaking solutions.  Blocked design: Indistinguishable to basic design but conflict from outside group’s grades in a blocked decision procedure.  Dynamic design: Movement flow becomes extremely difficult due to great venture, multifaceted design and possibility of disruptions owing to new wants.4.02. The classic decision making process: there are seven steps of classic decisionmaking. These are:  Assess the situation.  Gather facts and assess unknown.  Identify alternatives.  Establish decision criteria.  Weigh alternatives.  Select best alternative.  Review the decision.4.03. Pricing strategy and approaches: The main approaches to take the pricing decision:
  14. 14.  Cost based pricing: price is adding by calculating the cost and level of profit. This involves setting a price by adding the percentages to the cost or a fixed amount of making the products. Cost-plus pricing is widely used in retailing. The advantages of this process that the company will know that the product cost are covered.  Customer-based pricing: where prices are strong-minded by what a business believes consumers will be ready to pay. Penetration pricing is the pricing system by which the company set a introductory offer to the customer for their product popularity. This technique is to set a lower price to attract the new customer. Price skimming is the technique that set a higher price before any competitor coming in the market.  Price leader: An surveillance made of oligopolistic trade performance in which one company, usually the leading competitor among numerous, leads the way in determining prices, the others soon subsequent. The circumstance is a state of limited opposition, in which a small number of manufacturers or trader shares a market.  Competitor based pricing: if there is two or more company for one product, the consumer could be confused for from whom they should buy. The simple choice is the cheapest one. In this circumstance, the company set up a “going-rate” pricing process. Going-rate is the setting price that is in line with the price charged by direct competitors.4.04. Modes of foreign market entry:For entry in the new market, the business should follow the entry strategy. There are manyentry modes in the foreign markets: 01. Exporting: exporting is providing the service or goods worldwide by the medium. Low risk, company can avoid the FDI restriction. 02. International licensing: Licensing is when a firm, called the licensor, leases the right to use its intellectual property such as technology, work methods, pattern, brand names, or trade-marks to another firm, called the licensee, in return of a fee. 03. Franchising: A franchising agreement allows independent organisation called franchisee. For run a business by name of another is called franchisor. 04. Contract manufacturing: contract manufacturing contracts with a firm for components or products. 05. Management contract: A management contract is an understanding beneath which functioning manage of an enterprise is vested by agreement in a disconnect venture, which presents the essential administrative roles in return for a fee. 06. Foreign direct investment: foreign direct investment is that invest in the foreign market directly.
  15. 15. 4.05. Benefits of social networking in web base business market: now a day the socialnetwork is most important network for any kind of business for expand their businesses bydoing the online marketing. Social network is the most valuable and strong way to connectthe people with each other’s. For online communications people mostly choose the socialnetwork such as facebook, twitter, badoo, linkedin etc. so if any business company do theiradvertising in the social network most of people can see the advertise every day, people canknow about the company and their activity also they can get all information’s about thecompany.4.06. Globalisation: globalisation is the important things in the business. the process ofconnectivity and independence of the world markets and business is called businessglobalisation. By globalise the business can expand their business. people can connectingmore often with each others in a single period of time in globally, goods and servicesproduces in one side of the world and increasingly available in all parts of the world.5.0. Recommendation:Now a day there are many developed country in the world. And the developed countrypeople can survive themselves in general but they are not too strong economically forgetting the higher degree from high class University from outside of their country. For thistype of country they need some types of institute from whom they can get the academicknowledge as international university also can achieve the international degree, this type oflearning is called distance learning, which one is providing by the DL limited. So as newmarket DL limited can choose the Bangladesh and India for expand their business.Why they should choose these two markets?India and Bangladesh both is the developing country. In this two country huge amount ofpeople. Their literacy rate is going up. Many students are able to study in high-classuniversity in the worldwide but because of financial problem; they cannot get any chance toget the higher degree from international universities. Because maximum are from themiddle class family for whom it is not possible to go abroad for higher degree. However, ifthey got chance for the distance learning that is a big chance for them and they should beready for get the chance. As DL limited providing the distance learning, they can help thosestudents by providing the distance learning opportunity. Students can get the higher degreefrom their own country.As demand of distance learning in India and Bangladesh DL limited can use the FDI entrymode because of the high profit rate, maintain control over operations, avoid tariff andNTBs, and acquire knowledge of local market.
  16. 16. 6.0. Conclusion:Any business they should have vision, mission, objective and organisational structure. Forcover the all of Criteria Company need to make or build up a strategic decision by whichthey can reach in their main goal point. Company should maintain all major process also theothers factors.
  17. 17. 7.0. References and bibliography:1. R. Whittington – What Is Strategy?- and Does It Matter, 2nd Edition, ThomsonLearning, Londra, 2001, p. 3252. H. Mintzberg, J. Lampel, J.B. Quinn, S. Goshal, The strategy process, FourthEdition, Pearson Education International, 2003, p.22-263. T.L.Wheelen, J.D.Hunger, Strategic Management and Bussiness Policy. Conceptsand Cases, Tenth Edition, Pearson Education, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 20064. K. Andrews, The concept of Corporate Strategy, Richard D. Irwin Inc.,Homewood, Illinois, 19805. I.Ansoff, Stratégie et développement de l’entreprise, Paris, L’editiond’organisation, 1996. Basi, R.S. (1998). Administrative decision making: a contextual analysis. ManagementDecision, 36, 232-240.7. Butler, R.J., Astley, W.G, Hickson, D.J., Mallory, G., & Wilson, D.C. (1979). Strategicdecision-making: concepts of content and process. International Studies ofManagement and Organization, 9, 4, 5-36.8. Miller, S.J., Hickson, D.J., & Wilson, D.C. (1996). Decision making in organizations. InS.R. Clegg, C. Hardy, & W.R. Nord (Eds.), Managing Organizations: CurrentIssues (pp.43-62). London: Sage Publications.9. Mintzberg, H., Raisinghani, D., & Theoret, A. (1976). The structure of “unstructured”decision processes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 246-275. I. http://mystrategicplan.com/resources/internal-and-external-analysis/ II. http://allaboutwatersheds.org/groups/2010Forum/2010-new-mexico-watershed-forum- presentations/workshop-presentations/organizational-development-educational-outreach- workshops/Shelli%20Bischoff-Turner-The%20New%20Strategic%20Planning.pdf III. http://articles.mplans.com/the-power-of-product-positioning/ IV. http://managementstudyguide.com/swot-analysis.htm V. http://aux.zicklin.baruch.cuny.edu/tkdas/publications/das-teng_jms99_cognitivebias_757- 778.pdf
  18. 18. VI. http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199216468/haberberg_ch02.pdf VII. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Strategic_management#The_strategy_hierarchy VIII. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48491435/What-is-strategic-management IX. http://www.sajim.co.za/index.php/SAJIM/article/view/426/490 X. http://www.planware.org/strategicplan.htm XI. http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/vision/ XII. http://www.lachsr.org/documents/introductiontostrategicmanagement-EN.pdf XIII. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/westminsterintl/docDetail.action?docID=10149910&p00=strategi c%20management XIV. http://homepages.inspire.net.nz/~jamckinnon/business/Decision- Making%20in%20Organisations.pdf (important) XV. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/strategic-decision.html XVI. http://www.managementstudyguide.com/strategic-decisions.htmXVII. http://www1.ximb.ac.in/users/fac/dpdash/dpdash.nsf/pages/BP_DecisionXVIII. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/westminsterintl/docDetail.action?docID=10287990&p00=strategi c%20decision%20making

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