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on The Project
“ Design & Simulation of Generation of
High Voltage D.C Power Supply, Using
Greinarcher Circuit “
in partial fulfillment
for the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in Electrical Engineering
Supervisor: Submitted By:
Mr. c.k. dwivedi Kamaldeep singh
(Associate Proff.) Vimal Pabri
Narendra kumar kumawat
Department of Electrical Engineering
Sri Balaji Technical Campus, Jaipur
Rajasthan Technical University, Kota
The introduction of the project contain the following points have been
• Firstly we will study about the areas where this project is use
• Study the literature survey of different types of voltage multiplier circuits.
• The analysis of Grienarcher’s voltage Multiplier circuit built in 1926
Voltage triplen, Voltage Quadripler and n-plen circuits at very low Voltage
(A.C.single phase, 50 Hz).
Progress (from 21/07/2014 to25/9/2014)
• Study, design simulation and analysis of n-stages voltage multiplier
circuits at low voltage.
1 Research Background
•High voltage testing equipment is generally used in mostly two places, in the research,
especially in the field of nuclear physics; and routine testing laboratories in the field of
Electrical Engineering to study the behaviour of solid dielectrics.
• Besides the above places, it can be used in the industry for proof design of H.T.
cables at site & Electrostatic precipitators. It is also used in the field of medical
sciences and agricultural application.
•The work carried out in research laboratories varies considerably from one
establishment to the other and the type of equipment varies accordingly.
• A general high voltage laboratory may include equipment for all classes of tests.
•The routine testing is concerned with testing equipment such as transformer,
switchgear, bushings as well as cables etc. It is sometimes carried out in the factory
•The high voltage equipment is required to study the insulation under all conditions,
which the apparatus is likely to encounter. Tests are also made with higher voltages
than the normal working voltage, to determine the safety factor over the working
conditions and to ensure that the working margin is neither too high nor too low.
The conventional forms of high voltage in use can be divided into the following
•Alternating current voltages
•Direct current voltages
In the industry, the main application of the DC high voltage is to conduct test on
HV & MV cables with a relatively large, which consumes huge quality current if
it is tested with AC voltages. The simplest unregulated power supply consists of
three parts namely, the transformer unit, the rectifiers unit.
Some portion of greinarcher circuit is very intend. in 1932 CW sugested an
improvement over the circuit developed by greinarcher for producing high D.C
Finally the research work is based on COCKCROFT-WALTON Voltage
• Voltage multipliers are circuits – typically consisting of diodes and
capacitors, although there are variations using resistors and spark gaps
designed to take in an AC input with a certain amplitude and output a
higher voltage at DC.
• For bridge doublers with an AC input of amplitude A, the top terminal's
voltage is equal to the bottom terminal's voltage + 2A.
• The Greinacher quadruple works in essentially the same way as the
doublers, but in two parts; the bottom right capacitor charges to 2A
with respect to ground, as the top right capacitor charges to 2V with
respect to the bottom right capacitor, leaving the top terminal at 4A
with respect to ground.
Voltage Quadripler (continued)
For similar reasons, the ability of the circuit to supply current is Disappointingly
low; with a 1k resistor load to ground, the output of the circuit drops to just0.7V,
meaning it is not capable of delivering so much as 1 mA even to very small loads.
For a much larger 100k load the voltage drops to 19.2V – still below half of its
unloaded output – and even for a 1M load the voltage drops by 10% to 36.1V.
Despite the circuit’s poor behavior, the fact that the Greinacher doublers was
easily adapted to become a quadruple indicates the likelihood of expanding on this
design to create circuits that could multiply up to much higher voltages. Indeed, by
making a small modification to the design and redrawing it in a more suggestive
form, one retrieves the design for what is more commonly known as a Cockcroft-
Cockcroft- Walton Generator
• The Cockcroft-Walton generator design is much simpler, allowing the DC
output voltage to increase ideally, in steps, to arbitrary large voltages by
twice the amplitude of the AC input signal simply by attaching another
• “stage” consisting of two diodes and a capacitor, and works in virtually
the same way as the Greinacher circuits (CW generators are sometimes
also referred to as Greinacher multipliers).
• In our project, we examined in-depth the CW generator’s behavior from
just 1 stage all the way up to 10 stages. Our highest measured voltage
output from this circuit was 264V at DC, all from a handful of components
and an AC input signal with less than 15V amplitude.
Power and Control Circuit
Fig shows the block diagram, and Fig. shows the schematic scheme for
fabrication and simulation of the project. From Fig it is clear that total set-
up is in two parts i.e. low voltage side and Cockcroft-Walton generator. So,
this set is suitable for field work due to its light weight, feasibility of
transportation and friendly operation. The circuit of this project is very
simple. This set will be used for testing of High Voltage cable at side, and
can also be used as prime High Voltage DC source for VLF,OWT and as
charging unit for Impulse generators.
• In fact, for higher stages the output voltage is frequently higher than the
expected value by as much as 8V. This is not an intrinsic property of the
CW generator, but rather an effect due to the high frequency and circuit
itself, which act on the AC signal from the function generator with
nontrivial distortions visible on the oscilloscope that have the effect of
slightly boosting the average amplitude of the AC signal itself for high
numbers of stages; these slight distortions are then themselves magnified
up to 20 times as they go up the chain
• While high ripple voltage, low current, and even higher unloaded voltage
drooping at constant frequency is a chronic problem for Cockcroft-Walton
generators, there are a number of established ways to improve a CW
generator's performance. The simplest is simply to mirror the design to
create a full-wave CW generator. Shown below is a 2-stage full-wave CW
• This “doubles” the input frequency in the sense that there twice as many
charging cycles per second, which has the effective of lowering voltage
droop as more stages are added, decreasing ripple voltage, and raising the
maximum current output, all for the cost of just 50% more components
The following conclusions could be made from this work:-
• CockCroft-Walton Voltage multiplier circuit is used when higher
magnitude of output high voltage DC power supply is required without
changing the input transformer voltage level. It is used only in special
applications when the load, under test, is highly capacitive or where the
input voltage stability is not critical.
• This kind of high voltage DC power supply test set is of simple control,
low cost, portable due to its light weight, robust and high reliability.
Different magnitude of High voltage DC output can be taken from
different stages without changing the input voltage.
• This developed equipment will be very useful for field testing of HV
cables of different voltage grade, as a prime DC source for VLF & OW
testing set and charging unit of impulse generators.
• As this test set is divided in two parts [i.e. (i) transformer and control unit
and (ii) multiplier circuit] ,it is very easy for transportation to test sites and
this test set can be assembled in few minutes. 18
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