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Constructivism 4


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Constructivism 4

  2. 2. What is Constructivism? • Constructivism is about how people learn. • People construct their own understanding and knowledge through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. • We must ask questions, explore and assess what we know.
  3. 3. Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.
  4. 4.  Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we color and construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates "rules" to make sense of our experiences. Learning is adjusting our rules to accommodate new experiences. Students can learn different meanings from the same lesson.
  5. 5. Information received is reshaped inside the learner’s mind to fit within his or her frame of reference.
  6. 6. It is a theory of learning based on the historical works of Dewey, Piaget and Vygotsky. It is learning using prior knowledge and connecting it to new information. It challenges the learner to construct their own knowledge and test their understanding of the material.
  7. 7. HISTORICAL PERSEPECTIVE Lev Vygotsky Jean Piaget John Dewey Jerome Bruner
  8. 8. Constructivism views knowledge as “assimilated” into existing schema. Idea largely based on Swiss Biologist Jean Piaget’s research on child development & learning. Piaget’s theory states that children learn by creating “mental maps” or schemes. These maps or schemes are added to and adapted as needed to help them understand their environment. Structure becomes more complex as child develops.
  9. 9. Lev Vygotsky Russian psychologist & philosopher in 1930’s usually associated with Social Constructivism. Social Constructivism emphasized the effects of one’s environment (family, friends, culture & background) have on learning.
  10. 10. Jerome Bruner most recent contributor. 1966-1990 Has incorporated social and cognitive aspects . These ideas originated from a conference for math and science learning.
  11. 11. • During the math and science conference, a modified lesson plan was developed with Bruner’s assistance. The five E’s: ENGAGE EXPLORE EXPLAIN ELABORATE EVALUATE “I shall take it as self-evident that each generation must define afresh the nature, direction, and aims of education to assure such freedom and rationality as can be attainted for a future generation. It is in this sense that education is in constant process of invention.” --Jerome S. Bruner, 1966
  12. 12. In a Constructivist Classroom, Learning is…. • Constructed • Active • Reflective • Collaborative • Inquiry-Based • Evolving
  13. 13. Constructed building upon previous knowledge to create new knowledge Active the student experiments, asks questions, and sets goals Reflected students discuss learning experiences and reflect upon understandings Collaborative students work together and learn from one another Inquiry-based exploration of questions Evolving ideas are change throughout process of learning THE CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM
  14. 14.  CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING & TEACHING  Multiple perspectives and representations of concepts is encouraged.  Goals and objectives are derived by the student or in negotiation with the teacher.  Teachers serve in the role of guides, monitors, coaches, tutors and facilitators.  Activities, opportunities, tools and environments are provided to encourage metacognition, self-analysis, self- regulation, self-reflection & self-awareness.  Learning situations, environments, skills, content and tasks are relevant, realistic, authentic and represent the natural complexities of the 'real world'.
  15. 15.  Primary sources of data are used in order to ensure authenticity and real-world complexity.  Knowledge construction and not reproduction is emphasized.  This construction takes place in individual contexts and through social negotiation, collaboration and experience.  Learners are provided with the opportunity for apprenticeship learning in which there is an increasing complexity of tasks, skills and knowledge acquisition.  Knowledge complexity is reflected in an emphasis on conceptual interrelatedness and interdisciplinary learning.  Collaborative and cooperative learning are favored in order to expose the learner to alternative viewpoints.  Assessment is authentic and interwoven with teaching.
  16. 16.  The learner's previous knowledge constructions, beliefs and attitudes are considered in the knowledge construction process.  Problem-solving, higher-order thinking skills and deep understanding are emphasized.  Errors provide the opportunity for insight into students' previous knowledge constructions.  Exploration is a favored approach in order to encourage students to seek knowledge independently and to manage the pursuit of their goals.
  17. 17. Traditional vs. Constructivist  Basic skills emphasized  Materials are textbooks and workbooks  Learning based on repetition  Teacher disseminates information to students  Assessment is through testing  Students work alone  Big concepts emphasized  Student questions and interests are valued  Learning is interactive  Teacher’s role is interactive  Variety of assessment  Students work in groups
  18. 18. THE JOB OF THE CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHER  The teacher must enter the classroom believing that all students have different backgrounds from experiences and cultural practices.  The teacher has to meet the students at there current level and help them connect and expand to the material.  Taking these two factors into account ensures that the material will be meaningfully related to the students.
  19. 19.  Tailor Strategies To Student Responses.  Encourage Analysis, Interpretation, Prediction.  Use Open-ended Questions And Discussion.  Connect Past Experiences With New Learning.  Use Project-based Learning.  Use Problem-based Learning.
  20. 20. PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTIVISM  Knowledge is actively constructed by the individual.  Learning is both an individual an a social process.  Learning is a self-regulated process.  Learning is an organizational process.  Reality represents an interpretation.  Learning is a socially situated activity.  Language plays an essential role in learning.  Motivation is a key component in learning.
  21. 21. IMPACT ON INSTRUCTION  Teacher as facilitator/guide rather than authority  Focus on making connections between facts  Experimentation, open- ended questions, extensive reflection, dialogue among students
  22. 22. IMPACT ON ASSESSMENT  Ongoing assessment during instruction.  De-emphasizes traditional grading methods.  Self-assessment, learner articulates growth through projects and reflection.
  23. 23. IMPACT ON CURRICULUM Less standardized curriculum. Customized to connect to learner’s prior knowledge. Emphasizes hands- on problem- solving.
  24. 24. BENEFITS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM  Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand.  Constructivist learning is transferable. In constructivist classrooms, students create organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings.  Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students' questions and explorations, and often the students have a hand in designing the assessments as well.  Constructivist assessment engages the students' initiatives and personal investments in their journals, research reports, physical models, and artistic representations.
  25. 25.  By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real- world context, constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiosity to the world.  Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas.
  26. 26. CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE OF CONSTRUCTIVISM  It's elitist.  Social constructivism leads to "group think." Critics say the collaborative aspects of constructivist classrooms tend to produce a "tyranny of the majority," in which a few students' voices or interpretations dominate the group's conclusions, and dissenting students are forced to conform to the emerging consensus.  There is little hard evidence that constructivist methods work. Critics say that constructivists, by rejecting evaluation through testing and other external criteria, have made themselves unaccountable for their students' progress.