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  1. 1. National Water Grid, Peninsular Water Grid <ul><li>Dr. S. Kalyanaraman </li></ul><ul><li>Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Sarasvati Nadi Research Centre </li></ul><ul><li>3 Temple Avenue, Srinagar Colony,Chennai 600015 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> Oct. 2004 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Inter-linking? Not an end in itself Needed: National Water Grid (Peninsular Grid) <ul><li>Potential for drinking water supplies to coastal towns/cities/industrial towns such as Tiruppur by desalination of sea-water </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative of re-charging and sustaining ground-water tables, tank-networks </li></ul><ul><li>Restoring kudi-maraamattu (Peoples’ self-help) </li></ul><ul><li>Forestation of uplands (Sahyadri ranges) </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of scarcity? Needed National Water Grid, to bring Brahmaputra to Kanyakumari </li></ul><ul><li>7 Peninsular rivers: 45 mhm (rains) 8.75 lakh sq. km. (delta area) </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmaputra: 53.7 mhm (glaciers) 1.94 lakh sq. km. (delta area) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for adding 11 m. ha. Under command area of irrigation (4.5 m. ha. directly through canal network; 6.5 m. ha. through tank network) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro-power generation: 2754 MW </li></ul><ul><li>National Waterway, Peninsular component: 1,000 kms. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for bringing waters from Hoganekal to the uplands of TN, Karnataka, Kerala </li></ul><ul><li>Need for a contour canal on Sahyadri ranges (paralleling the Konkan Railway) </li></ul><ul><li>Water management by peoples’ participation, designed as Peoples’ Project </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kerala watershed: water, water everywhere, not a drop to drink <ul><li>Desiccation of kulam-s surrounding each settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Sand-mining on river run-offs </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of kulam-s into real estate plots and residencial areas; resultant depletion of the ground water table without provision for recharging groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for watershed management </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of groundwater use, regulation of sand-mining on river beds </li></ul><ul><li>Contour canals on Sahyadri ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional knowledge systems for eco-friendly water harvesting </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grain problem of Bharat 2134 kg/ha yield: India; 4664 kg/ha yield: China 3 ton/ha 1 ton/ha 2.1 ton/ha 0.75 ton/ha Irrigated Unirrigated Productivity 175 m.ha. 90 m. ha. 22.6 m. ha. Irrig. area 400 m.t. 200 m.t. 65 m.t. Agri. Prod. 150 crores 100 crores 33 crores Population Vision 2020 2001 1951
  5. 5. Water Resources of Bharat <ul><li>Glaciers 1.725% </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater .775% </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers, tanks, swamps .025% </li></ul><ul><li>Sea water (7500 km. coastline) 97.475% </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers 68% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, tanks, etc. 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70% water is used for agriculture </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interlinked tanks: satellite view
  7. 7. Cooler temperatures at higher elevations thoughout the globe
  8. 8. Glacial Inventory Glacial ice currently covers 10 percent (16 million km 2 ) of the earth's surface. To grow a glacier , annual snow accumulation must be greater than the annual summer melt. Most glaciers outside polar regions occur in mountains resulting from collisions between tectonic plates.
  9. 9. Water fetishism: water as a commodity <ul><li>Water shortages (rather than land shortage) are affecting growth in food production </li></ul><ul><li>Ground-water tables in Tamilnadu have dropped 30 metres in 30 years, dangers of ingress of sea water , dangers of arsenic poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Need to maintain minimum flow levels in rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Water has become a commodity, is more expensive than milk </li></ul><ul><li>,12342,777661,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of virtual water (Import water? Import food!) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rights Vs. Responsibilities <ul><li>Right to life = Right to Water </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resource should be conserved and perpetual access to water ensured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for people, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for food production and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water as a resource to be conserved for future generations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Water Grid vs. Power Grid <ul><li>Power Grid is a network -- </li></ul><ul><li>When a consumer puts on an electric switch, power flows </li></ul><ul><li>Source can be from any part of India, from hydro-, thermal-, nuclear-power </li></ul><ul><li>Water Grid is a network -- </li></ul><ul><li>When a consumer opens a water-tap or switches on a bore-pump, water flows </li></ul><ul><li>Source can be from any part of India, from desalinated sea-water, from glaciers, from river run-offs, from swamps, from groundwater </li></ul>
  12. 12. SEASONAL RAINFALL: JULY 2002 Drought Relief : Rs. 15000 crores p.a. Flood relief : Rs.30000 crores p.a. Avoiding these recurring expenses alone will justify the Grid investment
  13. 14. HIMALAYAN COMPONENT  It will have 14 Links  Construction of Dams on Tributaries of Ganga and Brahmaputra Rivers in India, Nepal & Bhutan  Linking of Brahmaputra and its Tributaries with Ganga and Ganga with Mahanadi Benefiting Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand & Orissa  Interlinking Canal Systems to Transfer Surplus Flows of Eastern Tributaries of Ganga to the West Benefiting U.P., Uttaranchal, Haryana, Rajasthan & Gujarat HIMALAYAN COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY) NEPAL BHUTAN
  14. 15. <ul><li>PENINSULAR COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li> It will have 16 Links </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring Mahanadi & </li></ul><ul><li>Godavari Surpluses to Deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Basins of Krishna, Pennar, </li></ul><ul><li>Cauvery & Vaigai Benefiting </li></ul><ul><li>Orissa, A.P., Karnataka, </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Nadu & </li></ul><ul><li>Pondicherry (with 9 Link </li></ul><ul><li>Canals) </li></ul><ul><li>Lift Essential for Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>of Water From Godavari to </li></ul><ul><li>Krishna – Proposed in one of </li></ul><ul><li>the above 9 Links (to lift 1,200 </li></ul><ul><li>cumec over 116 m) </li></ul>PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)
  15. 16. <ul><li>PENINSULAR COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring Water From West Flowing Rivers of Western Ghats to the East to benefit Karnataka, Tamil Nadu & Kerala </li></ul><ul><li> Transferring Water From Ken River to Betwa River to Benefit M.P. & U.P. </li></ul><ul><li> Inter linking Parbati, </li></ul><ul><li>Kalisindh & Chambal rivers to benefit M.P. & Rajasthan </li></ul><ul><li>Interlinking of West Flowing Rivers, North of Bombay & South of Tapi, to benefit Maharashtra & Gujarat </li></ul>PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)
  16. 17. LINKS IDENTIFIED FOR PREPARATION OF FEASIBILITY REPORTS 1. Mahanadi (Manibhadra) – Godavari (Dowlaiswaram) 2. Godavari (Inchampalli) - Krishna (Nagarjunasagar) 3. Godavari (Inchampalli Low Dam) – Krishna (Nagarjunasagar Tail Pond) 4. Godavari (Polavaram) – Krishna (Vijayawada) 5. Krishna (Almatti) – Pennar 6. Krishna (Srisailam) – Pennar (Prodattur) PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)
  17. 18. 7. Krishna (Nagarjunasagar) - Pennar (Somasila) 8. Pennar (Somasila) – Cauvery (Grand Anicut) 9. Cauvery (Kattalai) – Vaigai – Gundar 10. Ken – Betwa Link 11. Parbati – Kalisindh – Chambal 12. Par – Tapi – Narmada 13. Damanganga – Pinjal 14. Bedti – Varda 15. Netravati – Hemavati 16. Pamba – Achankovil – Vaippar PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)
  18. 19. <ul><li>BENEFITS FROM </li></ul><ul><li>PENINSULR COMPONENT </li></ul><ul><li> 13 Million Ha of </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 4,000 Mega Watt of </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Drought Mitigation to </li></ul><ul><li>Some Extent in the </li></ul><ul><li>States of A.P., </li></ul><ul><li>Karnataka, </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Nadu & M.P. </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Control to Some </li></ul><ul><li>Extent in Mahanadi & </li></ul><ul><li>Godavari basins </li></ul>PENINSULAR COMPONENT (PROPOSED LINKS UNDER STUDY)
  19. 20. <ul><li>At the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project in Kalpakkam. S.R. Jayaraman, Project Engineer (Civil), is seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of semi-permeable membrane and pressurised sea-water </li></ul>
  20. 21. Desalination using nuclear power <ul><li>Water is abundant on planet earth and in coastal cities of Bharat, with a long coastline of 7517 kms.; about 97.3 percent occurs as sea-water. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has successfully developed technologies of Multi-stage Flash and Reverse Osmosis (MSF-RO) for desalination of water. The MSF and RO pilot plants set up by BARC have been operated to study operational parameters. A 6300 cubic metre/day combined MSF-RO Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant is to be set up at Kalpakam.” The cost of desalination will be 4.5 paise per litre of pure, distilled water. By using advanced techniques for use of permeable membranes, which can be developed indigenously, further efficiencies can be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 22. National Water Grid Authority; Peninsular Grid, Regional and sub-regional Grids Autonomous, statutory bodies (like Konkan Railway Corpn.) Self-financing, with peoples’ participation Replace the River Board Act 1956 with Water Security Act enacted under Entry 56 of List I (Central List) because Control and development of a River Valley (Entry 56 List I) is integrally linked to the four major sources: glaciers, groundwater, run-offs and sea-water
  22. 23. Ecological, Social Issues, Peoples’ Participation <ul><li>Fragmentation of Water management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum at peak; confusion at bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate changes impact rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People-centred water management, transparency issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% evaporation loss from reservoirs, canals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With and without Grid: desalination, recycling of water </li></ul><ul><li>Watering the land? Supplying water for growth of crops! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Flood control <ul><li>Positive impacts of Flood control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife habitat management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenways and trails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Storage, Groundwater recharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion and sediment control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand and gravel deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems to be addressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution propagation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial outbursts, floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic and chronic erosion </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Areas of eco-importance & Challenges <ul><li>Draining of Wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of water-logging </li></ul><ul><li>Land degradation; conversion of land for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological development institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of exotic species of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Dredging for river navigation has exacerbated problems of river-bank erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of natural resources to alleviate poverty, the greatest polluter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving civil society on right levels; resettlement of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives for cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquatic ecosystems, pushing out ingress of sea-water </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Co-operation imperatives <ul><li>Co-operation with Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation among States within Bharat </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation among Centre, States and Panchayats </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation between National Waterways and National Highways to minimise land-acquisition and bridge construction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution and environmental impact analyses through arbitration procedures in-built with National Water Grid </li></ul>
  26. 27. 3-D Satellite radar topography *Superimpose GIS data, to expedite choice of optimal waterways *To monitor waterflows Available from NASA for the globe, 90m. resolution Blues and greens are lower elevations, rising through yellows and browns to white at the highest elevations.
  27. 28. Get on a bike, Bhagiratha, Gangaikonda Chola! 5000 engineering students on motorbikes to design alternative networks of the National Water Grid superimposing GIS data on 3-D Radar Topographs - from Brahmaputra to Kanyakumari - from Sharada River to Sabarmati River
  28. 29. Financial arrangements: options <ul><li>Konkan Railway model: Floating Mahanadi-Kaveri Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of 11 m. ha. (2.75 crore acres of land to 2.75 crore poor families); </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distribution of loans, pricing each acre at Rs. 25,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this will fetch Rs. 69,000 crores from the financial system, to cover the cost of Peninsular Water Grid and the initial capital cost of Peninsular Grid Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repayable over 20 years with 5 year grace period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation of about 5 lakh people (or, 1 lakh families) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration of submerged forests (43000 ha) by afforestation in uplands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levy of cess for new irrigated lands </li></ul><ul><li>Surcharge on fuel to fund the cost of canal- and tank-networks </li></ul><ul><li>No need for foreign loans, no need for foreign technology, no need for Govt. budget support </li></ul><ul><li>Finance Commission can be asked to study the financing arrangements to Panchayati Raj Institutions for maintaintenance and day-to-day operations of the Grid </li></ul>
  29. 30. Social Cost-Benefit Analysis: National Water Grid <ul><li>Increase in foodgrain production (Addl. 200 m.t.) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in forest cover from 19% to 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced livelihood for 60% agricultural population </li></ul><ul><li>15000 kms. of National Water Way (Multiplier Economic effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Savings in imported fossil fuels due to Water Way (Rs. 3,000 crores per annum) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Cost avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood damages (Rs. 30,000 crores per annum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought relief (Rs. 15,000 crores per annum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-sharing disputes (denting national unity) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Potential waterways <ul><li>GANGA: BETWEEN ALLAHABAD AND HALDIA (1620 KM.) </li></ul><ul><li>BRAHMAPUTRA: BETWEEN SADIYA AND DHUBRI (891 KM.) </li></ul><ul><li>WEST COAST CANAL, KERALA: BETWEEN KOLLAM AND KOTTAPPURAM (168KM.); CHAMPAKARA CANAL (14 KM.); UDYOGMANDAL CANAL (22 KM.) </li></ul><ul><li>BUCKINGHAM CANAL </li></ul><ul><li>SUNDERBANS </li></ul><ul><li>BRAHMANI EAST COAST CANAL </li></ul><ul><li>DVC CANAL </li></ul>
  31. 32. National waterways of National water grid <ul><li>14,500 KM. OF INLAND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS (2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CANALS, BACKWATERS (KERALA), CREEKS, RIVERS (GANGA-BHAGIRATHI-HOOGHLY, BRAHMAPUTRA, BARAK, GODAVARI, KRISHNA RIVERS AND RIVERS IN GOA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3,700 KM. USE MECHANISED CRAFTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>18 M. TONNES CARGO </li></ul>
  32. 33. 1760-1840 - The Canal Age in Britain 2000 Canal age dawns anew in UK The Waterways Trust was set up by the operator of the UK's 2,000-mile national canal network, British Waterways, but is now an independent charity. <ul><li>A Pickfords canal barge around 1800. </li></ul>.
  33. 34. <ul><li>There are multitudes of old native works in various parts of India . . . these are noble works, and show both boldness and engineering talent. </li></ul><ul><li>They have said, we are a kind of civilised savages, wonderfully expert at fighting, but so inferior to their great men, that we would not even keep in repair the works they had constructed, much less even imitate them in extending the system . . . it was from the native Indians we learnt how to secure a foundation in loose sand of unmeasured depth. </li></ul><ul><li>With this lesson about foundations, we built bridges, weirs, aqueducts and every kind of hydraulic work . . . we are thus deeply indebted to the native engineers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sir Arthur Cotton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Founder Modern Irrigation Programme,1784. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Greening of the desert: Sarasvati Mahanadi Rupa Nahar, Mohangarh, 55 km. west of Jaisalmer, 40 ft. wide, 12 ft. deep (Feb. 2002)
  35. 36. Sarasvati River valley at Adi Badri (May 2004) Sarasvati Sarovar at Adi Badri (October 2004) Vedic herbal garden; water harvesting with 11 check-dams; afforestation
  36. 37. Great Water Tower for 250 crore people Himalaya is the source of major rivers for 2.5 billion people; Manasarovar in Tibet yields Sindhu, Sutlej, Sarasvati, Mahakali-Karnali-Sharada and Tsangpo-Lohitya-Brahmaputra rivers; other rivers flowing from eastern Himalaya are: Irawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yangtse and Huanghe. Precipitation levels increase along the Himalaya from Karakorm (250 cm. per annum) to Cherrapunjee, Assam (1410 cm p.a.) registering the highest rainfall regions of the world. Since 1959, Chinese government estimates that they have removed over $54 billion worth of timber.
  37. 38. Gangaikonda Chola, 11 th cent. Tribute of Ganga water into Chola ganga water tank
  38. 39. Kallanai, Grand Anicut: 2000 years’ old engineering marvel of Karikala Chola <ul><li>An engineering model which is also found in Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>L-shaped Gabar bands on River Sindhu as Anicuts </li></ul>
  39. 40. Dholavira: Rock-cut reservoir <ul><li>The largest measures 263 feet by 39 feet and 24 feet in depth; reservoirs together held more than 325,000 cubic yards of water. </li></ul>
  40. 41. A profile of a Gabarband, on river Hab. <ul><li>At Mehergarh Period II (Burj Basket Market period): &quot;The charred seeds of wheat and barley belonging to the species triticum sphaerococcum and hordeum phaerococcum that, according to L. Costantini, grow only on irrigated fields, also were collected from the ashy layers&quot; of P:eriod II (Jarrige, Jarrige, Meadow and Quivron, 1995, Mehrgarh: Field Reports 1974-1985, from Neolithic times to the Indus Civilization, Karachi, Department of Culture and Tourism of Sindh, Pakistan, Department of Archaeology and Museums, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 318-19)&quot; </li></ul>
  41. 42. MOHENJODARO:PUSHKARINI, WITH STEPS & DRAIN Floor of the tank is water tight due to finely fitted bricks laid on edge with gypsum plaster and the side walls were constructed in a similar manner. To make the tank even more water tight, a thick layer of bitumen (natural tar) was laid along the sides of the tank.
  42. 43. <ul><li>Bhandara </li></ul><ul><li>Khadin </li></ul><ul><li>Johad </li></ul><ul><li>Kere </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Kul </li></ul><ul><li>Kuis </li></ul><ul><li>Kund </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Naula </li></ul><ul><li>Pat </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Singaverapura, Allahabad </li></ul>
  46. 47. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra, Gujarat (Western India). According to Saka King Rudradaman I of 150 BCE a beautiful lake called 'Sudarshana' was constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya's time.
  47. 48. Adilaj Baoli, Ahmedabad Surangam: Kerala
  48. 49. <ul><li>WATER TEMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Panna Mia stepped-pond; Vasant Garh stepped-pond, Rajasthan; Rani-ki-vav, Patan, Gujarat </li></ul><ul><li>Hadi Rani Well, Toda Raisingh, Rajasthan; Nimrana stepwell, Rajasthan </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped well in S’iva vadi temple, Bikaner; Cistern, Nahgarh fort, Jaipur [After Morna Livingstone, Milo Beach, 2002, Steps to Water; The Ancient Stepwells of India . ] </li></ul>
  49. 50. Major dams resulting in increase in irrigated area rom 22.6 mha (1951) to 90 mha (2001) [Sources: Bandyopadhyay J. and D. Gyawali, 1994, Himalayan Water Resources in: Mountain Research and Development 14 (1); Central Statistical Office, Royal Govt. of Bhutan, 1987, Statistical yearbook of Bhutan, Thimpu; UNDP, 1991, Bhutan. Development Cooperation Report, 1990, New York]. Constraints with dams: tectonic impact; generation of electricity remote from beneficiaries; silting reduces life-span of dams; resettlement of people; shifts in transportation routes.
  50. 52. Water Security is integrally linked to Gender equality (35% of India’s population is less than 15 years of age: 2001 census) Women in the workforce: girls should go to school, that should be our Sarasvati Vandana This will happen when water is available at the turn of a tap or turn of a bore-pump-switch (water + energy = Bharat Vision 2020)